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5.2 Sums and Differences of Units

You may sometimes want to add values of different units that are outside the SI. You may also wish to use units as a calculator that keeps track of units. Sums of conformable units are written with the ‘+’ character, and differences with the ‘-’ character.

You have: 2 hours + 23 minutes + 32 seconds
You want: seconds
        * 8612
        / 0.00011611705

You have: 12 ft + 3 in
You want: cm
        * 373.38
        / 0.0026782366

You have: 2 btu + 450 ft lbf
You want: btu
        * 2.5782804
        / 0.38785542

The expressions that are added or subtracted must reduce to identical expressions in primitive units, or an error message will be displayed:

You have: 12 printerspoint - 4 heredium
Illegal sum of non-conformable units

As usual, the precedence for ‘+’ and ‘-’ is lower than that of the other operators. A fractional quantity such as 2 1/2 cups can be given as ‘(2+1|2) cups’; the parentheses are necessary because multiplication has higher precedence than addition. If you omit the parentheses, units attempts to add ‘2’ and ‘1|2 cups’, and you get an error message:

You have: 2+1|2 cups
Illegal sum or difference of non-conformable units

The expression could also be correctly written as ‘(2+1/2) cups’. If you write ‘2 1|2 cups’ the space is interpreted as multiplication so the result is the same as ‘1 cup’.

The ‘+’ and ‘-’ characters sometimes appears in exponents like ‘3.43e+8’. This leads to an ambiguity in an expression like ‘3e+2 yC’. The unit ‘e’ is a small unit of charge, so this can be regarded as equivalent to ‘(3e+2) yC’ or ‘(3 e)+(2 yC)’. This ambiguity is resolved by always interpreting ‘+’ and ‘-’ as part of an exponent if possible.

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