Next: Flags, Up: Numeric Output Format [Contents][Index]

The format specification recognized with the `--output-format`
option is a subset of that for `printf`

. The format specification has
the form
`%`

[*flags*][*width*][`.`

*precision*]*type*;
it must begin with ‘`%`’, and must end with a floating-point type
specifier:
‘`g`’ or ‘`G`’ to specify the number of significant digits,
‘`e`’ or ‘`E`’ for scientific notation, and ‘`f`’ for
fixed-point decimal. The ISO C99 standard added the ‘`F`’ type for
fixed-point decimal and the ‘`a`’ and ‘`A`’ types for hexadecimal
floating point; these types are allowed with compilers that support
them. Type length modifiers (e.g., ‘`L`’ to indicate a long double)
are inapplicable and are not allowed.

The default format for `units`

is ‘`%.8g`’;
for greater precision, you could specify `-o %.15g`.
The ‘`g`’ and ‘`G`’ format types use exponential format whenever
the exponent would be less than *\(-4\)*, so the value 0.000013
displays as ‘`1.3e-005`’. These types also use exponential notation
when the exponent is greater than or equal to the precision, so with the
default format, the value
*\(5\times 10^7\)*
displays as ‘`50000000`’ and the value
*\(5\times 10^8\)*
displays as ‘`5e+008`’. If you prefer fixed-point display, you might
specify `-o %.8f`; however, small numbers will display very
few significant digits, and values less than
*\(5\times 10^{-8}\)*
will show nothing but zeros.

The format specification may include one or more optional flags:
‘`+`’, ‘` `’ (space), ‘`#`’, ‘`-`’, or ‘`0`’ (the
digit zero). The digit-grouping flag
‘`'`’ (apostrophe)
is allowed with compilers that support it. Flags are followed by an
optional value for the minimum field width, and an optional precision
specification that begins with a period (e.g., ‘`.6`’). The field
width includes the digits, decimal point, the exponent, thousands
separators (with the digit-grouping flag), and the sign if any of these
are shown.

Next: Flags, Up: Numeric Output Format [Contents][Index]