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7.5 Logical Operators

The logical operators take logical operands and produce logical results, meaning “true or false.” Logical operators are not true Boolean operators because they may also result in a system-missing value. See Boolean Values, for more information.

a AND b
a & b
True if both a and b are true, false otherwise. If one operand is false, the result is false even if the other is missing. If both operands are missing, the result is missing.


a OR b
a | b
True if at least one of a and b is true. If one operand is true, the result is true even if the other operand is missing. If both operands are missing, the result is missing.


NOT a
~ a
True if a is false. If the operand is missing, then the result is missing.