# LANGUAGE translation of https://www.gnu.org/philosophy/words-to-avoid.html # Copyright (C) YEAR Free Software Foundation, Inc. # This file is distributed under the same license as the original article. # FIRST AUTHOR , YEAR. # #, fuzzy msgid "" msgstr "" "Project-Id-Version: words-to-avoid.html\n" "POT-Creation-Date: 2018-09-16 15:55+0000\n" "PO-Revision-Date: YEAR-MO-DA HO:MI+ZONE\n" "Last-Translator: FULL NAME \n" "Language-Team: LANGUAGE \n" "Language: \n" "MIME-Version: 1.0\n" "Content-Type: text/plain; charset=CHARSET\n" "Content-Transfer-Encoding: 8bit\n" #. type: Content of: msgid "" "Words to Avoid (or Use with Care) Because They Are Loaded or Confusing - GNU " "Project - Free Software Foundation" msgstr "" #. type: Content of: <h2> msgid "Words to Avoid (or Use with Care) Because They Are Loaded or Confusing" msgstr "" #. type: Content of: <p> msgid "" "There are a number of words and phrases that we recommend avoiding, or " "avoiding in certain contexts and usages. Some are ambiguous or misleading; " "others presuppose a viewpoint that we disagree with, and we hope you " "disagree with it too." msgstr "" #. type: Content of: <div><blockquote><p> msgid "" "Also note <a href=\"/philosophy/categories.html\">Categories of Free " "Software</a>, <a href=\"/philosophy/why-call-it-the-swindle.html\">Why Call " "It The Swindle?</a>" msgstr "" #. GNUN-SORT-START #. type: Content of: <p> msgid "“<a href=\"#Ad-blocker\">Ad-blocker</a>” |" msgstr "" #. GNUN-SORT-NEXT-ITEM #. type: Content of: <p> msgid "“<a href=\"#Access\">Access</a>” |" msgstr "" #. GNUN-SORT-NEXT-ITEM #. type: Content of: <p> msgid "“<a href=\"#Alternative\">Alternative</a>” |" msgstr "" #. GNUN-SORT-NEXT-ITEM #. type: Content of: <p> msgid "“<a href=\"#Assets\">Assets</a>” |" msgstr "" #. GNUN-SORT-NEXT-ITEM #. type: Content of: <p> msgid "“<a href=\"#BSD-style\">BSD-style</a>” |" msgstr "" #. GNUN-SORT-NEXT-ITEM #. type: Content of: <p> msgid "“<a href=\"#Closed\">Closed</a>” |" msgstr "" #. GNUN-SORT-NEXT-ITEM #. type: Content of: <p> msgid "“<a href=\"#CloudComputing\">Cloud Computing</a>” |" msgstr "" #. GNUN-SORT-NEXT-ITEM #. type: Content of: <p> msgid "“<a href=\"#Commercial\">Commercial</a>” |" msgstr "" #. GNUN-SORT-NEXT-ITEM #. type: Content of: <p> msgid "“<a href=\"#Compensation\">Compensation</a>” |" msgstr "" #. GNUN-SORT-NEXT-ITEM #. type: Content of: <p> msgid "“<a href=\"#Consume\">Consume</a>” |" msgstr "" #. GNUN-SORT-NEXT-ITEM #. type: Content of: <p> msgid "“<a href=\"#Consumer\">Consumer</a>” |" msgstr "" #. GNUN-SORT-NEXT-ITEM #. type: Content of: <p> msgid "“<a href=\"#Content\">Content</a>” |" msgstr "" #. GNUN-SORT-NEXT-ITEM #. type: Content of: <p> msgid "“<a href=\"#CopyrightOwner\">Copyright Owner</a>” |" msgstr "" #. GNUN-SORT-NEXT-ITEM #. type: Content of: <p> msgid "" "“<a href=\"#CreativeCommonsLicensed\">Creative Commons " "licensed</a>” |" msgstr "" #. GNUN-SORT-NEXT-ITEM #. type: Content of: <p> msgid "“<a href=\"#Creator\">Creator</a>” |" msgstr "" #. GNUN-SORT-NEXT-ITEM #. type: Content of: <p> msgid "“<a href=\"#DigitalGoods\">Digital Goods</a>” |" msgstr "" #. GNUN-SORT-NEXT-ITEM #. type: Content of: <p> msgid "“<a href=\"#DigitalLocks\">Digital Locks</a>” |" msgstr "" #. GNUN-SORT-NEXT-ITEM #. type: Content of: <p> msgid "" "“<a href=\"#DigitalRightsManagement\">Digital Rights " "Management</a>” |" msgstr "" #. GNUN-SORT-NEXT-ITEM #. type: Content of: <p> msgid "“<a href=\"#Ecosystem\">Ecosystem</a>” |" msgstr "" #. GNUN-SORT-NEXT-ITEM #. type: Content of: <p> msgid "“<a href=\"#FLOSS\">FLOSS</a>” |" msgstr "" #. GNUN-SORT-NEXT-ITEM #. type: Content of: <p> msgid "“<a href=\"#ForFree\">For free</a>” |" msgstr "" #. GNUN-SORT-NEXT-ITEM #. type: Content of: <p> msgid "“<a href=\"#FOSS\">FOSS</a>” |" msgstr "" #. GNUN-SORT-NEXT-ITEM #. type: Content of: <p> msgid "“<a href=\"#FreelyAvailable\">Freely available</a>” |" msgstr "" #. GNUN-SORT-NEXT-ITEM #. type: Content of: <p> msgid "“<a href=\"#Freeware\">Freeware</a>” |" msgstr "" #. GNUN-SORT-NEXT-ITEM #. type: Content of: <p> msgid "“<a href=\"#GiveAwaySoftware\">Give away software</a>” |" msgstr "" #. GNUN-SORT-NEXT-ITEM #. type: Content of: <p> msgid "“<a href=\"#Google\">Google</a>” |" msgstr "" #. GNUN-SORT-NEXT-ITEM #. type: Content of: <p> msgid "“<a href=\"#Hacker\">Hacker</a>” |" msgstr "" #. GNUN-SORT-NEXT-ITEM #. type: Content of: <p> msgid "“<a href=\"#IntellectualProperty\">Intellectual property</a>” |" msgstr "" #. GNUN-SORT-NEXT-ITEM #. type: Content of: <p> msgid "“<a href=\"#InternetofThings\">Internet of Things</a>” |" msgstr "" #. GNUN-SORT-NEXT-ITEM #. type: Content of: <p> msgid "“<a href=\"#LAMP\">LAMP system</a>” |" msgstr "" #. GNUN-SORT-NEXT-ITEM #. type: Content of: <p> msgid "“<a href=\"#Linux\">Linux system</a>” |" msgstr "" #. GNUN-SORT-NEXT-ITEM #. type: Content of: <p> msgid "“<a href=\"#Market\">Market</a>” |" msgstr "" #. GNUN-SORT-NEXT-ITEM #. type: Content of: <p> msgid "“<a href=\"#Monetize\">Monetize</a>” |" msgstr "" #. GNUN-SORT-NEXT-ITEM #. type: Content of: <p> msgid "“<a href=\"#MP3Player\">MP3 player</a>” |" msgstr "" #. GNUN-SORT-NEXT-ITEM #. type: Content of: <p> msgid "“<a href=\"#Open\">Open</a>” |" msgstr "" #. GNUN-SORT-NEXT-ITEM #. type: Content of: <p> msgid "“<a href=\"#PC\">PC</a>” |" msgstr "" #. GNUN-SORT-NEXT-ITEM #. type: Content of: <p> msgid "“<a href=\"#Photoshop\">Photoshop</a>” |" msgstr "" #. GNUN-SORT-NEXT-ITEM #. type: Content of: <p> msgid "“<a href=\"#Piracy\">Piracy</a>” |" msgstr "" #. GNUN-SORT-NEXT-ITEM #. type: Content of: <p> msgid "“<a href=\"#PowerPoint\">PowerPoint</a>” |" msgstr "" #. GNUN-SORT-NEXT-ITEM #. type: Content of: <p> msgid "“<a href=\"#Product\">Product</a>” |" msgstr "" #. GNUN-SORT-NEXT-ITEM #. type: Content of: <p> msgid "“<a href=\"#Protection\">Protection</a>” |" msgstr "" #. GNUN-SORT-NEXT-ITEM #. type: Content of: <p> msgid "“<a href=\"#RAND\">RAND</a>” |" msgstr "" #. GNUN-SORT-NEXT-ITEM #. type: Content of: <p> msgid "“<a href=\"#SaaS\">SaaS</a>” |" msgstr "" #. GNUN-SORT-NEXT-ITEM #. type: Content of: <p> msgid "“<a href=\"#SellSoftware\">Sell software</a>” |" msgstr "" #. GNUN-SORT-NEXT-ITEM #. type: Content of: <p> msgid "“<a href=\"#SharingPersonalData\">Sharing (personal data)</a>” |" msgstr "" #. GNUN-SORT-NEXT-ITEM #. type: Content of: <p> msgid "“<a href=\"#SharingEconomy\">Sharing economy</a>” |" msgstr "" #. GNUN-SORT-NEXT-ITEM #. type: Content of: <p> msgid "“<a href=\"#Skype\">Skype</a>” |" msgstr "" #. GNUN-SORT-NEXT-ITEM #. type: Content of: <p> msgid "“<a href=\"#SoftwareIndustry\">Software Industry</a>” |" msgstr "" #. GNUN-SORT-NEXT-ITEM #. type: Content of: <p> msgid "“<a href=\"#SourceModel\">Source model</a>” |" msgstr "" #. GNUN-SORT-NEXT-ITEM #. #if expr="$LANGUAGE_SUFFIX = /^.(es)$/" #. TRANSLATORS: translate if this word is used often in your #. language to refer to mobile computers; otherwise, #. fill the translation with a space. #. GNUN-SORT-BEGIN-KEY #. type: Content of: <p> msgid "“<a href=\"#Terminal\">Terminal</a>” |" msgstr "" #. GNUN-SORT-END-KEY #. #endif #. #. GNUN-SORT-NEXT-ITEM #. type: Content of: <p> msgid "“<a href=\"#Theft\">Theft</a>” |" msgstr "" #. GNUN-SORT-NEXT-ITEM #. type: Content of: <p> msgid "“<a href=\"#TrustedComputing\">Trusted Computing</a>” |" msgstr "" #. GNUN-SORT-NEXT-ITEM #. type: Content of: <p> msgid "“<a href=\"#Vendor\">Vendor</a>”" msgstr "" #. type: Content of: <h3> msgid "“Ad-blocker”" msgstr "" #. type: Content of: <p> msgid "" "When the purpose of some program is to block advertisements, " "“ad-blocker” is a good term for it. However, the GNU browser " "IceCat blocks advertisements that track the user as consequence of broader " "measures to prevent surveillance by web sites. This is not an " "“ad-blocker,” this is <em>surveillance protection</em>." msgstr "" #. type: Content of: <h3> msgid "“Access”" msgstr "" #. type: Content of: <p> msgid "" "It is a common misunderstanding to think free software means that the public " "has “access” to a program. That is not what free software " "means." msgstr "" #. type: Content of: <p> msgid "" "The <a href=\"/philosophy/free-sw.html\">criterion for free software</a> is " "not about who has “access” to the program; the four essential " "freedoms concern what a user that has a copy of the program is allowed to do " "with it. For instance, freedom 2 says that that user is free to make " "another copy and give or sell it to you. But no user is <em>obligated</em> " "to do that for you; you do not have a <em>right</em> to demand a copy of " "that program from any user." msgstr "" #. type: Content of: <p> msgid "" "In particular, if you write a program yourself and never offer a copy to " "anyone else, that program is free software albeit in a trivial way, because " "every user that has a copy has the four essential freedoms (since the only " "such user is you)." msgstr "" #. type: Content of: <p> msgid "" "In practice, when many users have copies of a program, someone is sure to " "post it on the internet, giving everyone access to it. We think people " "ought to do that, if the program is useful. But that isn't a requirement of " "free software." msgstr "" #. type: Content of: <p> msgid "" "There is one specific point in which a question of having access is directly " "pertinent to free software: the GNU GPL permits giving a particular user " "access to download a program's source code as a substitute for physically " "giving that user a copy of the source. This applies to the special case in " "which the user already has a copy of the program in non-source form." msgstr "" #. type: Content of: <blockquote><p> msgid "" "Instead of <b>with free software, the public has access to the program</b>, " "we say, <b>with free software, the users have the essential freedoms</b> and " "<b>with free software, the users have control of what the program does for " "them</b>." msgstr "" #. type: Content of: <h3> msgid "“Alternative”" msgstr "" #. type: Content of: <p> msgid "" "We don't describe free software as an “alternative” to " "proprietary, because that word presumes all the “alternatives” " "are legitimate and each additional one makes users better off. In effect, " "it assumes that free software ought to coexist with software that does not " "respect users' freedom." msgstr "" #. type: Content of: <p> msgid "" "We believe that distribution as free software is the only ethical way to " "make software available for others to use. The other methods, <a " "href=\"/philosophy/free-software-even-more-important.html\">nonfree " "software</a> and <a " "href=\"/philosophy/who-does-that-server-really-serve.html\">Service as a " "Software Substitute</a> subjugate their users. We do not think it is good " "to offer users those “alternatives” to free software." msgstr "" #. type: Content of: <h3> msgid "“Assets”" msgstr "" #. type: Content of: <p> msgid "" "To refer to published works as “assets”, or “digital " "assets”, is even worse than calling them <a " "href=\"#Content\">“content”</a> — it presumes they have no " "value to society except commercial value." msgstr "" #. type: Content of: <h3> msgid "“BSD-style”" msgstr "" #. type: Content of: <p> msgid "" "The expression “BSD-style license” leads to confusion because it " "<a href=\"/licenses/bsd.html\">lumps together licenses that have important " "differences</a>. For instance, the original BSD license with the " "advertising clause is incompatible with the GNU General Public License, but " "the revised BSD license is compatible with the GPL." msgstr "" #. type: Content of: <p> msgid "" "To avoid confusion, it is best to name <a " "href=\"/licenses/license-list.html\"> the specific license in question</a> " "and avoid the vague term “BSD-style.”" msgstr "" #. type: Content of: <h3> msgid "“Closed”" msgstr "" #. type: Content of: <p> msgid "" "Describing nonfree software as “closed” clearly refers to the " "term “open source.” In the free software movement, <a " "href=\"/philosophy/open-source-misses-the-point.html\"> we do not want to be " "confused with the open source camp</a>, so we are careful to avoid saying " "things that would encourage people to lump us in with them. For instance, " "we avoid describing nonfree software as “closed.” We call it " "“nonfree” or <a " "href=\"/philosophy/categories.html#ProprietarySoftware\"> " "“proprietary”</a>." msgstr "" #. type: Content of: <h3> msgid "“Cloud Computing”" msgstr "" #. type: Content of: <p> msgid "" "The term “cloud computing” (or just “cloud”, in the " "context of computing) is a marketing buzzword with no coherent meaning. It " "is used for a range of different activities whose only common characteristic " "is that they use the Internet for something beyond transmitting files. " "Thus, the term spreads confusion. If you base your thinking on it, your " "thinking will be confused (or, could we say, “cloudy”?)." msgstr "" #. type: Content of: <p> msgid "" "When thinking about or responding to a statement someone else has made using " "this term, the first step is to clarify the topic. What scenario is the " "statement about? What is a good, clear term for that scenario? Once the " "topic is clearly formulated, coherent thought about it becomes possible." msgstr "" #. type: Content of: <p> msgid "" "One of the many meanings of “cloud computing” is storing your " "data in online services. In most scenarios, that is foolish because it " "exposes you to <a " "href=\"http://www.guardian.co.uk/commentisfree/2011/apr/25/hackers-spooks-cloud-antiauthoritarian-dream\">surveillance</a>." msgstr "" #. type: Content of: <p> msgid "" "Another meaning (which overlaps that but is not the same thing) is <a " "href=\"/philosophy/who-does-that-server-really-serve.html\"> Service as a " "Software Substitute</a>, which denies you control over your computing. You " "should never use SaaSS." msgstr "" #. type: Content of: <p> msgid "" "Another meaning is renting a remote physical server, or virtual server. " "These practices are ok under certain circumstances." msgstr "" #. type: Content of: <p> msgid "" "Another meaning is accessing your own server from your own mobile device. " "That raises no particular ethical issues." msgstr "" #. type: Content of: <p> msgid "" "The <a href=\"https://csrc.nist.gov/publications/detail/sp/800-145/final\"> " "NIST definition of \"cloud computing\"</a> mentions three scenarios that " "raise different ethical issues: Software as a Service, Platform as a " "Service, and Infrastructure as a Service. However, that definition does not " "match the common use of “cloud computing”, since it does not " "include storing data in online services. Software as a Service as defined " "by NIST overlaps considerably with Service as a Software Substitute, which " "mistreats the user, but the two concepts are not equivalent." msgstr "" #. type: Content of: <p> msgid "" "These different computing practices don't even belong in the same " "discussion. The best way to avoid the confusion the term “cloud " "computing” spreads is not to use the term “cloud” in " "connection with computing. Talk about the scenario you mean, and call it by " "a specific term." msgstr "" #. type: Content of: <p> msgid "" "Curiously, Larry Ellison, a proprietary software developer, also <a " "href=\"http://www.cnet.com/news/oracles-ellison-nails-cloud-computing/\"> " "noted the vacuity of the term “cloud computing.”</a> He decided " "to use the term anyway because, as a proprietary software developer, he " "isn't motivated by the same ideals as we are." msgstr "" #. type: Content of: <h3> msgid "“Commercial”" msgstr "" #. type: Content of: <p> msgid "" "Please don't use “commercial” as a synonym for " "“nonfree.” That confuses two entirely different issues." msgstr "" #. type: Content of: <p> msgid "" "A program is commercial if it is developed as a business activity. A " "commercial program can be free or nonfree, depending on its manner of " "distribution. Likewise, a program developed by a school or an individual " "can be free or nonfree, depending on its manner of distribution. The two " "questions—what sort of entity developed the program and what freedom " "its users have—are independent." msgstr "" #. type: Content of: <p> msgid "" "In the first decade of the free software movement, free software packages " "were almost always noncommercial; the components of the GNU/Linux operating " "system were developed by individuals or by nonprofit organizations such as " "the FSF and universities. Later, in the 1990s, free commercial software " "started to appear." msgstr "" #. type: Content of: <p> msgid "" "Free commercial software is a contribution to our community, so we should " "encourage it. But people who think that “commercial” means " "“nonfree” will tend to think that the “free " "commercial” combination is self-contradictory, and dismiss the " "possibility. Let's be careful not to use the word “commercial” " "in that way." msgstr "" #. type: Content of: <h3> msgid "“Compensation”" msgstr "" #. type: Content of: <p> msgid "" "To speak of “compensation for authors” in connection with " "copyright carries the assumptions that (1) copyright exists for the sake of " "authors and (2) whenever we read something, we take on a debt to the author " "which we must then repay. The first assumption is simply <a " "href=\"/philosophy/misinterpreting-copyright.html\">false</a>, and the " "second is outrageous." msgstr "" #. type: Content of: <p> msgid "" "“Compensating the rights-holders” adds a further swindle: you're " "supposed to imagine that means paying the authors, and occasionally it does, " "but most of the time it means a subsidy for the same publishing companies " "that are pushing unjust laws on us." msgstr "" #. type: Content of: <h3> msgid "“Consume”" msgstr "" #. type: Content of: <p> msgid "" "“Consume” refers to what we do with food: we ingest it, after " "which the food as such no longer exists. By analogy, we employ the same " "word for other products whose use <em>uses them up</em>. Applying it to " "durable goods, such as clothing or appliances, is a stretch. Applying it to " "published works (programs, recordings on a disk or in a file, books on paper " "or in a file), whose nature is to last indefinitely and which can be run, " "played or read any number of times, is stretching the word so far that it " "snaps. Playing a recording, or running a program, does not consume it." msgstr "" #. type: Content of: <p> msgid "" "Those who use “consume” in this context will say they don't mean " "it literally. What, then, does it mean? It means to regard copies of " "software and other works from a narrow economistic point of view. " "“Consume” is associated with the economics of material " "commodities, such as the fuel or electricity that a car uses up. Gasoline " "is a commodity, and so is electricity. Commodities are <em>fungible</em>: " "there is nothing special about a drop of gasoline that your car burns today " "versus another drop that it burned last week." msgstr "" #. type: Content of: <p> msgid "" "What does it mean to think of works of authorship as a commodity, with the " "assumption that there is nothing special about any one story, article, " "program, or song? That is the twisted viewpoint of the owner or the " "accountant of a publishing company. It is no surprise that proprietary " "software would like you to think of the use of software as a commodity. " "Their twisted viewpoint comes through clearly in <a " "href=\"http://www.businessinsider.com/former-google-exec-launches-sourcepoint-with-10-million-series-a-funding-2015-6\">this " "article</a>, which also refers to publications as “<a " "href=\"#Content\">content</a>.”" msgstr "" #. type: Content of: <p> msgid "" "The narrow thinking associated with the idea that we “consume " "content” paves the way for laws such as the DMCA that forbid users to " "break the <a href=\"http://DefectiveByDesign.org/\">Digital Restrictions " "Management</a> (DRM) facilities in digital devices. If users think what " "they do with these devices is “consume,” they may see such " "restrictions as natural." msgstr "" #. type: Content of: <p> msgid "" "It also encourages the acceptance of “streaming” services, which " "use DRM to perversely limit listening to music, or watching video, to " "squeeze those activities into the assumptions of the word " "“consume.”" msgstr "" #. type: Content of: <p> msgid "" "Why is this perverse usage spreading? Some may feel that the term sounds " "sophisticated, but rejecting it with cogent reasons can appear even more " "sophisticated. Some want to generalize about all kinds of media, but the " "usual English verbs (“read,” “listen to,” " "“watch”) don't do this. Others may be acting from business " "interests (their own, or their employers'). Their use of the term in " "prestigious forums gives the impression that it's the “correct” " "term." msgstr "" #. type: Content of: <p> msgid "" "To speak of “consuming” music, fiction, or any other artistic " "works is to treat them as commodities rather than as art. Do we want to " "think of published works that way? Do we want to encourage the public to do " "so?" msgstr "" #. type: Content of: <p> msgid "" "Those who answer no, please join me in shunning the term " "“consume” for this." msgstr "" #. type: Content of: <p> msgid "" "What to use instead? You can use specific verbs such as “read,” " "“listen to,” “watch” or “look at,” since " "they help to restrain the tendency to overgeneralize." msgstr "" #. type: Content of: <p> msgid "" "If you insist on generalizing, you can use the expression “attend " "to,” which requires less of a stretch than “consume.” For " "a work meant for practical use, “use” is best." msgstr "" #. type: Content of: <p> msgid "See also the following entry." msgstr "" #. type: Content of: <h3> msgid "“Consumer”" msgstr "" #. type: Content of: <p> msgid "" "The term “consumer,” when used to refer to the users of " "computing, is loaded with assumptions we should reject. Some come from the " "idea that using the program “consumes” the program (see <a " "href=\"#Consume\">the previous entry</a>), which leads people to impose on " "copiable digital works the economic conclusions that were drawn about " "uncopiable material products." msgstr "" #. type: Content of: <p> msgid "" "In addition, describing the users of software as “consumers” " "refers to a framing in which people are limited to selecting between " "whatever “products” are available in the “market.” " "There is no room in this framing for the idea that users can <a " "href=\"/philosophy/free-software-even-more-important.html\">directly " "exercise control over what a program does</a>." msgstr "" #. type: Content of: <p> msgid "" "To describe people who are not limited to passive use of works, we suggest " "terms such as “individuals” and “citizens,” rather " "than “consumers.”" msgstr "" #. type: Content of: <p> msgid "" "This problem with the word “consumer” has been <a " "href=\"http://www.theguardian.com/commentisfree/2013/aug/11/capitalism-language-raymond-williams\">noted " "before</a>." msgstr "" #. type: Content of: <h3> msgid "“Content”" msgstr "" #. type: Content of: <p> msgid "" "If you want to describe a feeling of comfort and satisfaction, by all means " "say you are “content,” but using the word as a noun to describe " "publications and works of authorship adopts an attitude you might rather " "avoid: it treats them as a commodity whose purpose is to fill a box and make " "money. In effect, it disparages the works themselves. If you don't agree " "with that attitude, you can call them “works” or " "“publications.”" msgstr "" #. type: Content of: <p> msgid "" "Those who use the term “content” are often the publishers that " "push for increased copyright power in the name of the authors " "(“creators,” as they say) of the works. The term " "“content” reveals their real attitude towards these works and " "their authors. This was also recognized by Tom Chatfield <a " "href=\"https://www.theguardian.com/culture/2016/aug/02/how-to-deal-with-trump-trolls-online\">in " "the Guardian</a>:" msgstr "" #. type: Content of: <blockquote><p> msgid "" "Content itself is beside the point—as the very use of words like " "content suggests. The moment you start labelling every single piece of " "writing in the world “content,” you have conceded its " "interchangeability: its primary purpose as mere grist to the metrical mill." msgstr "" #. type: Content of: <p> msgid "" "In other words, “content” reduces publications and writings to a " "sort of pap fit to be piped through the “tubes” of the internet." msgstr "" #. type: Content of: <p> msgid "" "See also <a href=\"http://www.salon.com/2000/06/14/love_7/\">Courtney Love's " "open letter to Steve Case</a> and search for “content provider” " "in that page. Alas, Ms. Love is unaware that the term “intellectual " "property” is also <a href=\"#IntellectualProperty\"> biased and " "confusing</a>." msgstr "" #. type: Content of: <p> msgid "" "However, as long as other people use the term “content " "provider,” political dissidents can well call themselves " "“malcontent providers.”" msgstr "" #. type: Content of: <p> msgid "" "The term “content management” takes the prize for vacuity. " "“Content” means “some sort of information,” and " "“management” in this context means “doing something with " "it.” So a “content management system” is a system for " "doing something to some sort of information. Nearly all programs fit that " "description." msgstr "" #. type: Content of: <p> msgid "" "In most cases, that term really refers to a system for updating pages on a " "web site. For that, we recommend the term “web site revision " "system” (WRS)." msgstr "" #. type: Content of: <h3> msgid "“Copyright Owner”" msgstr "" #. type: Content of: <p> msgid "" "Copyright is an artificial privilege, handed out by the state to achieve a " "public interest and lasting a period of time — not a natural right " "like owning a house or a shirt. Lawyers used to recognize this by referring " "to the recipient of that privilege as a “copyright holder.”" msgstr "" #. type: Content of: <p> msgid "" "A few decades ago, copyright holders began trying to reduce awareness of " "this point. In addition to citing frequently the bogus concept of <a " "href=\"#IntellectualProperty\">“intellectual property,”</a> they " "also started calling themselves “copyright owners.” Please join " "us in resisting by using the traditional term “copyright " "holders” instead." msgstr "" #. type: Content of: <h3> msgid "“Creative Commons licensed”" msgstr "" #. type: Content of: <p> msgid "" "The most important licensing characteristic of a work is whether it is " "free. Creative Commons publishes seven licenses; three are free (CC BY, CC " "BY-SA and CC0) and the rest are nonfree. Thus, to describe a work as " "“Creative Commons licensed” fails to say whether it is free, and " "suggests that the question is not important. The statement may be accurate, " "but the omission is harmful." msgstr "" #. type: Content of: <p> msgid "" "To encourage people to pay attention to the most important distinction, " "always specify <em>which</em> Creative Commons license is used, as in " "“licensed under CC BY-SA.” If you don't know which license a " "certain work uses, find out and then make your statement." msgstr "" #. type: Content of: <h3> msgid "“Creator”" msgstr "" #. type: Content of: <p> msgid "" "The term “creator” as applied to authors implicitly compares " "them to a deity (“the creator”). The term is used by publishers " "to elevate authors' moral standing above that of ordinary people in order to " "justify giving them increased copyright power, which the publishers can then " "exercise in their name. We recommend saying “author” instead. " "However, in many cases “copyright holder” is what you really " "mean. These two terms are not equivalent: often the copyright holder is not " "the author." msgstr "" #. type: Content of: <h3> msgid "“Digital Goods”" msgstr "" #. type: Content of: <p> msgid "" "The term “digital goods,” as applied to copies of works of " "authorship, identifies them with physical goods—which cannot be " "copied, and which therefore have to be manufactured in quantity and sold. " "This metaphor encourages people to judge issues about software or other " "digital works based on their views and intuitions about physical goods. It " "also frames issues in terms of economics, whose shallow and limited values " "don't include freedom and community." msgstr "" #. type: Content of: <h3> msgid "“Digital Locks”" msgstr "" #. type: Content of: <p> msgid "" "“Digital locks” is used to refer to Digital Restrictions " "Management by some who criticize it. The problem with this term is that it " "fails to do justice to the badness of DRM. The people who adopted that term " "did not think it through." msgstr "" #. type: Content of: <p> msgid "" "Locks are not necessarily oppressive or bad. You probably own several " "locks, and their keys or codes as well; you may find them useful or " "troublesome, but they don't oppress you, because you can open and close " "them. Likewise, we find <a " "href=\"http://www.theguardian.com/technology/2015/may/01/encryption-wont-work-if-it-has-a-back-door-only-the-good-guys-have-keys-to-\">encryption</a> " "invaluable for protecting our digital files. That too is a kind of digital " "lock that you have control over." msgstr "" #. type: Content of: <p> msgid "" "DRM is like a lock placed on you by someone else, who refuses to give you " "the key—in other words, like <em>handcuffs</em>. Therefore, the " "proper metaphor for DRM is “digital handcuffs,” not " "“digital locks.”" msgstr "" #. type: Content of: <p> msgid "" "A number of opposition campaigns have chosen the unwise term “digital " "locks”; to get things back on the right track, we must firmly insist " "on correcting this mistake. The FSF can support a campaign that opposes " "“digital locks” if we agree on the substance; however, when we " "state our support, we conspicuously replace the term with “digital " "handcuffs” and say why." msgstr "" #. type: Content of: <h3> msgid "“Digital Rights Management”" msgstr "" #. type: Content of: <p> msgid "" "“Digital Rights Management” (abbreviated “DRM”) " "refers to technical mechanisms designed to impose restrictions on computer " "users. The use of the word “rights” in this term is propaganda, " "designed to lead you unawares into seeing the issue from the viewpoint of " "the few that impose the restrictions, and ignoring that of the general " "public on whom these restrictions are imposed." msgstr "" #. type: Content of: <p> msgid "" "Good alternatives include “Digital Restrictions Management,” and " "“digital handcuffs.”" msgstr "" #. type: Content of: <p> msgid "" "Please sign up to support our <a href=\"http://DefectiveByDesign.org/\"> " "campaign to abolish DRM</a>." msgstr "" #. type: Content of: <h3> msgid "“Ecosystem”" msgstr "" #. type: Content of: <p> msgid "" "It is inadvisable to describe the free software community, or any human " "community, as an “ecosystem,” because that word implies the " "absence of ethical judgment." msgstr "" #. type: Content of: <p> msgid "" "The term “ecosystem” implicitly suggests an attitude of " "nonjudgmental observation: don't ask how what <em>should</em> happen, just " "study and understand what <em>does</em> happen. In an ecosystem, some " "organisms consume other organisms. In ecology, we do not ask whether it is " "right for an owl to eat a mouse or for a mouse to eat a seed, we only " "observe that they do so. Species' populations grow or shrink according to " "the conditions; this is neither right nor wrong, merely an ecological " "phenomenon, even if it goes so far as the extinction of a species." msgstr "" #. type: Content of: <p> msgid "" "By contrast, beings that adopt an ethical stance towards their surroundings " "can decide to preserve things that, without their intervention, might " "vanish—such as civil society, democracy, human rights, peace, public " "health, a stable climate, clean air and water, endangered species, " "traditional arts…and computer users' freedom." msgstr "" #. type: Content of: <h3> msgid "“FLOSS”" msgstr "" #. type: Content of: <p> msgid "" "The term “FLOSS,” meaning “Free/Libre and Open Source " "Software,” was coined as a way to <a " "href=\"/philosophy/floss-and-foss.html\">be neutral between free software " "and open source</a>. If neutrality is your goal, “FLOSS” is the " "best way to be neutral. But if you want to show you stand for freedom, " "don't use a neutral term." msgstr "" #. type: Content of: <h3> msgid "“For free”" msgstr "" #. type: Content of: <p> msgid "" "If you want to say that a program is free software, please don't say that it " "is available “for free.” That term specifically means “for " "zero price.” Free software is a matter of freedom, not price." msgstr "" #. type: Content of: <p> msgid "" "Free software copies are often available for free—for example, by " "downloading via FTP. But free software copies are also available for a " "price on CD-ROMs; meanwhile, proprietary software copies are occasionally " "available for free in promotions, and some proprietary packages are normally " "available at no charge to certain users." msgstr "" #. type: Content of: <p> msgid "" "To avoid confusion, you can say that the program is available “as free " "software.”" msgstr "" #. type: Content of: <h3> msgid "“FOSS”" msgstr "" #. type: Content of: <p> msgid "" "The term “FOSS,” meaning “Free and Open Source " "Software,” was coined as a way to <a " "href=\"/philosophy/floss-and-foss.html\">be neutral between free software " "and open source</a>, but it doesn't really do that. If neutrality is your " "goal, “FLOSS” is better. But if you want to show you stand for " "freedom, don't use a neutral term." msgstr "" #. type: Content of: <blockquote><p> msgid "" "Instead of <b>FOSS</b>, we say, <b>free software</b> or <b>free (libre) " "software</b>." msgstr "" #. type: Content of: <h3> msgid "“Freely available”" msgstr "" #. type: Content of: <p> msgid "" "Don't use “freely available software” as a synonym for " "“free software.” The terms are not equivalent. Software is " "“freely available” if anyone can easily get a copy. “Free " "software” is defined in terms of the freedom of users that have a copy " "of it. These are answers to different questions." msgstr "" #. type: Content of: <h3> msgid "“Freeware”" msgstr "" #. type: Content of: <p> msgid "" "Please don't use the term “freeware” as a synonym for " "“free software.” The term “freeware” was used often " "in the 1980s for programs released only as executables, with source code not " "available. Today it has no particular agreed-on definition." msgstr "" #. type: Content of: <p> msgid "" "When using languages other than English, please avoid borrowing English " "terms such as “free software” or “freeware.” It is " "better to translate the term “free software” into <a " "href=\"/philosophy/fs-translations.html\">your language</a>." msgstr "" #. type: Content of: <p> msgid "" "By using a word in <a href=\"/philosophy/fs-translations.html\">your own " "language</a>, you show that you are really referring to freedom and not just " "parroting some mysterious foreign marketing concept. The reference to " "freedom may at first seem strange or disturbing to your compatriots, but " "once they see that it means exactly what it says, they will really " "understand what the issue is." msgstr "" #. type: Content of: <h3> msgid "“Give away software”" msgstr "" #. type: Content of: <p> msgid "" "It's misleading to use the term “give away” to mean " "“distribute a program as free software.” This locution has the " "same problem as “for free”: it implies the issue is price, not " "freedom. One way to avoid the confusion is to say “release as free " "software.”" msgstr "" #. type: Content of: <h3> msgid "“Google”" msgstr "" #. type: Content of: <p> msgid "" "Please avoid using the term “google” as a verb, meaning to " "search for something on the internet. “Google” is just the name " "of one particular search engine among others. We suggest to use the term " "“search the web” or (in some contexts) just " "“search”. Try to use a search engine that respects your privacy; " "for instance, <a href=\"https://duckduckgo.com/\">DuckDuckGo</a> claims not " "to track its users. (There is no way for outsiders to verify claims of that " "kind.)" msgstr "" #. type: Content of: <h3> msgid "“Hacker”" msgstr "" #. type: Content of: <p> msgid "" "A hacker is someone who <a " "href=\"http://stallman.org/articles/on-hacking.html\"> enjoys playful " "cleverness</a>—not necessarily with computers. The programmers in the " "old <abbr title=\"Massachusetts Institute of Technology\">MIT</abbr> free " "software community of the 60s and 70s referred to themselves as hackers. " "Around 1980, journalists who discovered the hacker community mistakenly took " "the term to mean “security breaker.”" msgstr "" #. type: Content of: <p> msgid "" "Please don't spread this mistake. People who break security are " "“crackers.”" msgstr "" #. type: Content of: <h3> msgid "“Intellectual property”" msgstr "" #. type: Content of: <p> msgid "" "Publishers and lawyers like to describe copyright as “intellectual " "property”—a term also applied to patents, trademarks, and other " "more obscure areas of law. These laws have so little in common, and differ " "so much, that it is ill-advised to generalize about them. It is best to " "talk specifically about “copyright,” or about " "“patents,” or about “trademarks.”" msgstr "" #. type: Content of: <p> msgid "" "The term “intellectual property” carries a hidden " "assumption—that the way to think about all these disparate issues is " "based on an analogy with physical objects, and our conception of them as " "physical property." msgstr "" #. type: Content of: <p> msgid "" "When it comes to copying, this analogy disregards the crucial difference " "between material objects and information: information can be copied and " "shared almost effortlessly, while material objects can't be." msgstr "" #. type: Content of: <p> msgid "" "To avoid spreading unnecessary bias and confusion, it is best to adopt a " "firm policy <a href=\"/philosophy/not-ipr.html\"> not to speak or even think " "in terms of “intellectual property”</a>." msgstr "" #. type: Content of: <p> msgid "" "The hypocrisy of calling these powers “rights” is <a " "href=\"/philosophy/wipo-PublicAwarenessOfCopyright-2002.html\"> starting to " "make the World “Intellectual Property” Organization " "embarrassed</a>." msgstr "" #. type: Content of: <h3> msgid "“Internet of Things”" msgstr "" #. type: Content of: <p> msgid "" "When companies decided to make computerized appliances that would connect " "over the internet to the manufacturer's server, and therefore could easily " "snoop on their users, they realized that this would not sound very nice. So " "they came up with a cute, appealing name: the “Internet of " "Things.”" msgstr "" #. type: Content of: <p> msgid "" "Experience shows that these products often do <a " "href=\"http://www.locusmag.com/Perspectives/2015/09/cory-doctorow-what-if-people-were-sensors-not-things-to-be-sensed/\"> " "spy on their users</a>. They are also tailor-made for <a " "href=\"http://ieet.org/index.php/IEET/more/rinesi20150806\">giving people " "biased advice</a>. In addition, the manufacturer can <a " "href=\"/proprietary/proprietary-sabotage.html\"> sabotage the product</a> by " "turning off the server it depends on." msgstr "" #. type: Content of: <p> msgid "We call them the “Internet of Stings.”" msgstr "" #. type: Content of: <h3> msgid "“LAMP system”" msgstr "" #. type: Content of: <p> msgid "" "“LAMP” stands for “Linux, Apache, MySQL and " "PHP”—a common combination of software to use on a web server, " "except that “Linux” in this context really refers to the " "GNU/Linux system. So instead of “LAMP” it should be " "“GLAMP”: “GNU, Linux, Apache, MySQL and PHP.”" msgstr "" #. type: Content of: <h3> msgid "“Linux system”" msgstr "" #. type: Content of: <p> msgid "" "Linux is the name of the kernel that Linus Torvalds developed starting in " "1991. The operating system in which Linux is used is basically GNU with " "Linux added. To call the whole system “Linux” is both unfair " "and confusing. Please call the complete system <a " "href=\"/gnu/linux-and-gnu.html\"> GNU/Linux</a>, both to give the GNU " "Project credit and to distinguish the whole system from the kernel alone." msgstr "" #. type: Content of: <h3> msgid "“Market”" msgstr "" #. type: Content of: <p> msgid "" "It is misleading to describe the users of free software, or the software " "users in general, as a “market.”" msgstr "" #. type: Content of: <p> msgid "" "This is not to say there is no room for markets in the free software " "community. If you have a free software support business, then you have " "clients, and you trade with them in a market. As long as you respect their " "freedom, we wish you success in your market." msgstr "" #. type: Content of: <p> msgid "" "But the free software movement is a social movement, not a business, and the " "success it aims for is not a market success. We are trying to serve the " "public by giving it freedom—not competing to draw business away from a " "rival. To equate this campaign for freedom to a business's efforts for mere " "success is to deny the importance of freedom and legitimize proprietary " "software." msgstr "" #. type: Content of: <h3> msgid "“Monetize”" msgstr "" #. type: Content of: <p> msgid "" "The proper definition of “monetize” is “to use something " "as currency.” For instance, human societies have monetized gold, " "silver, copper, printed paper, special kinds of seashells, and large rocks. " "However, we now see a tendency to use the word in another way, meaning " "“to use something as a basis for profit”." msgstr "" #. type: Content of: <p> msgid "" "That usage casts the profit as primary, and the thing used to get the profit " "as secondary. That attitude applied to a software project is objectionable " "because it would lead the developers to make the program proprietary, if " "they conclude that making it free/libre isn't sufficiently profitable." msgstr "" #. type: Content of: <p> msgid "" "A productive and ethical business can make money, but if it subordinates all " "else to profit, it is not likely to remain ethical." msgstr "" #. type: Content of: <h3> msgid "“MP3 Player”" msgstr "" #. The MP3 patents will reportedly expire by 2018. #. type: Content of: <p> msgid "" "In the late 1990s it became feasible to make portable, solid-state digital " "audio players. Most players supported the patented MP3 codec, and that is " "still the case. Some players also supported the patent-free audio codecs " "Ogg Vorbis and FLAC, and a few couldn't play MP3-encoded files at all " "because their developers needed to protect themselves from the patents on " "MP3 format." msgstr "" #. type: Content of: <p> msgid "" "Using the term “MP3 players” for audio players in general has " "the effect of promoting the MP3 format and discouraging the other formats " "(some of which are technically superior as well). Even though the MP3 " "patents have expired, it is still undesirable to do that." msgstr "" #. type: Content of: <p> msgid "" "We suggest the term “digital audio player,” or simply " "“audio player” when that's clear enough, instead of “MP3 " "player.”" msgstr "" #. type: Content of: <h3> msgid "“Open”" msgstr "" #. type: Content of: <p> msgid "" "Please avoid using the term “open” or “open source” " "as a substitute for “free software.” Those terms refer to a <a " "href=\"/philosophy/open-source-misses-the-point.html\"> different set of " "views</a> based on different values. The free software movement campaigns " "for your freedom in your computing, as a matter of justice. The open source " "non-movement does not campaign for anything in this way." msgstr "" #. type: Content of: <p> msgid "" "When referring to the open source views, it's correct to use that name, but " "please do not use that term when talking about us, our software, or our " "views—that leads people to suppose our views are similar to theirs." msgstr "" #. type: Content of: <blockquote><p> msgid "" "Instead of <b>open source</b>, we say, <b>free software</b> or <b>free " "(libre) software</b>." msgstr "" #. type: Content of: <h3> msgid "“PC”" msgstr "" #. type: Content of: <p> msgid "" "It's OK to use the abbreviation “PC” to refer to a certain kind " "of computer hardware, but please don't use it with the implication that the " "computer is running Microsoft Windows. If you install GNU/Linux on the same " "computer, it is still a PC." msgstr "" #. type: Content of: <p> msgid "The term “WC” has been suggested for a computer running Windows." msgstr "" #. type: Content of: <h3> msgid "“Photoshop”" msgstr "" #. type: Content of: <p> msgid "" "Please avoid using the term “photoshop” as a verb, meaning any " "kind of photo manipulation or image editing in general. Photoshop is just " "the name of one particular image editing program, which should be avoided " "since it is proprietary. There are plenty of free programs for editing " "images, such as the <a href=\"/software/gimp\">GIMP</a>." msgstr "" #. type: Content of: <h3> msgid "“Piracy”" msgstr "" #. type: Content of: <p> msgid "" "Publishers often refer to copying they don't approve of as " "“piracy.” In this way, they imply that it is ethically " "equivalent to attacking ships on the high seas, kidnapping and murdering the " "people on them. Based on such propaganda, they have procured laws in most " "of the world to forbid copying in most (or sometimes all) circumstances. " "(They are still pressuring to make these prohibitions more complete.)" msgstr "" #. type: Content of: <p> msgid "" "If you don't believe that copying not approved by the publisher is just like " "kidnapping and murder, you might prefer not to use the word " "“piracy” to describe it. Neutral terms such as " "“unauthorized copying” (or “prohibited copying” for " "the situation where it is illegal) are available for use instead. Some of " "us might even prefer to use a positive term such as “sharing " "information with your neighbor.”" msgstr "" #. type: Content of: <p> msgid "" "A US judge, presiding over a trial for copyright infringement, recognized " "that <a " "href=\"http://torrentfreak.com/mpaa-banned-from-using-piracy-and-theft-terms-in-hotfile-trial-131129/\">“piracy” " "and “theft” are smear words.</a>" msgstr "" #. type: Content of: <h3> msgid "“PowerPoint”" msgstr "" #. type: Content of: <p> msgid "" "Please avoid using the term “PowerPoint” to mean any kind of " "slide presentation. “PowerPoint” is just the name of one " "particular proprietary program to make presentations. For your freedom's " "sake, you should use only free software to make your " "presentations—which means, <em>not PowerPoint</em>. Recommended " "options include TeX's <tt>beamer</tt> class and LibreOffice.org's Impress." msgstr "" #. type: Content of: <h3> msgid "“Product”" msgstr "" #. type: Content of: <p> msgid "" "If you're talking about a product, by all means call it that. However, when " "referring to a service, please do not call it a “product.” If a " "service provider calls the service a “product,” please firmly " "insist on calling it a “service.” If a service provider calls a " "package deal a “product,” please firmly insist on calling it a " "“deal.”" msgstr "" #. type: Content of: <h3> msgid "“Protection”" msgstr "" #. type: Content of: <p> msgid "" "Publishers' lawyers love to use the term “protection” to " "describe copyright. This word carries the implication of preventing " "destruction or suffering; therefore, it encourages people to identify with " "the owner and publisher who benefit from copyright, rather than with the " "users who are restricted by it." msgstr "" #. type: Content of: <p> msgid "" "It is easy to avoid “protection” and use neutral terms instead. " "For example, instead of saying, “Copyright protection lasts a very " "long time,” you can say, “Copyright lasts a very long " "time.”" msgstr "" #. type: Content of: <p> msgid "" "Likewise, instead of saying, “protected by copyright,” you can " "say, “covered by copyright” or just “copyrighted.”" msgstr "" #. type: Content of: <p> msgid "" "If you want to criticize copyright rather than be neutral, you can use the " "term “copyright restrictions.” Thus, you can say, " "“Copyright restrictions last a very long time.”" msgstr "" #. type: Content of: <p> msgid "" "The term “protection” is also used to describe malicious " "features. For instance, “copy protection” is a feature that " "interferes with copying. From the user's point of view, this is " "obstruction. So we could call that malicious feature “copy " "obstruction.” More often it is called Digital Restrictions Management " "(DRM)—see the <a href=\"http://DefectiveByDesign.org\"> Defective by " "Design</a> campaign." msgstr "" #. type: Content of: <h3> msgid "“RAND (Reasonable and Non-Discriminatory)”" msgstr "" #. type: Content of: <p> msgid "" "Standards bodies that promulgate patent-restricted standards that prohibit " "free software typically have a policy of obtaining patent licenses that " "require a fixed fee per copy of a conforming program. They often refer to " "such licenses by the term “RAND,” which stands for " "“reasonable and non-discriminatory.”" msgstr "" #. type: Content of: <p> msgid "" "That term whitewashes a class of patent licenses that are normally neither " "reasonable nor nondiscriminatory. It is true that these licenses do not " "discriminate against any specific person, but they do discriminate against " "the free software community, and that makes them unreasonable. Thus, half " "of the term “RAND” is deceptive and the other half is " "prejudiced." msgstr "" #. type: Content of: <p> msgid "" "Standards bodies should recognize that these licenses are discriminatory, " "and drop the use of the term “reasonable and non-discriminatory” " "or “RAND” to describe them. Until they do so, writers who do " "not wish to join in the whitewashing would do well to reject that term. To " "accept and use it merely because patent-wielding companies have made it " "widespread is to let those companies dictate the views you express." msgstr "" #. type: Content of: <p> msgid "" "We suggest the term “uniform fee only,” or “UFO” for " "short, as a replacement. It is accurate because the only condition in these " "licenses is a uniform royalty fee." msgstr "" #. type: Content of: <h3> msgid "“SaaS” or “Software as a Service”" msgstr "" #. type: Content of: <p> msgid "" "We used to say that SaaS (short for “Software as a Service”) is " "an injustice, but then we found that there was a lot of variation in " "people's understanding of which activities count as SaaS. So we switched to " "a new term, “Service as a Software Substitute” or " "“SaaSS.” This term has two advantages: it wasn't used before, so " "our definition is the only one, and it explains what the injustice consists " "of." msgstr "" #. type: Content of: <p> msgid "" "See <a href=\"/philosophy/who-does-that-server-really-serve.html\">Who Does " "That Server Really Serve?</a> for discussion of this issue." msgstr "" #. type: Content of: <p> msgid "" "In Spanish we continue to use the term “software como servicio” " "because the joke of “software como ser vicio” (“software, " "as being pernicious”) is too good to give up." msgstr "" #. type: Content of: <h3> msgid "“Sell software”" msgstr "" #. type: Content of: <p> msgid "" "The term “sell software” is ambiguous. Strictly speaking, " "exchanging a copy of a free program for a sum of money is <a " "href=\"/philosophy/selling.html\"> selling the program</a>, and there is " "nothing wrong with doing that. However, people usually associate the term " "“selling software” with proprietary restrictions on the " "subsequent use of the software. You can be clear, and prevent confusion, by " "saying either “distributing copies of a program for a fee” or " "“imposing proprietary restrictions on the use of a program.”" msgstr "" #. type: Content of: <p> msgid "" "See <a href=\"/philosophy/selling.html\">Selling Free Software</a> for " "further discussion of this issue." msgstr "" #. type: Content of: <h3> msgid "“Sharing (personal data)”" msgstr "" #. type: Content of: <p> msgid "" "When companies manipulate or lure people into revealing personal data and " "thus ceding their privacy, please don't refer to this as " "“sharing.” We use the term “sharing” to refer to " "noncommercial cooperation, including noncommercial redistribution of exact " "copies of published works, and we say this is <em>good</em>. Please don't " "apply that word to a practice which is harmful and dangerous." msgstr "" #. type: Content of: <h3> msgid "“Sharing economy”" msgstr "" #. type: Content of: <p> msgid "" "The term “sharing economy” is not a good way to refer to " "services such as Uber and Airbnb that arrange business transactions between " "people. We use the term “sharing” to refer to noncommercial " "cooperation, including noncommercial redistribution of exact copies of " "published works. Stretching the word “sharing” to include these " "transactions undermines its meaning, so we don't use it in this context." msgstr "" #. type: Content of: <p> msgid "" "A more suitable term for businesses like Uber is the “piecework " "service economy.”" msgstr "" #. type: Content of: <h3> msgid "“Skype”" msgstr "" #. type: Content of: <p> msgid "" "Please avoid using the term “skype” as a verb, meaning any kind " "of video communication or telephony over the Internet in general. " "“Skype” is just the name of one particular proprietary program, " "one that <a " "href=\"/philosophy/proprietary/proprietary-surveillance.html#SpywareInSkype\"> " "spies on its users</a>. If you want to make video and voice calls over the " "Internet in a way that respects both your freedom and your privacy, try one " "of the <a href=\"https://libreplanet.org/wiki/Group:Skype_Replacement\"> " "numerous free Skype replacements</a>." msgstr "" #. type: Content of: <h3> msgid "“Software Industry”" msgstr "" #. type: Content of: <p> msgid "" "The term “software industry” encourages people to imagine that " "software is always developed by a sort of factory and then delivered to " "“consumers.” The free software community shows this is not the " "case. Software businesses exist, and various businesses develop free and/or " "nonfree software, but those that develop free software are not run like " "factories." msgstr "" #. type: Content of: <p> msgid "" "The term “industry” is being used as propaganda by advocates of " "software patents. They call software development “industry” and " "then try to argue that this means it should be subject to patent " "monopolies. <a " "href=\"https://web.archive.org/web/20071215073111/http://eupat.ffii.org/papers/europarl0309/\" " "title=\"archived version of http://eupat.ffii.org/papers/europarl0309/\">The " "European Parliament, rejecting software patents in 2003, voted to define " "“industry” as “automated production of material " "goods.”</a>" msgstr "" #. type: Content of: <h3> msgid "“Source model”" msgstr "" #. type: Content of: <p> msgid "" "Wikipedia uses the term “source model” in a confused and " "ambiguous way. Ostensibly it refers to how a program's source is " "distributed, but the text confuses this with the development methodology. " "It distinguishes “open source” and ”shared source” " "as answers, but they overlap — Microsoft uses the latter as a " "marketing term to cover a range of practices, some of which are “open " "source”. Thus, this term really conveys no coherent information, but " "it provides an opportunity to say “open source” in pages " "describing free software programs." msgstr "" #. type: Content of: <h3> msgid "“Terminal”" msgstr "" #. type: Content of: <p> msgid "" "Mobile phones and tablets are computers, and people should be able to do " "their computing on them using free software. To call them " "“terminals” supposes that all they are good for is to connect to " "servers, which is a bad way to do your own computing." msgstr "" #. type: Content of: <h3> msgid "“Theft”" msgstr "" #. type: Content of: <p> msgid "" "The supporters of a too-strict, repressive form of copyright often use words " "like “stolen” and “theft” to refer to copyright " "infringement. This is spin, but they would like you to take it for " "objective truth." msgstr "" #. type: Content of: <p> msgid "" "Under the US legal system, copyright infringement is not theft. <a " "href=\"http://caselaw.lp.findlaw.com/scripts/getcase.pl?court=us&vol=473&invol=207\"> " "Laws about theft are not applicable to copyright infringement.</a> The " "supporters of repressive copyright are making an appeal to " "authority—and misrepresenting what authority says." msgstr "" #. type: Content of: <p> msgid "" "To refute them, you can point to this <a " "href=\"http://www.guardian.co.uk/books/2013/may/04/harper-lee-kill-mockingbird-copyright\"> " "real case</a> which shows what can properly be described as “copyright " "theft.”" msgstr "" #. type: Content of: <p> msgid "" "Unauthorized copying is forbidden by copyright law in many circumstances " "(not all!), but being forbidden doesn't make it wrong. In general, laws " "don't define right and wrong. Laws, at their best, attempt to implement " "justice. If the laws (the implementation) don't fit our ideas of right and " "wrong (the spec), the laws are what should change." msgstr "" #. type: Content of: <p> msgid "" "A US judge, presiding over a trial for copyright infringement, recognized " "that <a " "href=\"http://torrentfreak.com/mpaa-banned-from-using-piracy-and-theft-terms-in-hotfile-trial-131129/\">“piracy” " "and “theft” are smear-words.</a>" msgstr "" #. type: Content of: <h3> msgid "“Trusted Computing”" msgstr "" #. type: Content of: <p> msgid "" "<a href=\"/philosophy/can-you-trust.html\">“Trusted " "computing”</a> is the proponents' name for a scheme to redesign " "computers so that application developers can trust your computer to obey " "them instead of you. From their point of view, it is “trusted”; " "from your point of view, it is “treacherous.”" msgstr "" #. type: Content of: <h3> msgid "“Vendor”" msgstr "" #. type: Content of: <p> msgid "" "Please don't use the term “vendor” to refer generally to anyone " "that develops or packages software. Many programs are developed in order to " "sell copies, and their developers are therefore their vendors; this even " "includes some free software packages. However, many programs are developed " "by volunteers or organizations which do not intend to sell copies. These " "developers are not vendors. Likewise, only some of the packagers of " "GNU/Linux distributions are vendors. We recommend the general term " "“supplier” instead." msgstr "" #. type: Content of: <blockquote><p> msgid "" "This essay is published in <a " "href=\"http://shop.fsf.org/product/free-software-free-society/\"><cite>Free " "Software, Free Society: The Selected Essays of Richard " "M. Stallman</cite></a>." msgstr "" #. TRANSLATORS: Use space (SPC) as msgstr if you don't have notes. #. type: Content of: <div> msgid "*GNUN-SLOT: TRANSLATOR'S NOTES*" msgstr "" #. type: Content of: <div><div><p> msgid "" "Please send general FSF & GNU inquiries to <a " "href=\"mailto:gnu@gnu.org\"><gnu@gnu.org></a>. There are also <a " "href=\"/contact/\">other ways to contact</a> the FSF. Broken links and " "other corrections or suggestions can be sent to <a " "href=\"mailto:webmasters@gnu.org\"><webmasters@gnu.org></a>." msgstr "" #. TRANSLATORS: Ignore the original text in this paragraph, #. replace it with the translation of these two: # #. We work hard and do our best to provide accurate, good quality #. translations. However, we are not exempt from imperfection. #. Please send your comments and general suggestions in this regard #. to <a href="mailto:web-translators@gnu.org"> # #. <web-translators@gnu.org></a>.</p> # #. <p>For information on coordinating and submitting translations of #. our web pages, see <a #. href="/server/standards/README.translations.html">Translations #. README</a>. #. type: Content of: <div><div><p> msgid "" "Please see the <a " "href=\"/server/standards/README.translations.html\">Translations README</a> " "for information on coordinating and submitting translations of this article." msgstr "" #. type: Content of: <div><p> msgid "" "Copyright © 1996, 1997, 1998, 1999, 2001, 2002, 2003, 2004, 2007, 2008, " "2009, 2010, 2011, 2012, 2015, 2016, 2017, 2018 Free Software Foundation, " "Inc." msgstr "" #. type: Content of: <div><p> msgid "" "This page is licensed under a <a rel=\"license\" " "href=\"http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nd/4.0/\">Creative Commons " "Attribution-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License</a>." msgstr "" #. TRANSLATORS: Use space (SPC) as msgstr if you don't want credits. #. type: Content of: <div><div> msgid "*GNUN-SLOT: TRANSLATOR'S CREDITS*" msgstr "" #. timestamp start #. type: Content of: <div><p> msgid "Updated:" msgstr ""