<!--#include virtual="/server/header.html" -->
<!-- Parent-Version: 1.77 1.96 -->
<!-- This page is derived from /server/standards/boilerplate.html -->
<!--#set var="DISABLE_TOP_ADDENDUM" value="yes" -->
<title>Essays and Articles
- GNU Project - Free Software Foundation</title>
<style type="text/css" media="print,screen"><!--
.toc { margin-bottom: 1em; }
.toc ul { font-weight: normal; }
.toc > ul > li { list-style-type: none; font-weight: bold; }
@media (min-width:55em) { .toc > ul > li { display: inline-block; width: 95%; }}
.reduced-width > h3 { margin-top: 1.5em; border-bottom: 2px solid #bbb; }
 ul.no-bullet li { text-indent: -1.5em; }
 .date-tag { font-size: .875em; position: relative; bottom: .05em; }
--></style>
<!--#include virtual="/philosophy/po/essays-and-articles.translist" -->
<!--#include virtual="/server/banner.html" -->

<div id="education-content">
<!--#include virtual="/philosophy/philosophy-menu.html" -->

</div> <!-- id="education-content" -->
<!--GNUN: OUT-OF-DATE NOTICE-->
<!--#if expr="$OUTDATED_SINCE" --><!--#else -->
<!--#if expr="$LANGUAGE_SUFFIX" -->
<!--#set var="DISABLE_TOP_ADDENDUM" value="no" -->
<!--#include virtual="/server/top-addendum.html" -->
<!--#endif -->
<!--#endif -->
<div class="reduced-width">
<h2>Essays and Articles</h2>
<div class="thin"></div>

<div class="comment">
<p>This page lists a series of articles describing the philosophy of the
free software movement, which is the motivation for our development of
the free software operating system GNU.</p>
<p>
<!-- please leave both these ID attributes here. ... -->
<a id="TOCFreedomOrganizations">We</a>
<a id="FreedomOrganizations">also</a>
<!-- ... we removed this as an H$ section as it was duplicating the  -->
<!-- same information on links.html, but it's possible that some users -->
<!-- have the URLs bookmarked or on their pages. -len -->
keep a list

<p>The most important articles are marked with asterisks, and listed first
in each category. The other ones are in reverse chronological order.</p>
</div>

<div class="toc">
<h3 class="no-display">Table of
<a href="/links/links.html#FreedomOrganizations">Organizations
that Work Contents</h3>
<ul class="columns">
 <li><a href="#aboutfs">About Free Software</a>
  <ul>
  <li><a href="#principles">Principles</a></li>
  <li><a href="#practice">Practice</a></li>
  <li><a href="#extension">Extension to other areas</a></li>
  <li><a href="#mix">Mixing free and nonfree</a></li>
  <li><a href="#free-open">Free software and open source</a></li>
  </ul>
 </li>
 <li><a href="#upholding">Upholding Software Freedom</a>
  <ul>
  <li><a href="/gnu/gnu.html">The GNU Project</a></li>
  <li><a href="#fsmovement">The free software movement</a></li>
  <li><a href="#need">The need for Freedom in
Computer Development free software</a></li>
  <li><a href="#action">Guide for action</a></li>
  </ul>
 </li>
 <li><a href="#LicensingFreeSoftware">Licensing Free Software</a>
  <ul>
  <li><a href="/licenses/licenses.html">General information</a></li>
  <li><a href="#copyleft">Copyleft</a></li>
  <li><a href="#non-copyleft">Non-copyleft</a></li>
  <li><a href="#traps">Licensing traps</a></li>
  </ul>
 </li>
 <li><a href="#Laws">Legal Issues</a>
  <ul>
  <li><a href="#patents">Patents</a></li>
  <li><a href="#copyright">Copyright</a></li>
  <li><a href="#noip">The propaganda term “Intellectual
    Property”</a></li>
  <li><a href="#sco">Response to SCO's attacks</a></li>
  </ul>
 </li>
 <li><a href="#cultural">Cultural and Electronic Communications</a>.</p> Social Issues</a>
  <ul>
  <li><a href="#society">Digital society</a></li>
  <li><a href="#drm">Digital restrictions management</a></li>
  <li><a href="#ns">Network services</a></li>
  <li><a href="#access">Accessing culture</a></li>
  <li><a href="#funding">Funding cultural works</a></li>
  <li><a href="#evils">Surveillance, censorship, lock-in, etc.</a></li>
  <li><a href="/proprietary/proprietary.html">Proprietary malware</a></li>
  </ul>
 </li>
 <li><a href="#terminology">Terminology and Definitions</a></li>
 <li><a href="/fun/humor.html#Philosophy">Philosophical Humor</a></li>
</ul>
<hr class="no-display" />
</div>

<h3 id="aboutfs">About Free Software</h3>
<p>
Free software is a matter of freedom: people should be free to use
software in all the ways that are socially useful.  Software differs
from material objects—such as chairs, sandwiches, and
gasoline—in that it can be copied and changed much more easily.
These possibilities make software as useful as it is; we believe
software users should be able to make use of them.</p>

<ul>
  <li><a href="/philosophy/free-sw.html">What

<h4 id="principles">Principles</h4>
<ul class="no-bullet">
 <li><!--#set var='DATE' value='<span class="date-tag">*[1996… ]</span>'
  --><!--#echo encoding='none' var='DATE' -->
  <a href="/philosophy/free-sw.html">
  What is Free Software?</a></li>
  <li><a href="/philosophy/why-free.html">Why
 <li><!--#set var='DATE' value='<span class="date-tag">*[2015]</span>'
  --><!--#echo encoding='none' var='DATE' -->
  <a href="/philosophy/free-software-even-more-important.html">
  Free Software Is Even More Important Now</a>
  (by RMS)</li>
 <li><!--#set var='DATE' value='<span class="date-tag">*[1996]</span>'
  --><!--#echo encoding='none' var='DATE' -->
  <a href="/philosophy/selling.html">
  Selling Free Software</a>
  — This is OK!</li>
 <li><!--#set var='DATE' value='<span class="date-tag">[2012]</span>'
  --><!--#echo encoding='none' var='DATE' -->
  <a href="/philosophy/programs-must-not-limit-freedom-to-run.html">
  Why programs must not limit the freedom to run them</a>
  (by RMS)
  — Freedom 0 must not be limited.</li>
 <li><!--#set var='DATE' value='<span class="date-tag">[2007]</span>'
  --><!--#echo encoding='none' var='DATE' -->
  <a href="/philosophy/your-freedom-needs-free-software.html">
  Your Freedom Needs Free Software</a>
  (by RMS)</li>
 <li><!--#set var='DATE' value='<span class="date-tag">[1994]</span>'
  --><!--#echo encoding='none' var='DATE' -->
  <a href="/philosophy/why-free.html">
  Why Software Should Not Have Owners</a></li>
  <li><a href="/philosophy/shouldbefree.html">Why Owners</a>
  (by RMS)</li>
 <li><!--#set var='DATE' value='<span class="date-tag">[1991]</span>'
  --><!--#echo encoding='none' var='DATE' -->
  <a href="/philosophy/shouldbefree.html">
  Why Software Should Be Free</a>  (This is an
  (by RMS)
  — An older and longer essay about the same topic as the 
  previous one)</li>
  <li><a href="/philosophy/free-doc.html">Why one.</li>
</ul>

<h4 id="practice">Practice</h4>
<ul class="no-bullet"> 
 <li><!--#set var='DATE' value='<span class="date-tag">*[1999-2011]</span>'
  --><!--#echo encoding='none' var='DATE' -->
  <a href="/philosophy/when-free-software-isnt-practically-superior.html">
  When Free Software Needs
      Free Documentation</a></li>
  <li><a href="/philosophy/selling.html">Selling Isn't (Practically) Superior</a>
  (by Benjamin Mako Hill)</li>
 <li><!--#set var='DATE' value='<span class="date-tag">[2015]</span>'
  --><!--#echo encoding='none' var='DATE' -->
  <a href="/philosophy/applying-free-sw-criteria.html">
  Applying the Free Software</a> Software Criteria</a>
  (by RMS)</li>
 <li><!--#set var='DATE' value='<span class="date-tag">[2014]</span>'
  --><!--#echo encoding='none' var='DATE' -->
  <a href="/philosophy/imperfection-isnt-oppression.html">
  Imperfection is OK!</li>
  <li><a href="/philosophy/categories.html">Categories of Free and
       Non-Free Software</a></li>
  <li><a href="/philosophy/floss-and-foss.html"> FLOSS not the same as oppression</a>
  (by RMS)</li>
 <li><!--#set var='DATE' value='<span class="date-tag">[2011]</span>'
  --><!--#echo encoding='none' var='DATE' -->
  <a href="/philosophy/android-and-users-freedom.html">
  Android and FOSS</a></li>
  <li><a href="/software/reliability.html">Free Users' Freedom</a>
  (by RMS)</li>
 <li><!--#set var='DATE' value='<span class="date-tag">[1997-2011]</span>'
  --><!--#echo encoding='none' var='DATE' -->
  <a href="/software/reliability.html">
  Free Software is More Reliable!</a></li>
  <li><a href="/philosophy/when-free-software-isnt-practically-superior.html">
</ul>

<h4 id="extension">Extension to other areas</h4>
<ul class="no-bullet"> 
 <li><!--#set var='DATE' value='<span class="date-tag">*[1996]</span>'
  --><!--#echo encoding='none' var='DATE' -->
  <a href="/philosophy/free-doc.html">
  Why Free Software Needs Free Documentation</a></li>
 <li><!--#set var='DATE' value='<span class="date-tag">[2020]</span>'
  --><!--#echo encoding='none' var='DATE' -->
  <a href="/philosophy/free-software-rocket.html">
  Should Rockets Have Only Free Software? Free Software and Appliances</a>
  (by RMS)</li>
 <li><!--#set var='DATE' value='<span class="date-tag">[2015]</span>'
  --><!--#echo encoding='none' var='DATE' -->
  <a href="/philosophy/free-hardware-designs.html">
  Free Hardware and Free Hardware Designs</a>
  (by RMS)</li>
 <li><!--#set var='DATE' value='<span class="date-tag">[2015]</span>'
  --><!--#echo encoding='none' var='DATE' -->
  <a href="/philosophy/loyal-computers.html">
  What Does It Mean for Your Computer to Be Loyal?</a>
  (by RMS)</li>
 <li><!--#set var='DATE' value='<span class="date-tag">[2012]</span>'
  --><!--#echo encoding='none' var='DATE' -->
  <a href="/philosophy/network-services-arent-free-or-nonfree.html">
  Network Services Aren't Free or Nonfree; They Raise Other Issues</a>
  (by RMS)</li>
 <li><!--#set var='DATE' value='<span class="date-tag">[2000]</span>'
  --><!--#echo encoding='none' var='DATE' -->
  <a href="/philosophy/gnutella.html" id="Gnutella">
  Regarding Gnutella</a></li>
</ul>

<h4 id="mix">Mixing free and nonfree</h4>
<ul class="no-bullet"> 
 <li><!--#set var='DATE' value='<span class="date-tag">[2016]</span>'
  --><!--#echo encoding='none' var='DATE' -->
  <a href="/philosophy/when-free-depends-on-nonfree.html">
  When Free Software Isn't (Practically) Superior</a></li>
  <li><a href="/philosophy/open-source-misses-the-point.html">Why Depends on Nonfree</a>
  (by RMS)</li>
 <li><!--#set var='DATE' value='<span class="date-tag">[2013]</span>'
  --><!--#echo encoding='none' var='DATE' -->
  <a href="/philosophy/is-ever-good-use-nonfree-program.html">
  Is It Ever a Good Thing to Use a Nonfree Program?</a>
  (by RMS)</li>
 <li><!--#set var='DATE' value='<span class="date-tag">[2005]</span>'
  --><!--#echo encoding='none' var='DATE' -->
  <a href="/philosophy/mcvoy.html">
  Thank You, Larry McVoy</a>
  (by RMS)</li>
 <li><!--#set var='DATE' value='<span class="date-tag">[1998]</span>'
  --><!--#echo encoding='none' var='DATE' -->
  <a href="/philosophy/udi.html">
  The Free Software Movement and UDI</a>
  (by RMS)</li>
</ul>

<h4 id="free-open">Free software and open source</h4>
<ul class="no-bullet"> 
 <li><!--#set var='DATE' value='<span class="date-tag">*[2007-2021]</span>'
  --><!--#echo encoding='none' var='DATE' -->
  <a href="/philosophy/open-source-misses-the-point.html">
  Why “Open Source” misses Misses the point Point of Free Software</a></li>
  <li><a href="/philosophy/linux-gnu-freedom.html">Linux, Software</a>
  (by RMS)</li>
 <li><!--#set var='DATE' value='<span class="date-tag">[2015]</span>'
  --><!--#echo encoding='none' var='DATE' -->
  <a href="/philosophy/free-open-overlap.html">
  How Free Software and Open Source Relate as Categories of Programs</a></li>
 <li><!--#set var='DATE' value='<span class="date-tag">[2013]</span>'
  --><!--#echo encoding='none' var='DATE' -->
  <a href="/philosophy/floss-and-foss.html">
  FLOSS and FOSS</a>
  (by RMS)</li>
 <li><!--#set var='DATE' value='<span class="date-tag">[2002]</span>'
  --><!--#echo encoding='none' var='DATE' -->
  <a href="/philosophy/linux-gnu-freedom.html">
  Linux, GNU, and
       Freedom</a></li> Freedom</a>
  (by RMS)</li>
 <li><!--#set var='DATE' value='<span class="date-tag">[2001]</span>'
  --><!--#echo encoding='none' var='DATE' -->
  <a href="/philosophy/drdobbs-letter.html">
  Letter from RMS to the Editor of Dr. Dobb's Journal</a>
  on the distinction between open source and the free software movement.</li>
 <li><!--#set var='DATE' value='<span class="date-tag">[1998]</span>'
  --><!--#echo encoding='none' var='DATE' -->
  <a href="/philosophy/free-software-for-freedom.html">
  “Open Source Software” or “Free Software”?</a>
  (replaced by <a href="/philosophy/open-source-misses-the-point.html">
  Why “Open Source” Misses the Point of Free Software</a>)</li>
</ul>


<h3 id="upholding">Upholding Software Freedom</h3>

<h4>The GNU Project</h4>
<ul class="no-bullet">
 <li><a href="/philosophy/gnutella.html"
         id="Gnutella">Regarding Gnutella</a></li> href="/gnu/gnu.html">The GNU Operating System</a>
  — History, relationship with Linux, etc.</li>
</ul>

<h4 id="fsmovement">The free software movement</h4>
<ul class="no-bullet"> 
 <li><a href="/philosophy/schools.html">Why href="https://www.fsf.org/">
  The official website of the Free Software Foundation</a></li>
 <li><!--#set var='DATE' value='<span class="date-tag">[2004]</span>'
  --><!--#echo encoding='none' var='DATE' -->
  <a href="/philosophy/use-free-software.html">
  The Free Software Community After 20 Years</a>
  (by RMS)
  — With great but incomplete success, what now?</li>
 <li><!--#set var='DATE' value='<span class="date-tag">[1999]</span>'
  --><!--#echo encoding='none' var='DATE' -->
  <a href="/philosophy/15-years-of-free-software.html">
  15 Years of Free Software</a>
  (by RMS)</li>
 <li><!--#set var='DATE' value='<span class="date-tag">[1999]</span>'
  --><!--#echo encoding='none' var='DATE' -->
  <a href="/philosophy/free-software-intro.html">
  Free Software Movement</a></li>
</ul>

<h4 id="need">The need for free software</h4>
<ul class="no-bullet"> 
 <li><!--#set var='DATE' value='<span class="date-tag">*[2011-2017]</span>'
  --><!--#echo encoding='none' var='DATE' -->
  <a href="/philosophy/government-free-software.html">
  Measures Governments Can Use to Promote Free Software</a>
  (by RMS)</li>
 <li><!--#set var='DATE' value='<span class="date-tag">*[2009-2014]</span>'
  --><!--#echo encoding='none' var='DATE' -->
  <a href="/education/edu-schools.html">
  Why Schools Should Use Exclusively Free Software</a></li>
  <li><a href="/philosophy/my_doom.html">MyDoom Software</a>
  (by RMS)</li>
 <li><!--#set var='DATE' value='<span class="date-tag">[2014]</span>'
  --><!--#echo encoding='none' var='DATE' -->
  <a href="/philosophy/technological-neutrality.html">
  Technological Neutrality and You</a></li>
  <li><a href="/philosophy/15-years-of-free-software.html">
      15 Years of Free Software</a></li>
  <li><a href="/philosophy/free-software-intro.html">Free Software</a>
  (by RMS)</li>
 <li><!--#set var='DATE' value='<span class="date-tag">[2013]</span>'
  --><!--#echo encoding='none' var='DATE' -->
  <a href="/philosophy/uruguay.html">
  Lesson from Uruguay</a>
  — The FSF learned something from a bill presented in Uruguay.</li>
 <li><!--#set var='DATE' value='<span class="date-tag">[2005]</span>'
  --><!--#echo encoding='none' var='DATE' -->
  <a href="/philosophy/second-sight.html">
  Free Software movement</a></li>
  <li><a href="/philosophy/your-freedom-needs-free-software.html">
      Your Freedom Needs and (e-)Government</a>
  (by RMS)</li>
 <li><!--#set var='DATE' value='<span class="date-tag">[2005]</span>'
  --><!--#echo encoding='none' var='DATE' -->
  <a href="/philosophy/fs-and-sustainable-development.html">
  Free Software</a></li>
  <li><a Software and Sustainable Development</a>
  (by RMS)
  — A short article regarding the use of proprietary software in
  cultural development.</li>
</ul>

<h4 id="action">Guide for action</h4>
<ul class="no-bullet"> 
 <li><!--#set var='DATE' value='<span class="date-tag">*[2020]</span>'
  --><!--#echo encoding='none' var='DATE' -->
  <a href="/philosophy/saying-no-even-once.html">
  Saying No to unjust computing even once is help</a>
  (by RMS)</li>
 <li><!--#set var='DATE' value='<span class="date-tag">*[2009]</span>'
  --><!--#echo encoding='none' var='DATE' -->
  <a href="/philosophy/fs-motives.html">
  Motives For Writing Free Software</a></li>
  <li><a href="/philosophy/gov-promote.html">
      How Should Governments Promote Free Software?</a></li>
</ul>

<h3 id="aboutgnu">About
 <li><!--#set var='DATE' value='<span class="date-tag">[2002-2020]</span>'
  --><!--#echo encoding='none' var='DATE' -->
  <a href="/philosophy/no-word-attachments.html" id="NoWordAttachments">
  We Can Put an End to Word Attachments</a>
  (by RMS)</li>
 <li><!--#set var='DATE' value='<span class="date-tag">[2019]</span>'
  --><!--#echo encoding='none' var='DATE' -->
  <a href="/philosophy/install-fest-devil.html">
  Install Fests: What to Do about the GNU Operating System</h3>

<ul>
  <li><a href="/gnu/initial-announcement.html">Initial announcement of Deal with the Devil</a>
  (by RMS)</li>
 <li><!--#set var='DATE' value='<span class="date-tag">[2019]</span>'
  --><!--#echo encoding='none' var='DATE' -->
  <a href="/philosophy/upgrade-windows.html">
  What Is the Right Way to Upgrade an Installation of Windows?</a>
  (by RMS)</li>
 <li><!--#set var='DATE' value='<span class="date-tag">[2018]</span>'
  --><!--#echo encoding='none' var='DATE' -->
  <a href="/philosophy/kind-communication.html">
  GNU Operating System</a></li>
  <li><a href="/gnu/manifesto.html">The GNU Manifesto</a></li>
  <li><a href="/gnu/gnu-history.html">Brief history Kind Communications Guidelines</a>
  (by RMS)</li>
 <li><!--#set var='DATE' value='<span class="date-tag">[2017]</span>'
  --><!--#echo encoding='none' var='DATE' -->
  <a href="/philosophy/hackathons.html">
  Why Hackathons Should Insist on Free Software</a>
  (by RMS)</li>
 <li><!--#set var='DATE' value='<span class="date-tag">[2014]</span>'
  --><!--#echo encoding='none' var='DATE' -->
  <a href="/philosophy/contradictory-support.html">
  Beware of Contradictory “Support”</a>
  (by RMS)</li>
 <li><!--#set var='DATE' value='<span class="date-tag">[2012]</span>'
  --><!--#echo encoding='none' var='DATE' -->
  <a href="/philosophy/devils-advocate.html">
  Why the GNU Project</a></li>
  <li><a href="/gnu/thegnuproject.html">The GNU Project</a>,
      a longer and more complete description Devil's Advocate Doesn't Help Reach the Truth</a>
  (by RMS)</li>
 <li><!--#set var='DATE' value='<span class="date-tag">[2010]</span>'
  --><!--#echo encoding='none' var='DATE' -->
  <a href="/philosophy/practical.html">
  The Advantages of Free Software</a>
  (by RMS)</li>
 <li><!--#set var='DATE' value='<span class="date-tag">[2009]</span>'
  --><!--#echo encoding='none' var='DATE' -->
  <a href="/philosophy/pirate-party.html">
  How the project Swedish Pirate Party Platform Backfires on Free Software</a>
  (by RMS)</li>
 <li><!--#set var='DATE' value='<span class="date-tag">[2009]</span>'
  --><!--#echo encoding='none' var='DATE' -->
  <a href="/philosophy/lest-codeplex-perplex.html">
  Lest CodePlex perplex</a>
  (by RMS)</li>
 <li><!--#set var='DATE' value='<span class="date-tag">[2008]</span>'
  --><!--#echo encoding='none' var='DATE' -->
  <a href="/philosophy/ucita.html">
  Why We Must Fight UCITA</a></li>
 <li><!--#set var='DATE' value='<span class="date-tag">[2008]</span>'
  --><!--#echo encoding='none' var='DATE' -->
  <a href="/philosophy/compromise.html">
  Avoiding Ruinous Compromises</a>
  (by RMS)</li>
 <li><!--#set var='DATE' value='<span class="date-tag">[2007]</span>'
  --><!--#echo encoding='none' var='DATE' -->
  <a href="/philosophy/social-inertia.html">
  Overcoming Social Inertia</a>
  (by RMS)</li>
 <li><!--#set var='DATE' value='<span class="date-tag">[2004]</span>'
  --><!--#echo encoding='none' var='DATE' -->
  <a href="/philosophy/my_doom.html">
  MyDoom and its
      history.</li>
  <li><a href="/fsf/fsf.html">What is You</a>
  (by RMS)</li>
 <li><!--#set var='DATE' value='<span class="date-tag">[2003]</span>'
  --><!--#echo encoding='none' var='DATE' -->
  <a href="/philosophy/kevin-cole-response.html">
  A Response Letter to the Free Software Foundation?</a></li>
  <li><a href="/gnu/why-gnu-linux.html">Why GNU/Linux?</a></li> Word Attachments</a>
  (by Kevin Cole)</li>
 <li><!--#set var='DATE' value='<span class="date-tag">[2003]</span>'
  --><!--#echo encoding='none' var='DATE' -->
  <a href="/philosophy/anonymous-response.html">
  A Response to Word Attachments</a></li>
</ul>


<h3 id="LicensingFreeSoftware">Licensing Free Software</h3>

<ul>

<ul class="no-bullet">
 <li><a href="/licenses/licenses.html">General href="/licenses/licenses.html">
  Licenses</a>
  — General information on licensing and copyleft</a></li>
  <li><a href="/licenses/license-list.html">A list of specific free 
      software licenses</a></li>
  <li><a href="/licenses/gpl-faq.html">Frequently Asked Questions About copyleft</li>
</ul>

<h4 id="copyleft">Copyleft</h4>
<ul class="no-bullet"> 
 <li><!--#set var='DATE' value='<span class="date-tag">*[2003]</span>'
  --><!--#echo encoding='none' var='DATE' -->
  <a href="/philosophy/why-copyleft.html">
  Why Copyleft?</a></li>
 <li><!--#set var='DATE' value='<span class="date-tag">*[1998]</span>'
  --><!--#echo encoding='none' var='DATE' -->
  <a href="/philosophy/pragmatic.html">
  Copyleft: Pragmatic Idealism</a>
  (by RMS)</li>
 <li><!--#set var='DATE' value='<span class="date-tag">[2009-2017]</span>'
  --><!--#echo encoding='none' var='DATE' -->
  <a href="/philosophy/selling-exceptions.html">
  On Selling Exceptions to the GNU Licenses</a></li>
  <li><a href="/licenses/why-not-lgpl.html">Why You Shouldn't Use the 
      Lesser GPL for Your Next Library</a></li>
  <li><a href="/copyleft/copyleft.html">Copyleft</a></li>
  <li><a href="/philosophy/why-copyleft.html">Why Copyleft?</a></li>
  <li><a href="/philosophy/university.html">Releasing Free Software if 
      You Work at GPL</a>
  (by RMS)</li>
 <li><!--#set var='DATE' value='<span class="date-tag">[2014]</span>'
  --><!--#echo encoding='none' var='DATE' -->
  <a href="/philosophy/assigning-copyright.html">
  When a University</a></li>
  <li><a href="/philosophy/pragmatic.html">Copyleft: Pragmatic Idealism</a></li>
  <li><a href="/philosophy/javascript-trap.html">Javascript Trap</a> 
         —You may be running non-free programs on your computer 
         every day without realizing it — through your web browser.</li>
  <li><a href="/philosophy/vaccination.html">Viral Code and Vaccination</a>, 
         an article by Robert J. Chassell</li>
  <li><a href="http://www.fsf.org/blogs/licensing/20050211.html"> Company Asks For Your Copyright</a></li>
 <li><!--#set var='DATE' value='<span class="date-tag">[2005]</span>'
  --><!--#echo encoding='none' var='DATE' -->
  <a href="https://www.fsf.org/blogs/licensing/20050211.html">
  Censorship envy and licensing</a></li>
  <li><a href="/philosophy/x.html">The X Window System Trap</a></li>
  <li><a href="/philosophy/apsl.html">The Problems licensing</a>
  (by David “Novalis” Turner, on <i>fsf.org</i>)</li>
 <li><!--#set var='DATE' value='<span class="date-tag">[2004]</span>'
  --><!--#echo encoding='none' var='DATE' -->
  <a href="https://www.oii.ox.ac.uk/archive/downloads/research/gpl/OIIFB_GPL2_20040903.pdf">
  English translation of the Apple License</a></li>
  <li><a href="/philosophy/bsd.html">The BSD License Problem</a></li>
  <li><a href="/philosophy/netscape-npl.html">The Netscape Public License 
      Has Serious Problems</a></li>
  <li><a href="/philosophy/udi.html">The Free Software Movement and UDI</a></li>
  <li><a href="/philosophy/gates.html">It's not the Gates, it's the 
      bars</a>, an article by Richard Stallman published in BBC News in
      2008</li>
  <li><a href="/philosophy/microsoft.html">Is Microsoft famous decision of the Great Satan?</a>  
      (An <a href="/philosophy/microsoft-old.html">older version</a> District Court of 
      this article is also available.)</li>
  <li><a href="/philosophy/microsoft-antitrust.html">The Microsoft 
      Antitrust Trial and Free Software</a></li>
  <li><a href="/philosophy/microsoft-verdict.html">On
  Munich</a> regarding the Microsoft Verdict</a></li>
  <li><a href="/philosophy/microsoft-new-monopoly.html">
       Microsoft's New Monopoly</a></li>
  <li><a href="/philosophy/lest-codeplex-perplex.html">
      Lest CodePlex perplex</a></li>
  <li><a href="/philosophy/plan-nine.html" id="PlanNineLicense">
      The Problems enforceability and validity of the Plan 9 License</a></li>
  <li><a href="/philosophy/motif.html" id="MotifLicense">
      The New Motif License</a></li>
  <li><a href="/philosophy/using-gfdl.html" id="UsingGFDL">Using GPL (by
  the GNU FDL</a></li>
  <li><a translators of the Oxford Internet Institute, on
  <i>oii.ox.ac.uk</i>)</li>
 <li><!--#set var='DATE' value='<span class="date-tag">[2002]</span>'
  --><!--#echo encoding='none' var='DATE' -->
  <a href="/philosophy/university.html">
  Releasing Free Software if You Work at a University</a>
  (by RMS)</li>
 <li><!--#set var='DATE' value='<span class="date-tag">[2001]</span>'
  --><!--#echo encoding='none' var='DATE' -->
  <a href="/philosophy/gpl-american-way.html" id="GPLAmericanWay">
  The GNU GPL and the American Way</a></li>
  <li><a Way</a>
  (by RMS)</li>
 <li><!--#set var='DATE' value='<span class="date-tag">[2001]</span>'
  --><!--#echo encoding='none' var='DATE' -->
  <a href="/philosophy/gpl-american-dream.html" id="GPLAmericanDream">
  The GNU GPL and the American Dream</a></li>
  <li><a Dream</a>
  (by Bradley M. Kuhn)</li>
 <li><!--#set var='DATE' value='<span class="date-tag">[2001]</span>'
  --><!--#echo encoding='none' var='DATE' -->
  <a href="/philosophy/freedom-or-power.html" id="FreedomOrPower">
  Freedom or Power?</a>
  (by Bradley M. Kuhn and RMS)</li>
 <li><!--#set var='DATE' value='<span class="date-tag">[2001]</span>'
  --><!--#echo encoding='none' var='DATE' -->
  <a href="/philosophy/rtlinux-patent.html">
  GPL-compliant version of RTLinux Open Patent License in Works</a></li>
 <li><!--#set var='DATE' value='<span class="date-tag">[2001]</span>'
  --><!--#echo encoding='none' var='DATE' -->
  <a href="/philosophy/enforcing-gpl.html" id="EnforcingGPL">
  Enforcing the GNU GPL</a></li>
  <li><a href="/philosophy/selling-exceptions.html">
      On Selling Exceptions to GPL</a>
  (by Eben Moglen)</li>
 <li><!--#set var='DATE' value='<span class="date-tag">[1999]</span>'
  --><!--#echo encoding='none' var='DATE' -->
  <a href="/philosophy/using-gfdl.html" id="UsingGFDL">
  Using the GNU GPL</a></li>
  <li><a href="/philosophy/freedom-or-power.html" id="FreedomOrPower">
      Freedom or Power?</a></li>
  <li><a href="/philosophy/no-word-attachments.html" id="NoWordAttachments">
      We Can Put FDL</a>
  (by RMS)</li>
</ul>

<h4 id="non-copyleft">Non-copyleft</h4>
<ul class="no-bullet"> 
 <li><!--#set var='DATE' value='<span class="date-tag">[2003]</span>'
  --><!--#echo encoding='none' var='DATE' -->
  <a href="/philosophy/apsl.html">
  FSF's Opinion of the Apple Public Source License (APSL) 2.0</a></li>
 <li><!--#set var='DATE' value='<span class="date-tag">[2000]</span>'
  --><!--#echo encoding='none' var='DATE' -->
  <a href="/philosophy/plan-nine.html" id="PlanNineLicense">
  The Problems of the (Earlier) Plan 9 License</a>
  (by RMS)</li>
 <li><!--#set var='DATE' value='<span class="date-tag">[1998]</span>'
  --><!--#echo encoding='none' var='DATE' -->
  <a href="/philosophy/netscape-npl.html">
  On the Netscape Public License</a>
  (by RMS)
  [<a href="/philosophy/netscape-npl-old.html">older version</a>]</li>
 <li><!--#set var='DATE' value='<span class="date-tag">[1998]</span>'
  --><!--#echo encoding='none' var='DATE' -->
  <a href="/philosophy/netscape.html">
  Netscape and Free Software</a>
  — An old article that clarifies some misunderstandings about an End to Word Attachments</a></li>
  <li><a
  announcement by Netscape.</li>
 <li><!--#set var='DATE' value='<span class="date-tag">[1997]</span>'
  --><!--#echo encoding='none' var='DATE' -->
  <a href="/philosophy/motif.html" id="MotifLicense">
  The Motif License</a>
  (by RMS)</li>
</ul>

<h4 id="traps">Licensing traps</h4>
<ul class="no-bullet"> 
 <li><!--#set var='DATE' value='<span class="date-tag">*[2009-2019]</span>'
  --><!--#echo encoding='none' var='DATE' -->
  <a href="/philosophy/javascript-trap.html">
  JavaScript Trap</a>
  (by RMS)
  — You may be running nonfree programs on your computer every day
  without realizing it—through your web browser.</li>
 <li><!--#set var='DATE' value='<span class="date-tag">[2004-2015]</span>'
  --><!--#echo encoding='none' var='DATE' -->
  <a href="/philosophy/java-trap.html" id="JavaTrap">
  Free But Shackled - The Java Trap</a> (Although
  (by RMS)
  — Although Sun has
  <a href="http://www.fsf.org/news/fsf-welcomes-gpl-java.html"> href="https://www.fsf.org/news/fsf-welcomes-gpl-java.html">
  relicensed</a> most of its Java platform reference implementation under
  the GNU General Public License, the issue described in this article
  still remains important)</li>
  <li><a href="/philosophy/fighting-software-patents.html" id="FightingSoftwarePatents">
       Fighting important.</li>
 <li><!--#set var='DATE' value='<span class="date-tag">[1998-2009]</span>'
  --><!--#echo encoding='none' var='DATE' -->
  <a href="/philosophy/x.html">
  The X Window System Trap</a>
  (by RMS)</li>
 <li><!--#set var='DATE' value='<span class="date-tag">[2006]</span>'
  --><!--#echo encoding='none' var='DATE' -->
  <a href="/philosophy/sun-in-night-time.html">
  The Curious Incident of Sun in the Night-Time</a>
  (by RMS)</li>
</ul>


<h3 id="Laws">Legal issues</h3>

<h4 id="patents">Patents</h4>
<ul class="no-bullet"> 
 <li><!--#set var='DATE' value='<span class="date-tag">*[2012]</span>'
  --><!--#echo encoding='none' var='DATE' -->
  <a href="/philosophy/limit-patent-effect.html">
  Giving the Software Patents - Singly Field Protection from Patents</a>
  (by RMS)</li>
 <li><!--#set var='DATE' value='<span class="date-tag">[2011]</span>'
  --><!--#echo encoding='none' var='DATE' -->
  <a href="/philosophy/europes-unitary-patent.html">
  Europe's “unitary patent” could mean unlimited software
  patents</a>
  (by RMS)</li>
 <li><!--#set var='DATE' value='<span class="date-tag">[2000-2007]</span>'
  --><!--#echo encoding='none' var='DATE' -->
  <a href="https://www.eff.org/search/site/dvd%20cases/">
  EFF “Intellectual Property”: MPAA (Motion Picture
  Association of America) DVD Cases Archive</a></li>
 <li><!--#set var='DATE' value='<span class="date-tag">[2006]</span>'
  --><!--#echo encoding='none' var='DATE' -->
  <a href="/philosophy/trivial-patent.html">
  The Anatomy of a Trivial Patent</a>
  (by RMS)</li>
 <li><!--#set var='DATE' value='<span class="date-tag">[2005]</span>'
  --><!--#echo encoding='none' var='DATE' -->
  <a href="/philosophy/microsoft-new-monopoly.html">
  Microsoft's New Monopoly</a>
  (by RMS)</li>
 <li><!--#set var='DATE' value='<span class="date-tag">[2005]</span>'
  --><!--#echo encoding='none' var='DATE' -->
  <a href="https://www.theguardian.com/technology/2005/aug/02/comment.business">
  Soft sell</a>
  (by RMS, on <i>theguardian.com</i>)
  — Comments on the defeat of the EU software patenting directive.</li>
 <li><!--#set var='DATE' value='<span class="date-tag">[2005]</span>'
  --><!--#echo encoding='none' var='DATE' -->
  <a href="/philosophy/bill-gates-and-other-communists.html">
  Bill Gates and Together</a></li>
  <li><a Other Communists</a>
  (by RMS)</li>
 <li><!--#set var='DATE' value='<span class="date-tag">[2005]</span>'
  --><!--#echo encoding='none' var='DATE' -->
  <a href="/philosophy/software-literary-patents.html" id="SoftwareLiteraryPatents">
  Software Patents and Literary Patents</a>, by Richard M. Stallman,
      speaking Patents</a>
  (by RMS)
  — Speaking of patenting artistic techniques, US patent (6,935,954)
  covers making game characters start to hallucinate when (according to the
  game) they are being driven insane. That is getting pretty close to the
  hypothetical examples cited in this article.
  </li>
  <li><a href="/philosophy/rtlinux-patent.html">GPL-compliant version
  of RTLinux Open article.</li>
 <li><!--#set var='DATE' value='<span class="date-tag">[2004]</span>'
  --><!--#echo encoding='none' var='DATE' -->
  <a href="/philosophy/fighting-software-patents.html" id="FightingSoftwarePatents">
  Fighting Software Patents—Singly and Together</a>
  (by RMS)</li>
 <li><!--#set var='DATE' value='<span class="date-tag">[2005]</span>'
  --><!--#echo encoding='none' var='DATE' -->
  <a href="https://www.theguardian.com/technology/2005/jun/23/onlinesupplement.insideit">
  Patent License absurdity</a>
  (by RMS, on <i>theguardian.com</i>)</li>
 <li><!--#set var='DATE' value='<span class="date-tag">[2003]</span>'
  --><!--#echo encoding='none' var='DATE' -->
  <a href="/philosophy/w3c-patent.html">
  FSF's Position on W3 Consortium “Royalty-Free” Patent Policy</a>
  (rewritten)</li>
 <li><!--#set var='DATE' value='<span class="date-tag">[2003]</span>'
  --><!--#echo encoding='none' var='DATE' -->
  <a href="/philosophy/guardian-article.html">
  Opposing The European Software Patent Directive</a>
  (by RMS and Nick Hill)</li>
 <li><!--#set var='DATE' value='<span class="date-tag">[2001]</span>'
  --><!--#echo encoding='none' var='DATE' -->
  <a href="https://www.eff.org/press/releases/princeton-scientists-sue-over-squelched-research">
  Princeton Scientists Sue Over Squelched Research</a>
  (press release on <i>eff.org</i>)
  — In <cite>Felten v. RIAA</cite>, scientists ask a court to rule that the
  Digital Millennium Copyright Act (DMCA) does not prohibit them from
  publishing their research.</li>
 <li><!--#set var='DATE' value='<span class="date-tag">[2001]</span>'
  --><!--#echo encoding='none' var='DATE' -->
  <a href="/philosophy/hague.html">
  Harm from the Hague</a>
  (by RMS)</li>
 <li><!--#set var='DATE' value='<span class="date-tag">[2000]</span>'
  --><!--#echo encoding='none' var='DATE' -->
  <a href="https://web.archive.org/web/20000815064858/http://www.researchoninnovation.org/patent.pdf"
  id="SequentialIPandI">
  Sequential Innovation, Patents, and Imitation</a>
  (by James Bessen and Eric Maskin, on <i>researchoninnovation.org</i>, archived)
  — This paper presents a mathematical model showing how patents can
  impede progress in Works</a></li>
</ul>

<h3 id="Laws">Laws fields like software.</li>
 <li><!--#set var='DATE' value='<span class="date-tag">[1999]</span>'
  --><!--#echo encoding='none' var='DATE' -->
  <a href="/philosophy/amazon-rms-tim.html">
  Letter from RMS to Tim O'Reilly</a>
  in regard to a statement by Jeff Bezos, CEO of Amazon, on the duration of
  software patents.</li>
 <li><!--#set var='DATE' value='<span class="date-tag">[1999]</span>'
  --><!--#echo encoding='none' var='DATE' -->
  <a href="/philosophy/amazon-nat.html">
  Amazon Boycott Success!</a>
  (a letter from Nat Friedman to RMS)</li>
 <li><!--#set var='DATE' value='<span class="date-tag">[1999]</span>'
  --><!--#echo encoding='none' var='DATE' -->
  <a href="/philosophy/amazon.html">
  (Formerly) Boycott Amazon!</a></li>
 <li><!--#set var='DATE' value='<span class="date-tag">[1999]</span>'
  --><!--#echo encoding='none' var='DATE' -->
  <a href="/philosophy/amazonpatent.html">
  Method and Issues</h3>

<h4 id="copyright">Copyright</h4>
<ul>

  <li><a href="/philosophy/public-domain-manifesto.html">Why I Will Not Sign system for placing a purchase order via a communications
  network</a> 
  — Amazon patent with notes by RMS</li>
 <li><!--#set var='DATE' value='<span class="date-tag">[1997]</span>'
  --><!--#echo encoding='none' var='DATE' -->
  <a href="/philosophy/gif.html">
  Why There Are No GIF Files on GNU Web Pages</a>
  — While this story is a historical illustration of the Public Domain Manifesto</a></li>

  <li><a href="/philosophy/pirate-party.html">How danger of
  software patents, these particular patents are now no longer a concern.
  For details of our website policies regarding GIFs, see our <a
  href="/server/standards/gnu-website-guidelines.html#UseofGraphics">web
  guidelines</a>.</li>
 <li><!--#set var='DATE' value='<span class="date-tag">[1996]</span>'
  --><!--#echo encoding='none' var='DATE' -->
  <a href="/philosophy/savingeurope.html">
  Saving Europe from Software Patents</a></li>
 <li><!--#set var='DATE' value='<span class="date-tag">[1996]</span>'
  --><!--#echo encoding='none' var='DATE' -->
  <a href="/philosophy/protecting.html">
  Help Protect the Swedish Pirate Party 
  Platform Backfires on Rights to Write Both Nonfree and Free Software</a></li>

  <li><a href="/philosophy/misinterpreting-copyright.html">Misinterpreting
  Copyright</a> is another essay
  by
 <li><!--#set var='DATE' value='<span class="date-tag">[1996]</span>'
  --><!--#echo encoding='none' var='DATE' -->
  <a href="http://www.stallman.org">Richard Stallman</a> about href="/philosophy/patent-reform-is-not-enough.html">
  Patent Reform Is Not Enough</a></li>
</ul>

<h4 id="copyright">Copyright</h4>
<ul class="no-bullet"> 
 <li><!--#set var='DATE' value='<span class="date-tag">*[2002]</span>'
  --><!--#echo encoding='none' var='DATE' -->
  <a href="/philosophy/misinterpreting-copyright.html">
  Misinterpreting Copyright—A Series of Errors</a>
  (by RMS)
  — About the flaws in popular defenses of copyright law.</li>

  <li><a href="/philosophy/eldred-amicus.html">FSF's
 <li><!--#set var='DATE' value='<span class="date-tag">*[1996]</span>'
  --><!--#echo encoding='none' var='DATE' -->
  <a href="/philosophy/reevaluating-copyright.html">
  Reevaluating Copyright: The Public Must Prevail</a>
  (by RMS)</li>
 <li><!--#set var='DATE' value='<span class="date-tag">[2010]</span>'
  --><!--#echo encoding='none' var='DATE' -->
  <a href="/philosophy/public-domain-manifesto.html">
  Why I Will Not Sign the Public Domain Manifesto</a>
  (by RMS)</li>
 <li><!--#set var='DATE' value='<span class="date-tag">[2008]</span>'
  --><!--#echo encoding='none' var='DATE' -->
  <a href="/philosophy/freedom-or-copyright.html">
  Freedom—or Copyright?</a>
  (by RMS)
  [<a href="/philosophy/freedom-or-copyright-old.html">older version</a>]</li>
 <li><!--#set var='DATE' value='<span class="date-tag">[2002]</span>'
  --><!--#echo encoding='none' var='DATE' -->
  <a href="/philosophy/eldred-amicus.html">
  FSF's Brief Amicus Curiae in the Eldred <cite>Eldred v. Ashcroft Ashcroft</cite> Supreme Court case</a></li>

  <li><a href="/philosophy/push-copyright-aside.html">Science case</a>
  (by Eben Moglen)</li>
 <li><!--#set var='DATE' value='<span class="date-tag">[2001]</span>'
  --><!--#echo encoding='none' var='DATE' -->
  <a href="/philosophy/push-copyright-aside.html">
  Science must “push copyright aside”</a>, another work of <a
  href="http://www.stallman.org">Richard Stallman</a> that appeared aside”</a>
  (by RMS, first published in
  the <a
  href="http://www.nature.com/nature/debates/e-access/Articles/stallman.html">
  Nature Webdebates</a>
  href="https://web.archive.org/web/20050729110347/http://www.nature.com/nature/debates/e-access/Articles/stallman.html">
  <cite>Nature WebDebates</cite></a> in 2001, 2001)
  — This article explains how copyright is impeding progress in
  scientific research.  You may also be interested
  in <a
  href="https://www.plos.org/">The href="https://plos.org/">The Public Library of Science</a>,
  which is dedicated to making scientific research freely available to all
  on the Internet.</li>

  <li><a href="/philosophy/reevaluating-copyright.html">Reevaluating
  Copyright: The Public must prevail</a></li>

  <li><a href="http://cyber.law.harvard.edu/openlaw/eldredvashcroft/cyber/complaint_orig.html">
  Eldred
 <li><!--#set var='DATE' value='<span class="date-tag">[2001]</span>'
  --><!--#echo encoding='none' var='DATE' -->
  <a href="https://web.archive.org/web/20030604075825/http://www.humaninfo.org/copyrigh.htm">
  Examples of Excellent Copyright Policies</a>
  (on <i>humaninfo.org</i>, archived)</li>
 <li><!--#set var='DATE' value='<span class="date-tag">[1999]</span>'
  --><!--#echo encoding='none' var='DATE' -->
  <a href="https://cyber.harvard.edu/openlaw/eldredvashcroft/cyber/complaint_orig.html">
  Original complaint in <cite>Eldred v. Reno</a> is about a Reno</cite></a>
  (on <i>harvard.edu</i>)
  — A lawsuit to overturn a law that extends copyright by 20 extra
  years.</li>

  <li><a href="/philosophy/freedom-or-copyright.html">Freedom-Or
  Copyright?</a>, by <a href="http://www.stallman.org/">Richard
  Stallman</a> (an <a
  href="/philosophy/freedom-or-copyright-old.html">older version</a> of
  this essay remains online as well).</li>

  <li><a href="/philosophy/copyright-versus-community.html"
  id="StallmanTalkLSM"> Copyright versus community in the age of
  computer networks</a>: is a transcript of a keynote by
  <a href="http://www.stallman.org"> Richard Stallman</a> at
  the LIANZA conference in Christchurch, New Zealand, on October 12,
  2009.</li>

  <li><a href="http://www.oii.ox.ac.uk/resources/feedback/OIIFB_GPL2_20040903.pdf">
  An English translation</a> of the famous decision of the District
  Court of Munich (Germany) regarding the enforceability and validity
  of the GPL. The translation was done by the Oxford Internet
  Institute.</li>
  <!-- This link is broken
  <li><a href="http://www.humaninfo.org/copyrigh.htm">Examples of
  Excellent Copyright Policies</a></li>
 <li><!--#set var='DATE' value='<span class="date-tag">[1996]</span>'
  --><!--#echo encoding='none' var='DATE' -->

  <li><a href="/philosophy/is-ever-good-use-nonfree-program.html">
  Is It Ever a Good Thing to Use a Nonfree Program?</a> By
  <a href="http://www.stallman.org"> Richard Stallman</a></li>

</ul>

<h4 id="drm">Digital Restrictions Management</h4>

<ul>
  <li><a href="/philosophy/correcting-france-mistake.html">
  Correcting My Mistake about French Law</a></li>
  <li><a href="/philosophy/the-root-of-this-problem.html">The problem is
  software controlled by its developer</a>, by Richard M. Stallman.</li>

  <li><a href="/philosophy/computing-progress.html">Computing
  “progress”: good and bad</a>, by Richard M. Stallman.</li>

  <li><a href="/philosophy/why-audio-format-matters.html">Why Audio
  Format matters</a> by Karl Fogel</li>

  <li><a href="/philosophy/opposing-drm.html">Opposing Digital Rights
  Mismanagement</a>, by Richard M. Stallman, answers a few common
  questions about DRM.</li>

  <li><a href="/philosophy/ebooks.html">Ebooks: Freedom Or
  Copyright</a> a slightly modified version of the article, originally
  published in Technology Review in 2000, by
  <a href="http://www.stallman.org"> Richard Stallman</a></li>

  <li><a href="/philosophy/ebooks-must-increase-freedom.html">
  Ebooks must increase our freedom, not decrease it</a></li>

  <li><a href="/philosophy/can-you-trust.html">Can you trust your
  computer?</a>, a work by <a href="http://www.stallman.org">Richard
  Stallman</a> about the so-called “trusted computing”
  initiatives.</li>

  <li><a href="/philosophy/right-to-read.html">The Right to Read: A
  Dystopian Short Story</a> by <a href="http://www.stallman.org/">
  Richard Stallman</a></li> href="/philosophy/rms-comment-longs-article.html">
  Comments on Roderick Long's Article</a>
  (by RMS)</li>
</ul>

<h4 id="noip">The propaganda term “<a
href="/philosophy/words-to-avoid.html#IntellectualProperty">Intellectual
Property</a>”</h4>
<ul class="no-bullet"> 
 <li><!--#set var='DATE' value='<span class="date-tag">*[2004]</span>'
  --><!--#echo encoding='none' var='DATE' -->
  <a href="/philosophy/words-to-avoid.html#IntellectualProperty"> href="/philosophy/not-ipr.html">
  Did You Say “Intellectual Property”</a></h4>

<ul>
  <li><a href="/philosophy/komongistan.html">The Property”? It's a Seductive Mirage</a>
  (by RMS)</li>
 <li><!--#set var='DATE' value='<span class="date-tag">[2015]</span>'
  --><!--#echo encoding='none' var='DATE' -->
  <a href="/philosophy/komongistan.html">
  The Curious History of Komongistan (Busting the term “intellectual property”)</a></li>
  
  <li><a href="/philosophy/no-ip-ethos.html">Don't
  property”)</a>
  (by RMS)</li>
 <li><!--#set var='DATE' value='<span class="date-tag">[2006]</span>'
  --><!--#echo encoding='none' var='DATE' -->
  <a href="/philosophy/no-ip-ethos.html">
  Don't Let “Intellectual Property” Twist Your Ethos</a>, by
  Richard M. Stallman.</li>

  <li>Comments from Richard Stallman
  on Ethos</a>
  (by RMS)</li>
 <li><!--#set var='DATE' value='<span class="date-tag">[2003]</span>'
  --><!--#echo encoding='none' var='DATE' -->
  <a href="/philosophy/ipjustice.html">the ICLC's href="/philosophy/ipjustice.html">
  Reject IP Enforcement Directive</a>
  — Comments on the rejection of this directive by the
  IP Enforcement Directive</a></li>

  <li>Richard Stallman has
  written International
  Civil Liberties Coalition.</li>
 <li><!--#set var='DATE' value='<span class="date-tag">[2003]</span>'
  --><!--#echo encoding='none' var='DATE' -->
  <a href="/philosophy/boldrin-levine.html">a review of href="/philosophy/boldrin-levine.html">
  Review: Boldrin and Levine's Levine, “The case against intellectual
  property.”</a></li>

  <li><a href="/philosophy/not-ipr.html">Did You Say
  “Intellectual Property”?  It's a Seductive Mirage</a>.
  An essay on the true meaning of the phrase “Intellectual
  Property”, by Richard M. Stallman</li> Case Against Intellectual
  Property”</a>
  (by RMS)</li>
</ul>

<h4 id="patents">Patents</h4>
<ul>
  <li><a href="/philosophy/limit-patent-effect.html">Giving the Software
  Field Protection from Patents</a></li>

  <li><a href="/philosophy/w3c-patent.html">FSF's id="sco">Response to SCO's attacks</h4>
<ul class="no-bullet"> 
 <li><!--#set var='DATE' value='<span class="date-tag">[2003-2004]</span>'
  --><!--#echo encoding='none' var='DATE' -->
  <a href="/philosophy/sco/sco.html">
  FSF's Position regarding SCO's attacks on W3
  Consortium “Royalty-Free” Patent Policy</a>
  rewritten</li>

  <li><a href="/philosophy/guardian-article.html">Opposing The European
  Software Patent Directive</a>, a slightly modified version of the 
  article, originally  published in <a href="http://www.guardian.co.uk">
  The Guardian</a> of London by Free Software</a></li>
 <li><!--#set var='DATE' value='<span class="date-tag">[2003]</span>'
  --><!--#echo encoding='none' var='DATE' -->
  <a href="http://www.stallman.org">Richard 
  Stallman</a> href="/philosophy/sco/sco-gnu-linux.html">
  SCO, GNU, and Nick Hill.</li>

  <li>How Linux</a>
  (by RMS)
  — How SCO's lawsuit against IBM pertains to Protect the <a href="/philosophy/protecting.html">Right
  to Write Software</a> (independent work of whether it's free or not)</li>

  <li>In <a href="https://www.eff.org/press/releases/princeton-scientists-sue-over-squelched-research">
  Felten v. RIAA</a>, scientists are asking a court to rule that the
  Digital Millennium Copyright Act (DMCA) does not prohibit them from
  publishing their research.</li>

  <li><a href="https://www.eff.org/search/site/dvd cases/">EFF
  “Intellectual Property”: MPAA (Motion Picture Association of
  America) DVD Cases Archive</a></li>

  <li><a href="/philosophy/patent-reform-is-not-enough.html">Patent
  Reform Is Not Enough</a></li>

  <li><a href="/philosophy/savingeurope.html">Saving Europe from
  Software Patents</a></li>

  <li><a href="/philosophy/amazon.html">Boycott Amazon!</a></li>

  <li><a href="http://www.researchoninnovation.org/patent.pdf"
  id="SequentialIPandI">Sequential Innovation, Patents,
  GNU project.</li>
</ul>


<h3 id="cultural">Cultural and
  Imitation</a> is a paper that presents a mathematical model showing
  how patents can impede progress in fields like software.</li>

  <li><a href="/philosophy/hague.html">Harm from the Hague</a>.</li>

  <li><a href="http://technology.guardian.co.uk/online/comment/story/0,12449,1540984,00.html">
  Soft sell</a>. An article by Richard M. Stallman published in Social Issues</h3>

<h4 id="society">Digital society</h4>
<ul class="no-bullet"> 
 <li><!--#set var='DATE' value='<span class="date-tag">*[2012]</span>'
  --><!--#echo encoding='none' var='DATE' -->
  <a href="http://www.guardian.co.uk">The Guardian</a>.</li>

  <li><a href="http://www.guardian.co.uk/technology/2005/jun/23/onlinesupplement.insideit">
  Patent absurdity</a>, an article by Richard M. Stallman published in href="/philosophy/stallmans-law.html">
  Stallman's Law</a></li>
 <li><!--#set var='DATE' value='<span class="date-tag">*[2009]</span>'
  --><!--#echo encoding='none' var='DATE' -->
  <a href="http://www.guardian.co.uk">The Guardian</a>.</li>

  <li><a href="/philosophy/trivial-patent.html">The Anatomy of a
  Trivial Patent</a>, by Richard M. Stallman.</li>

  <li><a href="/philosophy/gif.html">Why there are no GIF files href="/philosophy/digital-inclusion-in-freedom.html">
  Is Digital Inclusion A Good Thing? How Can We Make Sure It Is?</a>
  (by RMS)</li>
 <li><!--#set var='DATE' value='<span class="date-tag">[2007]</span>'
  --><!--#echo encoding='none' var='DATE' -->
  <a href="/philosophy/computing-progress.html">
  Computing “progress”: good and bad</a>
  (by RMS)</li>
 <li><!--#set var='DATE' value='<span class="date-tag">[2003]</span>'
  --><!--#echo encoding='none' var='DATE' -->
  <a href="/philosophy/wsis.html">
  World Summit on GNU web 
  pages</a>, While this story is a historical illustration of the danger of 
  software patents, these particular patents are now no longer Information Society</a>
  (by RMS)</li>
</ul>

<h4 id="drm">Digital restrictions management</h4>
<ul class="no-bullet"> 
 <li><!--#set var='DATE' value='<span class="date-tag">*[2006]</span>'
  --><!--#echo encoding='none' var='DATE' -->
  <a href="/philosophy/opposing-drm.html">
  Opposing Digital Rights Mismanagement</a>
  (by RMS)
  — Answers to a concern. 
  For details of our website few common questions about DRM.</li>
 <li><!--#set var='DATE' value='<span class="date-tag">*[2002]</span>'
  --><!--#echo encoding='none' var='DATE' -->
  <a href="/server/fsf-html-style-sheet.html#UseofGraphics">
  policies regarding GIFs</a>, see our web href="/philosophy/can-you-trust.html">
  Can You Trust Your Computer?</a>
  (by RMS)
  — About the so-called “trusted computing” initiatives.</li>
 <li><!--#set var='DATE' value='<span class="date-tag">[2013]</span>'
  --><!--#echo encoding='none' var='DATE' -->
  <a href="/server/standards/">
  web guidelines</a>.</li> href="/philosophy/nonfree-games.html">
  Nonfree DRM'd Games on GNU/Linux: Good or Bad?</a>
  (by RMS)</li>
 <li><!--#set var='DATE' value='<span class="date-tag">[2012]</span>'
  --><!--#echo encoding='none' var='DATE' -->
  <a href="/philosophy/correcting-france-mistake.html">
  Correcting My Mistake about French Law</a>
  (by RMS)</li>
</ul>

<h4 id="ns">Network Services</h4>
<ul>
  <li><a href="/philosophy/network-services-arent-free-or-nonfree.html">
  Network Services Aren't Free or Nonfree; They Raise Other Issues</a> an
  article by Richard Stallman.</li>
  <li><a href="/philosophy/who-does-that-server-really-serve.html">Who
<ul class="no-bullet"> 
 <li><!--#set var='DATE' value='<span class="date-tag">*[2010-2020]</span>'
  --><!--#echo encoding='none' var='DATE' -->
  <a href="/philosophy/who-does-that-server-really-serve.html">
  Who does that server really serve?</a>  by Richard Stallman published
  in
  (by RMS)</li>
 <li><!--#set var='DATE' value='<span class="date-tag">[2020]</span>'
  --><!--#echo encoding='none' var='DATE' -->
  <a href="/philosophy/posting-videos.html">
  Posting Videos</a>
  (by RMS)</li>
 <li><!--#set var='DATE' value='<span class="date-tag">[2015]</span>'
  --><!--#echo encoding='none' var='DATE' -->
  <a href="/philosophy/whats-wrong-with-youtube.html">
  What's Wrong with YouTube</a></li>
 <li><!--#set var='DATE' value='<span class="date-tag">[2014]</span>'
  --><!--#echo encoding='none' var='DATE' -->
  <a href="/philosophy/bug-nobody-allowed-to-understand.html">
  The Bug Nobody is Allowed to Understand</a>
  (by RMS)</li>
 <li><!--#set var='DATE' value='<span class="date-tag">[2011]</span>'
  --><!--#echo encoding='none' var='DATE' -->
  <a href="/philosophy/judge-internet-usage.html">
  A wise user judges each Internet usage scenario carefully</a>
  (by RMS)</li>
 <li><!--#set var='DATE' value='<span class="date-tag">[2011]</span>'
  --><!--#echo encoding='none' var='DATE' -->
  <a href="http://www.bostonreview.net/richard-stallman-free-software-DRM">
  Boston Review.</a></li> href="/philosophy/keep-control-of-your-computing.html">
  Keep control of your computing, so it doesn't control you!</a>
  (by RMS)</li>
</ul>

<h4 id="cultural">Cultural and Social Issues</h4>

<ul>
  <li><a href="/philosophy/technological-neutrality.html">
    Technological Neutrality and Free Software</a>
    by Richard Stallman</li>
  <li><a href="/philosophy/surveillance-vs-democracy.html">How Much
    Surveillance Can Democracy Withstand?</a> by Richard Stallman</li>
  <li><a href="/philosophy/nonfree-games.html">Nonfree DRM'd Games on
  GNU/Linux: Good or Bad?</a> by Richard Stallman</li>
  <li> id="access">Accessing culture</h4>
<ul class="no-bullet"> 
 <li><!--#set var='DATE' value='<span class="date-tag">*[1996-2016]</span>'
  --><!--#echo encoding='none' var='DATE' -->
  <a href="/philosophy/right-to-read.html">
  The Right to Read: A Dystopian Short Story</a>
  (by RMS)</li>
 <li><!--#set var='DATE' value='<span class="date-tag">[2012]</span>'
  --><!--#echo encoding='none' var='DATE' -->
  <a href="/philosophy/ebooks-must-increase-freedom.html">
  Ebooks must increase our freedom, not decrease it</a>
  (by RMS)</li>
 <li><!--#set var='DATE' value='<span class="date-tag">[2011]</span>'
  --><!--#echo encoding='none' var='DATE' -->
  <a href="/philosophy/the-danger-of-ebooks.html">
  The Danger of E-Books</a>
  (by RMS)</li>
  <li><!--#set var='DATE' value='<span class="date-tag">[2010]</span>'
  --><!--#echo encoding='none' var='DATE' -->
  <a href="http://www.guardian.co.uk/technology/blog/2010/apr/06/digital-economy-bill-richard-stallman"> href="https://www.theguardian.com/technology/blog/2010/apr/06/digital-economy-bill-richard-stallman">
  Digital economy bill: One clown giveth and the other clown taketh away</a> 
  by <a href="http://www.stallman.org">Richard Stallman</a></li>

  <li><a href="/philosophy/digital-inclusion-in-freedom.html">
  Is Digital Inclusion A Good Thing? How Can We Make Sure It Is?</a> 
  by <a href="http://www.stallman.org">Richard Stallman</a></li>

  <li><a href="/philosophy/wsis.html">World Summit
  (by RMS, on the Information
  Society</a></li>

  <li><a href="/philosophy/lessig-fsfs-intro.html">The introduction by
  Lawrence Lessig</a>
  to <i>theguardian.com</i>)</li>
 <li><!--#set var='DATE' value='<span class="date-tag">[2000]</span>'
  --><!--#echo encoding='none' var='DATE' -->
  <a href="http://shop.fsf.org/product/free-software-free-society/"><i>
  Free Software, Free Society: The Selected Essays of Richard
  M. Stallman</i></a> is available for reading.</li>

  <li><a href="/philosophy/wassenaar.html">Encryption software
  volunteers needed in countries without export control</a>.</li>

  <li>How to Protect the href="/philosophy/ebooks.html">
  Ebooks: Freedom Or Copyright</a>
  (by RMS)</li>
 <li><!--#set var='DATE' value='<span class="date-tag">[2000]</span>'
  --><!--#echo encoding='none' var='DATE' -->
  <a href="/philosophy/basic-freedoms.html">
  Freedoms of Speech, Press, href="/encyclopedia/free-encyclopedia.html">
  The Free Universal Encyclopedia and Association</a> on the Internet</li>

  <li><a href="/philosophy/privacyaction.html">Protect Postal
  Privacy</a>, a campaign Learning Resource</a>
  (by RMS)</li>
 <li><!--#set var='DATE' value='<span class="date-tag">[1999]</span>'
  --><!--#echo encoding='none' var='DATE' -->
  <a href="/philosophy/new-monopoly.html">
  U.S. Congress Threatens to resist the proposed rule by Establish a New Kind of Monopoly</a>
  — An attempt of the United
  States Postal Service Congress to collect create a private information from
  customers.</li>

  <li><a href="/philosophy/ucita.html">Why We Must Fight UCITA</a></li>

  <li><a href="/philosophy/second-sight.html">Free Software and
  (e-)Government</a> — an article from The Guardian, by Richard
  Stallman (originally published under monopoly over
  repeating publicly known information.</li>
 <li><!--#set var='DATE' value='<span class="date-tag">[1999]</span>'
  --><!--#echo encoding='none' var='DATE' -->
  <a href="/philosophy/stophr3028.html">
  Stop H.R. 3028 - Protect the title “Second
  Sight”).</li>

  <li><a href="http://web.archive.org/web/20070806183422/http://www.insnet.org/ins_headlines.rxml?cust=212&id=967">
  Free Software and Sustainable Development</a> — A short
  article by Richard Stallman regarding Net - Stop the use of proprietary
  software in Trademark Monopolists</a>
  (by Marc Rotenberg)</li>
</ul>

<h4 id="funding">Funding cultural development.</li> works</h4>
<ul class="no-bullet">
 <li><!--#set var='DATE' value='<span class="date-tag">[2013]</span>'
  --><!--#echo encoding='none' var='DATE' -->
  <a href="/philosophy/funding-art-vs-funding-software.html">
  Funding Art vs Funding Software</a>
  (by RMS)</li>
 <li><!--#set var='DATE' value='<span class="date-tag">[1992]</span>'
  --><!--#echo encoding='none' var='DATE' -->
  <a href="/philosophy/dat.html">
  The Right Way to Tax DAT</a>
  (by RMS)</li>
</ul>

<h4 id="misc">Misc</h4>
<ul>
  <li><a href="/philosophy/proprietary.html">Clearly id="evils">Surveillance, censorship, lock-in, etc.</h4>

<ul class="no-bullet"> 
 <li><!--#set var='DATE' value='<span class="date-tag">*[2013… ]</span>'
  --><!--#echo encoding='none' var='DATE' -->
  <a href="/proprietary/proprietary.html">
  Proprietary Software Is Often Malware</a>
  — Clearly established cases of proprietary software that does
  nasty things to the
  users</a>.</li>

  <li><a href="/philosophy/bug-nobody-allowed-to-understand.html">The
  Bug Nobody is Allowed to Understand</a>, By Richard Stallman.</li>

  <li><a href="/philosophy/sun-in-night-time.html">The Curious
  Incident of Sun in the Night-Time</a>, by Richard M. Stallman.</li>

  <li><a href="/philosophy/sco/sco-gnu-linux.html">SCO, GNU, and
  Linux</a>, users.</li>
 <li><!--#set var='DATE' value='<span class="date-tag">*[2015-2019]</span>'
  --><!--#echo encoding='none' var='DATE' -->
  <a href="/philosophy/surveillance-vs-democracy.html">
  How Much Surveillance Can Democracy Withstand?</a>
  (by RMS)</li>
 <li><!--#set var='DATE' value='<span class="date-tag">[2021]</span>'
  --><!--#echo encoding='none' var='DATE' -->
  <a href="/philosophy/wwworst-app-store.html">
  The WWWorst App Store</a>
  (by Alexandre Oliva)</li>
 <li><!--#set var='DATE' value='<span class="date-tag">[2018]</span>'
  --><!--#echo encoding='none' var='DATE' -->
  <a href="/philosophy/phone-anonymous-payment.html">
  Anonymous Payment by Richard Stallman, discusses how SCO's lawsuit against
  IBM pertains Phone</a>
  (by RMS)</li>
 <li><!--#set var='DATE' value='<span class="date-tag">[2018]</span>'
  --><!--#echo encoding='none' var='DATE' -->
  <a href="https://www.theguardian.com/commentisfree/2018/apr/03/facebook-abusing-data-law-privacy-big-tech-surveillance">
  A radical proposal to keep your personal data safe</a>
  (by RMS, on <i>theguardian.com</i>)</li>
 <li><!--#set var='DATE' value='<span class="date-tag">[2018]</span>'
  --><!--#echo encoding='none' var='DATE' -->
  <a href="/philosophy/surveillance-testimony.html">
  Surveillance Testimony</a>
  (by RMS)</li>
 <li><!--#set var='DATE' value='<span class="date-tag">[2012]</span>'
  --><!--#echo encoding='none' var='DATE' -->
  <a href="/philosophy/ubuntu-spyware.html">
  Ubuntu Spyware: What to Do?</a>
  (by RMS)</li>
 <li><!--#set var='DATE' value='<span class="date-tag">[2009]</span>'
  --><!--#echo encoding='none' var='DATE' -->
  <a href="/philosophy/microsoft.html">
  Is Microsoft the work of Great Satan?</a>
  [<a href="/philosophy/microsoft-old.html">older version</a>]</li>
 <li><!--#set var='DATE' value='<span class="date-tag">[2008]</span>'
  --><!--#echo encoding='none' var='DATE' -->
  <a href="/philosophy/the-root-of-this-problem.html">
  The Problem Is Software Controlled By Its Developer</a>
  (by RMS)</li>
 <li><!--#set var='DATE' value='<span class="date-tag">[2008]</span>'
  --><!--#echo encoding='none' var='DATE' -->
  <a href="/philosophy/gates.html">
  It's not the GNU project.  Please see Gates, it's the bars</a>
  (by RMS)</li>
 <li><!--#set var='DATE' value='<span class="date-tag">[2002]</span>'
  --><!--#echo encoding='none' var='DATE' -->
  <a href="/philosophy/sco/sco.html">FSF SCO Response Page</a> for
  more details on this subject.</li>

  <li><a href="/philosophy/ms-doj-tunney.html">FSF's href="/philosophy/wassenaar.html">
  The Wassenaar Arrangement</a>
  — Encryption software volunteers needed in countries without
  export control.</li>
 <li><!--#set var='DATE' value='<span class="date-tag">[2002]</span>'
  --><!--#echo encoding='none' var='DATE' -->
  <a href="/philosophy/ms-doj-tunney.html">
  FSF's Statement in Response to Proposed Revised Final Judgment in Microsoft vs.
  <cite>Microsoft v. United
  States, submitted to the US Department of Justice under States</cite></a></li>
 <li><!--#set var='DATE' value='<span class="date-tag">[2000]</span>'
  --><!--#echo encoding='none' var='DATE' -->
  <a href="/philosophy/microsoft-verdict.html">
  On the Tunney
  Act</a>.</li>

  <li><a href="/philosophy/new-monopoly.html">U.S. Congress Threatens Microsoft Verdict</a></li>
 <li><!--#set var='DATE' value='<span class="date-tag">[1999]</span>'
  --><!--#echo encoding='none' var='DATE' -->
  <a href="/philosophy/microsoft-antitrust.html">
  The Microsoft Antitrust Trial and Free Software</a></li>
 <li><!--#set var='DATE' value='<span class="date-tag">[1996]</span>'
  --><!--#echo encoding='none' var='DATE' -->
  <a href="/philosophy/privacyaction.html">
  Protect Postal Privacy</a>
  (by Kathleen Ellis)
  — A campaign to Establish a New Kind of Monopoly</a>, an attempt of resist the Congress proposed rule by the United States
  Postal Service to create a collect private monopoly over repeating publicly known
  information.</li>

  <li><a href="/philosophy/dat.html">The Right Way to Tax DAT</a></li>

  <li><a href="/philosophy/censoring-emacs.html">Censoring My
  Software</a>, by information from customers.</li>
 <li><!--#set var='DATE' value='<span class="date-tag">[1996]</span>'
  --><!--#echo encoding='none' var='DATE' -->
  <a href="http://www.stallman.org">Richard
  Stallman</a></li>
  
  <li><a href="/philosophy/funding-art-vs-funding-software.html">Funding
  Art vs Funding Software</a>, by href="/philosophy/basic-freedoms.html">
  Freedoms of Speech, Press, and Association</a>
  — How to protect these freedoms on the Internet.</li>
 <li><!--#set var='DATE' value='<span class="date-tag">[1996]</span>'
  --><!--#echo encoding='none' var='DATE' -->
  <a href="http://www.stallman.org">Richard
  Stallman</a></li> href="/philosophy/censoring-emacs.html">
  Censoring My Software</a>
  (by RMS)</li>
</ul>


<h3 id="terminology">Terminology and Definitions</h3>

<ul>
  <li><a href="/philosophy/free-hardware-designs.html">
      Free Hardware and Free Hardware Designs</a></li>
  <li><a href="/philosophy/words-to-avoid.html">Confusing Words</a>
      which You Might Want

<ul class="no-bullet"> 
 <li><!--#set var='DATE' value='<span class="date-tag">*[1996… ]</span>'
  --><!--#echo encoding='none' var='DATE' -->
  <a href="/philosophy/words-to-avoid.html">
  Words to Avoid</li>
  <li><a href="/philosophy/open-source-misses-the-point.html">Why
      “Open Source” misses the point of Free Software</a></li>
  <li><a href="/philosophy/free-software-for-freedom.html">“Open
      Source Software” Avoid (or Use with Care) Because They Are Loaded or “Free Software”?</a>
      (This is an older essay about the same topic as the previous one.)</li>
  <li>Richard Stallman wrote Confusing</a></li>
 <li><!--#set var='DATE' value='<span class="date-tag">[1999… ]</span>'
  --><!--#echo encoding='none' var='DATE' -->
  <a href="/philosophy/drdobbs-letter.html">
      letter to the editor</a> href="/philosophy/fs-translations.html">
  Translations of Dr. Dobb's Journal in June 2001 which further 
      explains the distinction between the Free Software and Open Source 
      movements.</li>
  <li><a href="/philosophy/categories.html">Categories term “free software”</a>
  into various languages.</li>
 <li><!--#set var='DATE' value='<span class="date-tag">[1996-2019]</span>'
  --><!--#echo encoding='none' var='DATE' -->
  <a href="/philosophy/categories.html">
  Categories of Free and
      Non-Free Nonfree Software</a></li>
  <li><a href="/philosophy/loyal-computers.html">
      What Does
 <li><!--#set var='DATE' value='<span class="date-tag">[2013]</span>'
  --><!--#echo encoding='none' var='DATE' -->
  <a href="/philosophy/why-call-it-the-swindle.html">
  Why Call It Mean for Your Computer to Be Loyal?</a></li>
  <li><a href="/philosophy/fs-translations.html">Translations The Swindle?</a>
  (by RMS)</li>
 <li><!--#set var='DATE' value='<span class="date-tag">[2002]</span>'
  --><!--#echo encoding='none' var='DATE' -->
  <a href="/philosophy/wipo-PublicAwarenessOfCopyright-2002.html">
  Public Awareness of Copyright, WIPO, June 2002</a>
  (by RMS)
  — How WIPO recognizes that their system is designed to restrict
  the
      term “free software”</a> into various languages</li>
  <li><a href="/philosophy/why-call-it-the-swindle.html">Why call it the
      Swindle</a></li> public, and how they propose to modify terminology so that people
  won't notice.</li>
</ul>


<h3 id="upholding">Upholding Software Freedom</h3>

<ul>
  <li><a href="/philosophy/use-free-software.html">The Free Software 
      Community After 20 Years</a>, With great but incomplete success, 
      what now?</li>
  <li><a href="/philosophy/mcvoy.html">Thank You, Larry McVoy</a> 
      by Richard M. Stallman</li>
  <li><a href="/philosophy/social-inertia.html">
      Overcoming Social Inertia</a>, by Richard M. Stallman</li>
  <li><a href="/philosophy/compromise.html">Avoiding Ruinous Compromises</a></li>
  <li><a href="/philosophy/free-software-even-more-important.html">
      Free Software Is Even More Important Now</a></li>
</ul>

<h3>Philosophical id="humor">Philosophical humor</h3>

<ul>
<li><a href="/fun/humor.html#Philosophy">Philosophy Humor</a>.

<p><a href="/fun/humor.html#Philosophy">Laugh along with GNU (Philosophy)</a>
— We don't have to be serious <i>all</i> the time.</li>
</ul>

<h3>Links to more philosophy articles</h3>

<ul>
<li id="Speeches"><a href="/philosophy/speeches-and-interview.html">
Speeches and interviews</a></li>
<li id="ThirdPartyIdeas"><a href="/philosophy/third-party-ideas.html">
Third party ideas</a></li>
<li id="Philosophy"><a href="/philosophy/">The main philosophy page</a></li>
</ul> time.</p>
</div>

</div><!-- for id="content", starts in the include above -->
<!--#include virtual="/server/footer.html" -->
<div id="footer"> id="footer" role="contentinfo">
<div class="unprintable">

<p>Please send general FSF & GNU inquiries to <a
href="mailto:gnu@gnu.org"><gnu@gnu.org></a>.  There are also <a
href="/contact/">other ways to contact</a> the FSF.  Broken links and other
corrections or suggestions can be sent to <a
href="mailto:webmasters@gnu.org"><webmasters@gnu.org></a>.</p>

<p><!-- TRANSLATORS: Ignore the original text in this paragraph,
        replace it with the translation of these two:

        We work hard and do our best to provide accurate, good quality
        translations.  However, we are not exempt from imperfection.
        Please send your comments and general suggestions in this regard
        to <a href="mailto:web-translators@gnu.org">
        <web-translators@gnu.org></a>.</p>

        <p>For information on coordinating and submitting contributing translations of
        our web pages, see <a
        href="/server/standards/README.translations.html">Translations
        README</a>. -->
Please see the <a
href="/server/standards/README.translations.html">Translations README</a> for
information on coordinating and submitting contributing translations of this article.</p>
</div>

<!-- Regarding copyright, in general, standalone pages (as opposed to
     files generated as part of manuals) on the GNU web server should
     be under CC BY-ND 4.0.  Please do NOT change or remove this
     without talking with the webmasters or licensing team first.
     Please make sure the copyright date is consistent with the
     document.  For web pages, it is ok to list just the latest year the
     document was modified, or published.
    
     If you wish to list earlier years, that is ok too.
     Either "2001, 2002, 2003" or "2001-2003" are ok for specifying
     years, as long as each year in the range is in fact a copyrightable
     year, i.e., a year in which the document was published (including
     being publicly visible on the web or in a revision control system).
    
     There is more detail about copyright years in the GNU Maintainers
     Information document, www.gnu.org/prep/maintain. -->

<p>Copyright © 1996-2015 1996-2021 Free Software Foundation, Inc.</p>

<p>This page is licensed under a <a rel="license"
href="http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nd/4.0/">Creative
Commons Attribution-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License</a>.</p>

<!--#include virtual="/server/bottom-notes.html" -->

<p class="unprintable">Updated:
<!-- timestamp start -->
$Date: 2021/10/02 11:08:38 $
<!-- timestamp end -->
</p>
</div>
</div>
</div><!-- for class="inner", starts in the banner include -->
</body>
</html>