\. \\!%PB \\!/showpage{}def \\!/tempdict 200 dict def tempdict begin \\!end % tempdict % \\!PE \\!. ' br \} ' br \} ' br \} ' br \}


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1 swinstall" "8


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1.1 NAME

swinstall Install POSIX and RPM packages.


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1.2 SYNOPSIS

     swinstall [-p] [-r] [-s source_file] [-f file] \\
     [-t targetfile] [-x option=value]  [-X options_file] [-W option] \\
     [software_selections] [@target [target1...]]
     
     swinstall -s -    # Minimum unambiguous invocation.
     


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1.3 DESCRIPTION

swinstall installs a POSIX distribution from a source archive to a target directory. A POSIX distribution is a package, typically a compressed tarball with metadata files in the prescribed file layout. Neither swinstall nor any component of swbis is required on the target host, however, the target host must look like a Unix system at the shell and command-line utility level and have a POSIX shell. Remote network connections are made by ssh. Ssh is the default but rsh can be selected by a command line option. By default and with no external influences (i.e. swdefaults file) swinstall will read an archive on stdin and install all products and filesets of package in "/" directory on the target host. An alternate root may be specified using the target syntax. The distribution source directory (swbis default: stdin) is selectable via the defaults file, therefore it should be specified in uncontrolled environments. swinstall operates on cpio or tar archives. swinstall supports cpio archives by first translating to tar format, therefore, to reduce the data transformations performed by swinstall, distributors encouraged to deliver products in tar format. swinstall will create an entry in an installed software catalog. This is a directory usually located at /var/lib/swbis/catalog. Using this information checks for upgrade, downdate, dependencies, and reinstallation are made.


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1.4 OPTIONS

-f FILE
Reads software_selections from FILE. (Not implemented).
-p
Preview the operation. Depending on the verbose level information is written to stdout. The target is not modified although a remote connection is established.
-r
This option has no affect.
-s SOURCE
Specify the source file SOURCE, "-" is standard input. The syntax is the same as for a target. SOURCE may be an archive file or stdin.
-t targetfile
Specify a file containing a list of targets (one per line).
-x option=value
Specify the extended option overriding the defaults file value.
-X FILE
Specify the extended options filename, FILE, overriding the default filenames. This option may be given more then once. If the resulting specified value is an empty string then reading of any options file is disabled.
-v
Given one time it is identical to -x verbose=2. This option can be given multiple times with increasing effect. (Implementation extension option). -v is level 2, -vv is level 3,... etc. level 0: silent on stdout and stderr. level 1: fatal and warning messages to stderr. -v level 2: level 1 plus a progress bar. -vv level 3: level 2 plus script stderr. -vvv level 4: level 3 plus events. -vvvv level 5: level 4 plus events. -vvvvv level 6: level 5 plus set shell -vx option. -vvvvvv level 7 and higher: level 6 plus debugging messages.
−−version, -V
Show version (Implementation extension)
−−help
Show help (Implementation extension)
-W option[,option,...]
Specify the implementation extension option. Syntax: -W option[=option_argument[,option...] Options may be separated by a comma. The implementation extension options may also be given individually using the '–long-option[=option_arg]' syntax.
-W preview-tar-file=FILE
This is a testing/development option. Writes the fileset archive to FILE. This is the same data stream that would have been loaded on the target. This option should only be used with the '-p' option. The output sent to FILE is a tar archive but without trailer blocks.
-W remote-shell=NAME
Defaults File Option: swbis_remote_shell_client
This is the remote connection client program on the management (originating host). The path NAME may be an absolute path (not located in $PATH). The basename of NAME is used for intermediate hops. Supported shells are "ssh" and "rsh". The default is "ssh".
-W quiet-progress
Defaults File Option: swbis_quiet_progress_bar Disable progress bar, which is active for verbose levels 2 and higher (i.e. -v).
-W show-options-files
Show the complete list of options files and if they are found.
-W show-options
Show the options after reading the files and parsing the command line options.
-W pax-command={tar|pax|star|gtar}
Set the portable archive command for all operations. The default is "pax".
-W pax-read-command={tar|pax|star|gtar}
Set the read command for local and remote hosts.
-W remote-pax-read-command={tar|pax|star|gtar}
Defaults File Option: swbis_remote_pax_read_command
Set the read command for remote hosts. This is the command that runs on the target (e.g. pax -r, tar xpf -). The default is "pax".
-W local-pax-read-command={tar|pax|star|gtar}
Defaults File Option: swbis_local_pax_read_command
Set the read command for local hosts. This is the command that runs on the target (e.g. pax -r, tar xpf -). The default is "pax".
-W pax-write-command={tar|pax|star|gtar|swbistar}
Set the write command for local and remote hosts. This is the command that runs on the target (e.g. pax -w, tar cf -).
-W remote-pax-write-command={tar|pax|star|gtar|swbistar}
Defaults File Option: swbis_remote_pax_write_command
Set the write command for remote hosts.
-W local-pax-write-command={tar|pax|star|gtar|swbistar}
Defaults File Option: swbis_local_pax_write_command
Set the portable archive write command for local host operations. This is the command that runs on the source (e.g. pax -w, tar cf -). The default is "pax".
-W remote-pax-write-command={tar|pax|star|gtar|swbistar}
Defaults File Option: swbis_remote_pax_write_command
Set the portable archive write command for remote host operations. This is the command that runs on the source (e.g. pax -w, tar cf -). The default is "pax".
-W no-defaults
Do not read any defaults files.
-W no-remote-kill
Defaults File Option: swbis_no_remote_kill
Disables the use of a second remote connection to tear down the first in the event of SIGINT or SIGTERM or SIGPIPE. Only has effect if the number of ssh hops is greater than 1. A single host remote connection (ssh hop = 1) never uses a second remote connection.
-W no-getconf
Defaults File Option: swbis_no_getconf
Makes the remote command be '/bin/sh -s' instead of the default 'PATH=`getconf PATH` sh -s'.
-W shell-command=NAME
Defaults File Option: swbis_shell_command
This is the interactive shell on the target host. NAME may be one of "detect" "bash", "sh", "ksh" or "posix" and specifies the remote command run by the remote shell. "posix" is 'PATH=`getconf PATH` sh -s', "bash" is "/bin/bash -s", "sh" is "/bin/sh -s", and "ksh" is "ksh -s". The default is "detect".
-W use-getconf
Opposite of −−no-getconf.
-W allow-rpm
Defaults File Option: swbis_allow_rpm
Enable automatic detection, translation to POSIX format, and installation of RPMs.
-W pump-delay1=NANOSECONDS
Adds a NANOSECONDS delay (999999999 nanoseconds ~ 1 second) every ADJSIZE bytes in the file data byte pump. A delay of 10111000 nanoseconds (~1/100th second) is added for 2-hop or greater target (i.e more than 1 remote host in the target spec). This is a work around for a bug in OpenSSH [or Linux kernel] that is seen for multi-hop installs where the intermediate host is a Linux kernel. If 2-hop install fails, try it again, you may get lucky, or, increase this delay, or, use ssh protocol version 1 by using ”–ssh-options=1”, or try a 2-hop install where the middle host is BSD. To disable delay for multi-hop targets specify zero. For more information about this bug see the README file from the source distribution.
-W burst-adjust=ADJSIZE
ADJSIZE is the pumped data size, in bytes, between the NANOSECONDS delays. This is a work around for a bug in OpenSSH or the Linux kernel that is seen for multi-hop installs where the intermediate host is a Linux kernel. The default is 72000 for 2-hops or greater, and zero for single hop and localhost installs.
-W ssh-options=OPTIONS
ssh client program options. For example -W ssh-options=1 sets the '-1' ssh client option which specifies protocol version 1.
-W source-script-name=NAME
Write the script that is written into the remote shell's stdin to NAME. This is useful for debugging.
-W target-script-name=NAME
Write the script that is written into the remote shell's stdin to NAME. This is useful for debugging.
software_selections
Refers to the software objects (products, filesets) on which to be operated. This is not implemented, however, specification of a location and qualifier are supported. location allow specification of a alternate relative root path within the target path, and qualifier allows specification of a user-selectable modifier. For example:
          swinstall q=exp @ 192.168.1.1  # Tag the package as experimental
          swinstall l=/unionfs/somepackage-1.0 @ 192.168.1.1  # Allows multiple
                                        # packages with same tag to exist in the
                                        # same target path, where the location
                                        # disambiguates.
          
     
target
Refers to the software_collection where the software selections are to be applied. Allows specification of host and pathname where the software collection is to be located. A target that contains only one part is assumed to be a hostname. To force interpretation as a path, use an absolute path or prefix with ':'. The default target path for 'swinstall' is always '/'.
     Source and Target Specification and Logic
          Synopsis:
               Posix:
                    host[:path]
                    host
                    host:
                    /path  # Absolute path
               Swbis Extension:
                    [user@]host[:path]
                    [user@]host_port[:path]
                    :path
               Swbis Multi-hop Target Extension:
                    # ':' is the target delimiter
     	       # '_' delimits a port number in the host field
                    [user@]host[@@[user@]host[@@...]][:file]
                    [user@]host_port[@@[user@]host[@@...]][:file]
                    # Using ':', a trailing colon is used to
                    # disambiguate between a host and file.
     	       # For Example,
                    :file
                    host:
                    host
                    host:file
                    host:host:
                    host_port:host_port:
                    host:host:file
                    user@host:user@host:
                    user@host:user@host:host:
                    user@host:user@host:file
          A more formal description:
          target : HOST_CHARACTER_STRING ':' PATHNAME_CHARACTER_STRING
                 | HOST_CHARACTER_STRING ':'
                 | HOST_CHARACTER_STRING
                 | PATHNAME_CHARACTER_STRING
                 | ':' PATHNAME_CHARACTER_STRING   # Impl extension
                 ;
            PATHNAME_CHARACTER_STRING must be an absolute path unless
                            a HOST_CHARACTER_STRING is given.  Allowing
                            a relative path is a feature of the swbis
                            implementation.
                     NOTE: A '.' as a target is an implementation
                           extension and means extract in current
                           directory.
                     NOTE: A '-' indicating stdout/stdin is an
                           implementation extension.
                     NOTE: A ':' in the first character indicates a filename.
                           This is an implementation extension.
            HOST_CHARACTER_STRING is an IP or hostname.
         Examples:
            Copy the  distribution /var/tmp/foo.tar.gz at 192.168.1.10
                   swcopy -s /var/tmp/foo.tar.gz @192.168.1.10:/root
     Implementation Extension Syntax (multi ssh-hop) :
         Syntax:
         %start   wtarget    # the Implementation Extension Target
                             # Note: a trailing ':' forces interpretation
                             # as a host, not a file.
         wtarget   : wtarget DELIM sshtarget
                   | sshtarget
                   | sshtarget DELIM
                   ;
         sshtarget : user '@' target # Note: only the last target
                   | target          # may have a PATHNAME, and only a host
                   ;                 * may have a user
         target   : HOST_CHARACTER_STRING
                  | PATHNAME_CHARACTER_STRING
                  ;
         user     : PORTABLE_CHARACTER_STRING  # The user name
         DELIM    : ':'   # The multi-hop delimiter.
                  ;
     


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1.5 INSTALLATION

Installation consists of an analysis phase and an execution phase.


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1.5.1 Analysis Phase

The installed software catalog is queried and checks are made to detect reinstallation, downdating (installing an older version). Dependency tests are made at this point. If these checks pass or are overridden by options, then the installed software catalog entry is created (moving the old entry). The checkinstall script is exectuted. This script should be non-interactive, idempotent, and read-only from the system's perspective. This script may exit with status of 0,1,2, or 3. If the exit status is 3 (or 1) installation is rejected and the installed catalog is restored.


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1.5.2 Execution Phase

The preinstall script is executed, the fileset files are loaded by the system tar utility and postinstall is executed.


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1.6 INSTALLED SOFTWARE CATALOG

The form or format of an installed software catalog is not specified by the ISO/IEC spec although it does specify an interface to it (e.g. swlist utility) and operations on it. This implementation creates a de-facto installed software catalog rooted at the file system path specified by the value of the installed_software_catalog extended option. The catalog is a file system hierarchy containing regular files and directories. The catalog is typically located relative to the target path. As of swbis version 1.5, the catalog location may be specified using the file URL syntax to indicate an absolute path. Any other form, such as an unadorned absolute UNIX path will be treated as a path relative to the target path. For Example: Below are example values of the installed_software_catalog extended option found in the swdefaults file usually located in $HOME/.swbis/swdefaults

     
     
        var/lib/swbis/catalog   # Default, relative to target path
        /var/lib/swbis/catalog  # Same, leading slash not respected
        file://localhost/var/lib/swbis/catalog  # Really absolute
        file:///var/lib/swbis/catalog           # Note triple leading slash
     


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1.6.1 CATALOG FILE LAYOUT

     
     
      <path>/
      <path>/<ISC>/
      <path>/<ISC>/<bundle>/
      <path>/<ISC>/<bundle>/<product>/
      <path>/<ISC>/<bundle>/<product>/<pr>/
      <path>/<ISC>/<bundle>/<product>/<pr>/<seqence_number>/
      <path>/<ISC>/<bundle>/<product>/<pr>/<sequence_number>/export/
      <path>/<ISC>/<bundle>/<product>/<pr>/<sequence_number>/export/catalog.tar
      <path>/<ISC>/<bundle>/<product>/<pr>/<sequence_number>/export/catalog.tar.sig
      <path>/<ISC>/<bundle>/<product>/<pr>/<sequence_number>/export/catalog.tar.sig<N>
      <path>/<ISC>/<bundle>/<product>/<pr>/<sequence_number>/INSTALLED
      <path>/<ISC>/<bundle>/<product>/<pr>/<sequence_number>/control.sh
      <path>/<ISC>/<bundle>/<product>/<pr>/<sequence_number>/session_options
      <path>/<ISC>/<bundle>/<product>/<pr>/<sequence_number>/vendor_tag
      <path>/<ISC>/<bundle>/<product>/<pr>/<sequence_number>/location
      <path>/<ISC>/<bundle>/<product>/<pr>/<sequence_number>/qualifier
     

<path> is the target path. <ISC> is the value of the installed_software_cataglog extended option. <bundle> and <product> are bundle and product tags. If there is no bundle in the distribution the product tag is used. <pr> is the product revision. Other items are explained below.


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1.6.2 CATALOG LOCATION

     /<path>/
     /<path>/<installed_software_catalog>/
     /<path>/<installed_software_catalog>/...
     


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1.6.3 * Root or Alternate Root

     /<path>/
     

<path>/ is the target path specified in the target syntax. By default "/".


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1.6.4 * Catalog Relative Root Directory

     /<path>/
     /<path>/<installed_software_catalog>/
     

<installed_software_catalog>/ is the value of the extended option by the same name. By default "var/lib/swbis/catalog".


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1.6.5 PACKAGE CATALOG RELATIVE ROOT

     /<{bundle|prod}.tag>/<prod.tag>/<prod.revision>/...
     

In other words, if 'product' and 'bundle' refers to tags, and product_revision is the value of the product.revision attribute then the path segment is:

      /bundle/product/product_revision
     


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1.6.6 CATALOG SEQUENCE NUMBER

      /<sequence_number>/
      /<sequence_number>/...
     

sequence_number is a decimal integer starting with '0'. It is chosen by swinstall to be unique at the time of installation.


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1.6.7 CATALOG CONTENTS

     <sequence_number>/
      <sequence_number>/export/
      <sequence_number>/export/catalog.tar
      <sequence_number>/export/catalog.tar.sig
      <sequence_number>/INSTALLED
      <sequence_number>/control.sh
      <sequence_number>/session_options
      <sequence_number>/vendor_tag
      <sequence_number>/location
      <sequence_number>/qualifier
     


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1.6.8 The export directory

      export/
      export/...
      export/catalog.tar
      export/catalog.tar.sig
      export/catalog.tar.sig2
                    ...
      export/catalog.tar.sigN
     

The export/ is a file system directory and its name is constant for all packages and is unique to the swbis implementation. The export/catalog.tar file is the signed file from the POSIX distribution. The export/catalog.tar.sig file is the signature file from the distribution. If there is more than one signature, then it is the last one. export/catalog.tar.sig2 is the next to last signature, and export/catalog.tar.sigN is the first one, where N is the total number of signatures.


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1.6.9 INSTALLED – The state metadata file

      <sequence_number>/INSTALLED
     

The INSTALLED file is similar to an INDEX file in its grammar and syntax. Unlike an INDEX file, it may contain control_file definitions. The INSTALLED file stores the control script return codes and fileset installation state. It is updated several times during the operation of 'swinstall'. It can be parsed using libexec/swbisparse and the '–installed' option.


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1.6.10 control.sh – The master control script

      <sequence_number>/control.sh
       SYNOPSIS: control.sh tag_spec script_tag
     

The control.sh file is a POSIX shell script that is automatically generated by swinstall. It provides a common interface for control script execution. Its primary purpose is to set up the script's execution environment and map script tags to the control script pathnames. It assumes that 'export/catalog.tar' is unpacked in export/.


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1.6.11 session_options – The extended options

      <sequence_number>/session_options
     

This file contains the extended options in a form that may be executed by the shell '.' (dot) command. It is automatically generated by swinstall. The value of the SW_SESSION_OPTIONS environment variable is the absolute pathname of the this file.


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1.6.12 EXAMPLE CATALOG ENTRY

Below is an example entry of the catalog created by swbis version 0.405. In this example, the target path is '/mnt/test', the installed_software_catalog is '/var/lib/swbis/catalog/', the bundle tag is 'foobare', the product tag is 'foobare-doc', and the product revision attribute is '0.902'.

     /mnt/test/var/lib/swbis/catalog/foobare/foobare-doc/0.902/0/export
     /mnt/test/var/lib/swbis/catalog/foobare/foobare-doc/0.902/0/export/catalog.tar
     /mnt/test/var/lib/swbis/catalog/foobare/foobare-doc/0.902/0/export/catalog.tar.sig
     /mnt/test/var/lib/swbis/catalog/foobare/foobare-doc/0.902/0/INSTALLED
     /mnt/test/var/lib/swbis/catalog/foobare/foobare-doc/0.902/0/control.sh
     /mnt/test/var/lib/swbis/catalog/foobare/foobare-doc/0.902/0/vendor_tag
     /mnt/test/var/lib/swbis/catalog/foobare/foobare-doc/0.902/0/location
     /mnt/test/var/lib/swbis/catalog/foobare/foobare-doc/0.902/0/qualifier
     /mnt/test/var/lib/swbis/catalog/foobare/foobare-doc/0.902/0/session_options
     

A deleted old catalog entry begin with '_', for example

     /mnt/test/var/lib/swbis/catalog/foobare/foobare-doc/0.902/_0/...
     

Although swinstall does not depend on the file name as this accommodates installing from standard input, a typical name for this package would be:

            foobare-doc-0.902-sl04.tar.gz
     

where 'sl04' is the vendor tag.


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1.7 IMPLEMENTATION EXTENSIONS


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1.7.1 Software Specification Targets

A dash '-' is supported and means stdout or stdin. Operations with stdout and stdin on a remote host is not supported. A decimal '.' is supported and means the current directory. This is supported for remote and non-remote targets. If the source is standard input, the distribution will be unpacked (e.g. pax -r) in the directory '.'. If the source is a regular file then a regular file in '.' will be created with the same name.


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1.7.2 RPM Translation

RPM (RedHat Package Manager) format packages are installed by first translating to an equivalent ISO/IEEE file layout in POSIX tar format and then installing as a POSIX package. This translation and detection is transparent to the user if the ”–allow-rpm” option is set in the command line args or the swbis_allow_rpm is set to "true" by the defaults files, otherwise an error occurs. Since translation is done on the local (management) host, RPM is not required on the remote (target) host. The translation is (internally) equivalent to :

        cat your-0.0-1.bin.rpm |
        /usr/lib/swbis/lxpsf –psf-form2 -H ustar |
        swpackage -W source=- -s @PSF | swinstall -s - @/
     


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1.7.3 Testing with RPM

To test the swbis components, a completely independent means to install and verify a package is needed. RPM provides this means and can be used in the following way:

        rpm -i –nodeps –force your-0.0-1.i386.rpm  # Install
        rpm –verify –nodeps your-0.0-1             # Show that all is well
        rpm -e –nodeps your-0.0-1                   # Remove it.
        rpm -i –nodeps –justdb your-0.0-1.i386.rpm # Install just the database.
        rpm –verify –nodeps your-0.0-1             # Shows the files are missing.
        swinstall –allow-rpm -s - < your-0.0-1.i386.rpm
        rpm –verify –nodeps your-0.0-1             # Show that all is well again
     


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1.8 EXTENDED OPTIONS

Extended options can be specified on the command line using the -x option or from the defaults file, swdefaults. Shown below is an actual portion of a defaults file which show default values.


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1.8.1 POSIX

These options are set in the /usr/lib/swbis/swdefaults or the ~/.swdefaults

       allow_downdate              = false      # Not Implemented
       allow_incompatible          = false      # Not Implemented
       ask                         = false      # Not Implemented
       autoreboot                  = false      # Not Implemented
       autorecover                 = false      # Not Implemented
       autoselect_dependencies     = false      # Not Implemented
       defer_configure             = false      # Not Implemented
       distribution_source_directory   = -	     # Stdin
       enforce_dependencies        = false      # Not Implemented
       enforce_locatable           = false      # Not Implemented
       enforce_scripts             = false      # Not Implemented
       enforce_dsa                 = false      # Not Implemented
       installed_software_catalog  = var/lib/swbis/catalog
       logfile             = /var/lib/sw/swinstall.log #Not Implemented
       loglevel                    = 0          # Not Implemented
       reinstall                   = false      # Not Implemented
       select_local		= false      # Not Implemented
       verbose			= 1
     


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1.8.2 Swbis Implementation

These options are set in the /usr/lib/swbis/swbisdefaults or the ${HOME}/.swbis/swbisdefaults file.

       swinstall.swbis_no_getconf = true # true or false
       swinstall.swbis_shell_command = detect # {detect|sh|bash|ksh|posix}
       swinstall.swbis_no_remote_kill = false # true or false
       swinstall.swbis_no_audit = false # true or false
       swinstall.swbis_quiet_progress_bar = false # true or false
       swinstall.swbis_local_pax_write_command=pax #{pax|tar|star|gtar}
       swinstall.swbis_remote_pax_write_command=pax #{pax|tar|star|gtar}
       swinstall.swbis_local_pax_read_command=pax #{pax|tar|gtar|star}
       swinstall.swbis_remote_pax_read_command=pax #{pax|tar|gtar|star}
       swinstall.swbis_enforce_sig=false # true or false
       swinstall.swbis_enforce_file_md5=false # true or false
       swinstall.swbis_allow_rpm=false # true or false
       swinstall.swbis_remote_shell_client=ssh
       swinstall.swbis_install_volatile=true
       swinstall.swbis_volatile_newname=     #empty string, e.g. ".rpmnew"
     


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1.9 RETURN VALUE

0 if all targets succeeded, 1 if all targets failed, 2 if some targets failed and some succeeded.


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1.10 NOTES

Multiple ssh-hops is an implementation extension.


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1.11 REQUISITE UTILITIES

The swbis distributed utilities require bash, public domain ksh, or ksh93 (version 2009-05-05), or Sun's /usr/xpg4/bin/sh to be present on the target host. If the swbis_shell_command extended option is set to 'detect' you don't have to know which one is present, otherwise you may specify one explicitly. A POSIX awk is required, and with the ability to specify several thousand bytes of program text as a command argument. GNU awk works, as does the ATT Awk book awk, and the awk on BSD systems. See the INSTALL file for further details regarding a small issue with the OpenSolaris (c.2006) awk.


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1.12 FILES

      /var/lib/swbis/catalog # Location of installed catalog
      /usr/lib/swbis/swdefaults
      /usr/lib/swbis/swbisdefaults
      $HOME/.swbis/swdefaults
      $HOME/.swbis/swbisdefaults
     


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1.13 APPLICABLE STANDARDS

ISO/IEC 15068-2:1999, Open Group CAE C701


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1.14 SEE ALSO

info swbis swcopy(8), sw(5), swbisparse(1), swign(1), swverify(8)


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1.15 IDENTIFICATION

swinstall(8): The installation utility of the swbis project. Author: Jim Lowe Email: jhlowe at acm.org Version: 1.6 Last Updated: 2010-02-05 Copying: GNU Free Documentation License


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1.16 BUGS

swinstall is subject to breakage if a user's account on an intermediate (or terminal) host in a target spec is not configured to use a Bourne compatible shell. (This breakage may be eliminated by use of the –no-getconf option as explained above.) A multiple ssh hop source spec (more than 1 remote host involved in the source transfer) upon a SIGINT may result in sshd and ssh processes being left on on the intermediate host(s), this despite, swinstall's action of sending a SIGTERM to the remote script's parent process. swinstall does not currently implement Software Selections, not fileset dependencies, and much more. Only packages with one product and one fileset are supported.