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<title>Apple's Operating Systems are Malware
- GNU Project - Free Software Foundation</title>
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<h2>Apple's Operating Systems Are Malware</h2>

<p><a href="/proprietary/proprietary.html">Other examples of proprietary malware</a></p>

<div class="highlight-para">
<p>
<em>Malware</em> means class="infobox">
<hr class="full-width" />
<p>Nonfree (proprietary) software designed is very often malware (designed to function in ways that
mistreat or harm the user.  (This does not include accidental errors.)
This page explains how the software in Apple's computer products are
malware.
</p>

<p>
Malware and nonfree software are two different issues.  The difference
between <a href="/philosophy/free-sw.html">free software</a> and
nonfree user). Nonfree software is controlled by its developers,
which puts them in
<a href="/philosophy/free-software-even-more-important.html">
whether the users have control of the program or vice versa</a>.  It's
not directly a question position of what power over the program <em>does</em> when it
runs.  However, in practice nonfree software users; <a
href="/philosophy/free-software-even-more-important.html">that is often malware,
because the developer's awareness
basic injustice</a>. The developers and manufacturers often exercise
that power to the detriment of the users would be powerless they ought to fix
any serve.</p>

<p>This typically takes the form of malicious functionalities tempts functionalities.</p>
<hr class="full-width" />
</div>

<div class="article">
<div class="important">
<p>If you know of an example that ought to be in this page but isn't
here, please write
to <a href="mailto:webmasters@gnu.org"><webmasters@gnu.org></a>
to inform us. Please include the developer URL of a trustworthy reference or two
to impose some.
</p> serve as specific substantiation.</p>
</div>

<p>Here's how Apple's systems are malware.</p>

<div class="toc">

<div class="malfunctions"> id="TOC" class="toc-inline">
<h3 style="display: none">Types of Apple malware</h3>
<ul>
<li><strong>Type of malware</strong></li>
  <li><a href="#back-doors">Back doors</a></li>
  <li><a href="#censorship">Censorship</a></li>
<!-- <li><a href="#deception">Deception</a></li> -->
  <li><a href="#drm">DRM</a></li>
  <li><a href="#incompatibility">Incompatibility</a></li>
  <li><a href="#insecurity">Insecurity</a></li>
  <li><a href="#interference">Interference</a></li>
  <li><a href="#jails">Jails</a></li>
  <li><a href="#manipulation">Manipulation</a></li>
  <li><a href="#pressuring">Pressuring</a></li>
  <li><a href="#sabotage">Sabotage</a></li>
  <li><a href="#interference">Interference</a></li> href="#subscriptions">Subscriptions</a></li>
  <li><a href="#surveillance">Surveillance</a></li>
  <li><a href="#drm">Digital restrictions
    management</a> or “DRM” means functionalities designed href="#tyrants">Tyrants</a></li>
</ul>
</div>

<h3 id="back-doors">Back Doors</h3>

<ul class="blurbs">
  <li id="M201907100">
    <!--#set var="DATE" value='<small class="date-tag">2019-07</small>'
    --><!--#echo encoding="none" var="DATE" -->
    <p>Apple appears to restrict what users can do with the data in their computers.</li>
<li><a href="#jails">Jails</a>—systems
    that impose censorship on application programs.</li>
<li><a href="#tyrants">Tyrants</a>—systems say that reject any operating system <a
    href="https://techcrunch.com/2019/07/10/apple-silent-update-zoom-app/">
    there is a back door in MacOS</a> for automatically updating some
    (all?) apps.</p>

    <p>The specific change described in the article was not “authorized”
    malicious—it protected users from surveillance by third
    parties—but that is a separate question.</p>
  </li>

  <li id="M201607284">
    <!--#set var="DATE" value='<small class="date-tag">2016-07</small>'
    --><!--#echo encoding="none" var="DATE" -->
    <p>The Dropbox app for Macintosh <a
    href="https://web.archive.org/web/20180124123506/http://applehelpwriter.com/2016/07/28/revealing-dropboxs-dirty-little-security-hack/">
    takes control of user interface items after luring the
    manufacturer.</li>
<li><a href="#deception">Deception</a></li>
</ul>
</div>
</div>

<h3 id="back-doors">Apple Back Doors</h3>
<ul>
<li><p>
Mac user into
    entering an admin password</a>.</p>
  </li>

  <li id="M201504090">
    <!--#set var="DATE" value='<small class="date-tag">2015-04</small>'
    --><!--#echo encoding="none" var="DATE" -->
    <p>Mac OS X had an <a
    href="https://truesecdev.wordpress.com/2015/04/09/hidden-backdoor-api-to-root-privileges-in-apple-os-x/">
    intentional local back door for 4 years</a>, which could be exploited
    by attackers to gain root privileges.
</p></li>

<li><p>The privileges.</p>
  </li>

  <li id="M201011220">
    <!--#set var="DATE" value='<small class="date-tag">2010-11</small>'
    --><!--#echo encoding="none" var="DATE" -->
    <p>The iPhone has a back door for <a
    href="https://www.npr.org/2010/11/22/131511381/wipeout-when-your-company-kills-your-iphone">
    remote wipe</a>.  It's not always enabled, but users are led into
    enabling it without understanding.</p>
  </li>

  <li id="M200808110">
    <!--#set var="DATE" value='<small class="date-tag">2008-08</small>'
    --><!--#echo encoding="none" var="DATE" -->
    <p>The iPhone has a back door <a
href="http://www.telegraph.co.uk/technology/3358134/Apples-Jobs-confirms-iPhone-kill-switch.html">
    href="https://www.telegraph.co.uk/technology/3358134/Apples-Jobs-confirms-iPhone-kill-switch.html">
    that allows Apple to remotely delete apps</a> which Apple considers
    “inappropriate”.  Jobs said it's OK for Apple to have
    this power because of course we can trust Apple.
</p></li>

<li><p>The iPhone has Apple.</p>
  </li>
</ul>


<h3 id="censorship">Censorship</h3>

<p>Apple mainly uses iOS, which is a back door typical jail, to impose censorship
through the Apple Store. Please refer to the <a href="#jails">Apple Jails</a>
section for more information.</p>


<h3 id="drm">DRM</h3>

<p>Digital restrictions management, or “DRM,” refers to
functionalities designed to restrict what users can do with the data
in their computers.</p>

<ul class="blurbs">
  <li id="M202203210">
    <!--#set var="DATE" value='<small class="date-tag">2022-03</small>'
    --><!--#echo encoding="none" var="DATE" -->
    <p>Apple prevents people from upgrading their Mac hardware <a
href="http://www.npr.org/2010/11/22/131511381/wipeout-when-your-company-kills-your-iphone">
remote wipe</a>.  It's not always enabled, but
    href="https://www.theverge.com/2022/3/21/22989226/apple-mac-studios-removable-ssd-blocked-software-replacement">by
    imposing DRM on its removable SSD storage</a>.</p>
  </li>

  <li id="M202111040">
    <!--#set var="DATE" value='<small class="date-tag">2021-11</small>'
    --><!--#echo encoding="none" var="DATE" -->
    <p>Apple's new tactic to restrict users from
    repairing their own device and impose DRM on people is to <a
    href="https://www.ifixit.com/News/54829/apples-new-screen-repair-trap-could-change-the-repair-industry-forever">completely
    disable its Face ID functionality</a> when you replace its screen.</p>
  </li>

  <li id="M201908150.1">
    <!--#set var="DATE" value='<small class="date-tag">2019-08</small>'
    --><!--#echo encoding="none" var="DATE" -->
    <p>Apple is putting DRM on iPhone batteries, and the system proprietary
    software <a href="#M201908150">turns off certain features when batteries
    are led into
enabling it without understanding.
</p></li> replaced other than by Apple.</a></p>
  </li>

  <li id="M201704070.1">
    <!--#set var="DATE" value='<small class="date-tag">2017-04</small>'
    --><!--#echo encoding="none" var="DATE" -->
    <p>DRM makes the iPhone 7 nearly <a
    href="#iphone7-sabotage">unrepairable</a> by anyone else but Apple.</p>
  </li>

  <li id="M201512260">
    <!--#set var="DATE" value='<small class="date-tag">2015-12</small>'
    --><!--#echo encoding="none" var="DATE" -->
    <p><a
    href="https://www.vice.com/en/article/bmvxp4/switzerland-wants-a-single-universal-phone-charger-by-2017">
    Apple uses DRM software to prevent people from charging an iThing
    with a generic USB cable</a>.</p>
  </li>

  <li id="M200811210">
    <!--#set var="DATE" value='<small class="date-tag">2008-11</small>'
    --><!--#echo encoding="none" var="DATE" -->
    <p><a
    href="https://www.eff.org/deeplinks/2008/11/apple-downgrades-macbook-video-drm">
    DRM (digital restrictions mechanisms) in MacOS</a>. This article
    focuses on the fact that a new model of Macbook introduced a
    requirement for monitors to have malicious hardware, but DRM software
    in MacOS is involved in activating the hardware. The software for
    accessing iTunes is also responsible.</p>
  </li>

  <li id="M200708130">
    <!--#set var="DATE" value='<small class="date-tag">2007-08</small>'
    --><!--#echo encoding="none" var="DATE" -->
    <p><a href="https://arstechnica.com/gadgets/2007/08/aacs-tentacles/">
    DRM that caters to Bluray disks</a>.  (The article focused on Windows
    and said that MacOS would do the same thing subsequently.)</p>
  </li>

  <li id="M200703310">
    <!--#set var="DATE" value='<small class="date-tag">2007-03</small>'
    --><!--#echo encoding="none" var="DATE" -->
    <p>iTunes videos have DRM, which allows Apple to <a
    href="https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/FairPlay">dictate where its
    customers can watch the videos they purchased</a>.</p>
  </li>
</ul>


<h3 id="censorship">Apple Censorship</h3>
<ul>
<li><p> id="incompatibility">Incompatibility</h3>

<p>In this section, we list characteristics of Apple censors
games, programs that block or
hinder users from switching to any alternative program—and, in
particular, from switching to free software which can liberate the device
the software runs on.</p>

<ul class="blurbs">
  <li id="M201803300">
    <!--#set var="DATE" value='<small class="date-tag">2018-03</small>'
    --><!--#echo encoding="none" var="DATE" -->
    <p>In MacOS and iOS, the procedure for <a href="http://arstechnica.com/gaming/2016/05/apple-says-game-about-palestinian-child-isnt-a-game">banning
some games
    href="https://support.apple.com/guide/photos/export-photos-videos-and-slideshows-pht6e157c5f/mac">
    converting images from the cr…app store</a> because Photos format</a> to a free format is so
    tedious and time-consuming that users just give up if they have a
    lot of which political
points them.</p>
  </li>

  <li id="M201802120">
    <!--#set var="DATE" value='<small class="date-tag">2018-02</small>'
    --><!--#echo encoding="none" var="DATE" -->
    <p>Apple devices lock users in <a
    href="https://gizmodo.com/homepod-is-the-ultimate-apple-product-in-a-bad-way-1822883347">
    solely to Apple services</a> by being designed to be incompatible
    with all other options, ethical or unethical.</p>
  </li>

  <li id="M201605044">
    <!--#set var="DATE" value='<small class="date-tag">2016-05</small>'
    --><!--#echo encoding="none" var="DATE" -->
    <p>iWork (office software that runs on MacOS,
    iOS and iCloud) uses secret formats and <a
    href="https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/IWork">provides no means of
    converting them to or from Open Document Formats</a>. iWork
    formats have changed several times since they suggest. Some political points were first
    introduced. This may have had the effect of thwarting <a
    href="https://github.com/obriensp/iWorkFileFormat">reverse engineering
    efforts</a>, thus preventing free software from fully supporting
    them.</p>

    <p>iWork formats are apparently considered
acceptable.</p> <a
    href="https://wiki.harvard.edu/confluence/download/attachments/204385883/Format%20profile%20-%20Apple%20iWork%20Pages%20v04.docx?version=1&modificationDate=1459873751000&api=v2">
    unfit for document preservation</a>.</p>
  </li>

<li><p>
Apple
</ul>


<h3 id="insecurity">Insecurity</h3>

<p>These bugs are/were not intentional, so unlike the rest of the file
  they do not count as malware. We mention them to refute the
  supposition that prestigious proprietary software doesn't have grave
  bugs.</p>

<ul class="blurbs">
  <li id="M202201040">
    <!--#set var="DATE" value='<small class="date-tag">2022-01</small>'
    --><!--#echo encoding="none" var="DATE" -->
    <p>A critical bug in Apple's iOS makes
    it possible for attackers to alter a shutdown event, <a href="http://ifixit.org/blog/7401/ifixit-app-pulled/">
banned
    href="https://blog.zecops.com/research/persistence-without-persistence-meet-the-ultimate-persistence-bug-noreboot/">tricking
    the user into thinking that the phone has been powered
    off</a>. But in fact, it's still running, and the user can't feel
    any difference between a program from real shutdown and the App Store</a> because its developers
committed fake shutdown.</p>
  </li>

  <li id="M202111110">
    <!--#set var="DATE" value='<small class="date-tag">2021-11</small>'
    --><!--#echo encoding="none" var="DATE" -->
    <p>Some researchers at Google <a href="https://www.vice.com/en/article/93bw8y/google-caught-hackers-using-a-mac-zero-day-against-hong-kong-users">found
  a zero-day vulnerability on MacOS,
  which crackers used to target people visiting the enormity websites</a> of disassembling some iThings.
</p></li>

<li><p>
Apple rejected an app
  a media outlet and a pro-democracy labor and political group in Hong
  Kong.</p>

  <p><small>Please note that displayed the locations article wrongly refers
  to crackers as “<a href="/philosophy/words-to-avoid.html#Hacker">hackers</a>”.</small></p>
  </li>

  <li id="M202107180">
    <!--#set var="DATE" value='<small class="date-tag">2021-07</small>'
    --><!--#echo encoding="none" var="DATE" -->
    <p><a
    href="https://www.theguardian.com/news/2021/jul/18/what-is-pegasus-spyware-and-how-does-it-hack-phones">
    The pegasus spyware used vulnerabilities on proprietary smartphone
    operating systems</a> to impose surveillance on people. It can record
    people's calls, copy their messages, and secretly film them, using a
    security vulnerability. There's also <a
    href="https://info.lookout.com/rs/051-ESQ-475/images/lookout-pegasus-technical-analysis.pdf">
 	a technical analysis of US drone
assassinations, giving various excuses. Each time this spyware</a> available in PDF format.</p>

    <p>A free operating system would've let people to fix the developers
fixed one “problem”, Apple complained about another.
After bugs for
    themselves but now infected people will be compelled to wait for corporations to
    fix the fifth rejection,
Apple problems.</p>

    <p><small>Please note that the article
    wrongly refers to crackers as “<a
    href="/philosophy/words-to-avoid.html#Hacker">hackers</a>”.</small></p>
  </li>

  <li id="M202012200">
    <!--#set var="DATE" value='<small class="date-tag">2020-12</small>'
    --><!--#echo encoding="none" var="DATE" -->
    <p>Commercial crackware can <a href="http://mashable.com/2014/02/07/apple-app-tracks-drone-strikes/">admitted
it was censoring
    href="https://www.theguardian.com/technology/2020/dec/20/iphones-vulnerable-to-hacking-tool-for-months-researchers-say">
    get passwords out of an iMonster</a>, use the app based microphone and camera,
    and other things.</p>
  </li>

  <li id="M202011120">
    <!--#set var="DATE" value='<small class="date-tag">2020-11</small>'
    --><!--#echo encoding="none" var="DATE" -->
    <p>Apple has <a
    href="https://sneak.berlin/20201112/your-computer-isnt-yours/">implemented
    a malware in its computers that imposes surveillance</a> on users
    and reports users' computing to Apple.</p>

    <p>The reports are even unencrypted and they've been leaking this
    data for two years already. This malware is reporting to Apple what
    user opens what program at what time. It also gives Apple
    power to sabotage users' computing.</p>
  </li>

  <li id="M201908310">
    <!--#set var="DATE" value='<small class="date-tag">2019-08</small>'
    --><!--#echo encoding="none" var="DATE" -->
    <p>A series of vulnerabilities <a
    href="https://www.forbes.com/sites/gordonkelly/2019/08/31/apple-iphone-ipad-security-ios-upgrade-iphone-xs-max-xr-update/">found
    in iOS allowed attackers to gain access to sensitive information
    including private messages, passwords, photos and contacts stored on
    the subject matter</a>.
</p></li>

<li><p>
As user's iMonster</a>.</p>

    <p>The deep insecurity of 2015, iMonsters is even more pertinent given that
    Apple's proprietary software makes users totally dependent on Apple <a href="http://www.theguardian.com/commentisfree/2015/sep/23/apple-anti-choice-tendencies-showing-in-app-store-reproductive-rights">systematically bans apps
    for even a modicum of security.  It also means that endorse abortion
rights or would help women find abortions</a>.</p>

<p>
This particular political slant <a href="http://www.theguardian.com/technology/2011/dec/01/siri-abortion-apple-unintenional-omissions">
affects other the devices do
    not even try to offer security against Apple services</a>.
</p></li>
</ul>

<h3 id="insecurity">Apple Insecurity</h3>

<ul>
  <li> itself.</p>
  </li>

  <li id="M201607220">
    <!--#set var="DATE" value='<small class="date-tag">2016-07</small>'
    --><!--#echo encoding="none" var="DATE" -->
    <p>A vulnerability in Apple's Image I/O API allowed an attacker to <a
    href="https://www.theguardian.com/technology/2016/jul/22/stagefright-flaw-ios-iphone-imessage-apple">execute
    malacious
    malicious code from any application which uses this API to render a
    certain kind of image file</a>.</p>
  </li>

  <li>

  <li id="M201604120">
    <!--#set var="DATE" value='<small class="date-tag">2016-04</small>'
    --><!--#echo encoding="none" var="DATE" -->
    <p>A bug in the iThings Messages app <a
    href="https://theintercept.com/2016/04/12/apple-bug-exposed-chat-history-with-a-single-click/">allowed
    a malicious web site to extract all the user's messaging history</a>.
    </p>
    history</a>.</p>
  </li>

  <li id="M201311120">
    <!--#set var="DATE" value='<small class="date-tag">2013-11</small>'
    --><!--#echo encoding="none" var="DATE" -->
    <p><a
    href="https://web.archive.org/web/20180816030205/http://www.spiegel.de/international/world/privacy-scandal-nsa-can-spy-on-smart-phone-data-a-920971.html">
    The NSA can tap data in smart phones, including iPhones,
    Android, and BlackBerry</a>.  While there is not much
    detail here, it seems that this does not operate via
    the universal back door that we know nearly all portable
    phones have. It may involve exploiting various bugs.  There are <a
    href="https://www.osnews.com/story/27416/the-second-operating-system-hiding-in-every-mobile-phone/">
    lots of bugs in the phones' radio software</a>.</p>
  </li>
</ul>


<h3 id="interference">Apple Interference</h3> id="interference">Interference</h3>
<p>Various proprietary programs often mess up are designed to harass, annoy or cause
  trouble for the user's system. user. They are like sabotage, but they are not grave
  enough to qualify for the word “sabotage”. Nonetheless,
  they are nasty and wrong. This section describes examples of Apple
  committing interference.</p>

<ul>
  <li><p>Apple forced millions

<ul class="blurbs">
  <li id="M202211300">
    <!--#set var="DATE" value='<small class="date-tag">2022-11</small>'
    --><!--#echo encoding="none" var="DATE" -->
    <p><a href="https://www.techarp.com/mobile/apple-china-limit-airdrop/">
    Obeying a demand by the Chinese government, Apple restricted the
    use of iThings AirDrop in China</a>. It imposed a ten-minute time limit
    during which users can receive files from non contacts. This makes
    it nearly impossible to use AirDrop for its intended purpose, which
    is to exchange files with strangers between iMonsters in physical
    proximity. This happened after it became known that dissenters
    were using the app to distribute digital anti-government fliers
    anonymously.</p>
  </li>

  <li id="M202105300">
    <!--#set var="DATE" value='<small class="date-tag">2021-05</small>'
    --><!--#echo encoding="none" var="DATE" -->
    <p><a
    href="https://www.theguardian.com/technology/2021/may/30/gadgets-have-stopped-working-together-interoperability-apple">Apple
    is systematically undermining interoperability</a>. At the hardware
    level, it does this via nonstandard plugs, buses and networks. At
    the software level, it does this by not letting the user have any
    data except within one app.</p>
  </li>

  <li id="M201908150">
    <!--#set var="DATE" value='<small class="date-tag">2019-08</small>'
    --><!--#echo encoding="none" var="DATE" -->
    <p>Apple is putting DRM on iPhone
    batteries, and the system proprietary software <a
    href="https://www.vice.com/en/article/59nz3k/apple-is-locking-batteries-to-specific-iphones-a-nightmare-for-diy-repair">turns
    off certain features when batteries are replaced other than by
    Apple.</a></p>
  </li>
</ul>


<h3 id="jails">Jails</h3>

<p>Jails are systems that impose censorship on which application
programs a user can install.</p>

<ul class="blurbs">
  <li id="M202207200">
    <!--#set var="DATE" value='<small class="date-tag">2022-07</small>'
    --><!--#echo encoding="none" var="DATE" -->
    <p>Shortcuts, a built-in scripting app on Apple devices, <a
    href="https://support.apple.com/guide/shortcuts/apdf01f8c054/5.0/ios/15.0">
    doesn't give you complete freedom to share scripts</a>
    (a.k.a. “shortcuts”). Exporting a script as a file <a
    href="https://www.reddit.com/r/StallmanWasRight/comments/vogb0c/all_methods_of_sharing_ios_shortcuts_require_an/">
    requires an Apple ID</a>, and may be subjected to censorship by Apple.</p>

    <p>In this situation (and many others), switching from iPhony/iBad to a
    freedom respecting device gives you both convenience and freedom. The
    assumption that you must sacrifice convenience to get freedom is
    often wrong. Jails are inconvenient.</p>
  </li>

  <li id="M202109170">
    <!--#set var="DATE" value='<small class="date-tag">2021-09</small>'
    --><!--#echo encoding="none" var="DATE" -->
    <p>Apple has made it <a
    href="https://gizmodo.com/apple-and-google-pull-opposition-app-from-russian-store-1847695238">
    impossible to load Navalny's tactical voting app into an iPhone</a>
    in Russia.</p>

    <p>It is impossible because (1) the iPhone refuses to load apps
    from anywhere other than Apple, and (2) Apple has obeyed a Russian
    censorship law.  The first point is enforced by Apple's nonfree
    software.</p>
  </li>

  <li id="M201904080">
    <!--#set var="DATE" value='<small class="date-tag">2019-04</small>'
    --><!--#echo encoding="none" var="DATE" -->
    <p>Apple plans to require that <a
    href="https://www.macrumors.com/2019/04/08/mac-apps-notarization-macos-10-14-5/">
    all application software for MacOS be approved by Apple first</a>.</p>

    <p>Offering a checking service as an option could be
    useful and would not be wrong.  Requiring users to get
    Apple's approval is tyranny. Apple says the check will
    only look for malware (not counting the malware that is <a
    href="/proprietary/malware-apple.html#TOC">part of
    the operating system</a>), but Apple could change that policy step
    by step.  Or perhaps Apple will define malware to include any app
    that China does not like.</p>

    <p>For free software, this means users will need to get Apple's
    approval after compilation.  This amounts to download a system upgrade of surveilling
    the use of free programs.</p>
  </li>

  <li id="M200803070">
    <!--#set var="DATE" value='<small class="date-tag">2008-03</small>'
    --><!--#echo encoding="none" var="DATE" -->
    <p><a href="https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=IOS_jailbreaking&oldid=835861046">
    iOS, the operating system of the Apple iThings, is the prototype
    of a jail</a>.  It was Apple that introduced the practice of
    designing general purpose computers with censorship of application
    programs.</p>

    <p>Here is an article about the <a href="https://discussions.apple.com/thread/7256669?tstart0=">without asking
    href="https://weblog.rogueamoeba.com/2008/03/07/code-signing-and-you/">
    code signing</a> that the users</a>. iThings use to lock up the user.</p>

    <p>Curiously, Apple did is beginning to allow limited passage through the
    walls of the iThing jail: users can now install apps built from
    source code, provided the source code is written in Swift.  Users
    cannot do this freely because they are required to identify
    themselves. <a href="https://developer.apple.com/xcode/">Here
    are details</a>. While this is a crack in the prison walls, it is not forcibly
    big enough to mean that the iThings are no longer jails.</p>
  </li>
</ul>

<h4 id="jail-censorship">Examples of censorship by Apple jails</h4>

<ul class="blurbs">
  <li id="M202108200">
    <!--#set var="DATE" value='<small class="date-tag">2021-08</small>'
    --><!--#echo encoding="none" var="DATE" -->
    <p>The Russian communications watchdog <a
    href="https://www.reuters.com/legal/litigation/russian-watchdog-tells-google-apple-remove-navalny-app-report-2021-08-20/">
    tells Google and Apple to remove Navalny's app</a> from their
    stores.</p>

    <p>Because Apple controls what a user can install, this is absolute
    censorship. By contrast, because Android does not do that, users can
    install apps even if Google does not offer them.</p>
  </li>

  <li id="M202008300">
    <!--#set var="DATE" value='<small class="date-tag">2020-08</small>'
    --><!--#echo encoding="none" var="DATE" -->
    <p>Apple is <a
    href="https://www.theguardian.com/technology/2020/aug/30/this-isnt-the-1990s-apple-under-pressure-from-app-developers">
    putting the upgrade squeeze on all business</a> conducted through apps
    for iMonsters.</p>

    <p>This is a symptom of a very big injustice: that Apple has the
    power to decide what software can be installed on an iMonster.
    That it is a jail.</p>
  </li>

  <li id="M201910100">
    <!--#set var="DATE" value='<small class="date-tag">2019-10</small>'
    --><!--#echo encoding="none" var="DATE" -->
    <p>Apple has <a
    href="https://www.theguardian.com/world/2019/oct/10/hong-kong-protests-apple-pulls-tracking-app-after-china-criticism">
    banned the app that Hong Kong protesters use to communicate</a>.</p>

    <p>Obeying the “local laws” about what people can do with
    software is no excuse for censoring what software people can use.</p>
  </li>

  <li id="M201910070">
    <!--#set var="DATE" value='<small class="date-tag">2019-10</small>'
    --><!--#echo encoding="none" var="DATE" -->
    <p>Apple <a
    href="https://boingboing.net/2019/10/07/apple-ios-13-1-2-for-hong-kong.html">
    censors the Taiwan flag in iOS</a> on behalf of the Chinese
    government. When the region is set to Hong Kong, this flag is not
    visible in the emoji selection widget but is still accessible. When the downloading alone caused lots
    region is set to mainland China, all attempts to display it will result
    in the “empty emoji” icon as if the flag never existed.</p>

    <p>Thus, not only does Apple use the App Store as an instrument
    of trouble.</p> censorship, it also uses the iThing operating system for that
    purpose.</p>
  </li>

  <li id="M201905150">
    <!--#set var="DATE" value='<small class="date-tag">2019-05</small>'
    --><!--#echo encoding="none" var="DATE" -->
    <p>Users caught in the jail of an iMonster are <a
    href="https://boingboing.net/2019/05/15/brittle-security.html"> sitting
    ducks for other attackers</a>, and the app censorship prevents security
    companies from figuring out how those attacks work.</p>

    <p>Apple's censorship of apps is fundamentally unjust, and would be
    inexcusable even if it didn't lead to security threats as well.</p>
  </li>

  <li id="M201710130">
    <!--#set var="DATE" value='<small class="date-tag">2017-10</small>'
    --><!--#echo encoding="none" var="DATE" -->
    <p>Apple is <a
    href="https://www.eff.org/deeplinks/2017/10/iranian-hardliners-want-isolated-internet">
    censoring apps for the US government too</a>. Specifically, it is
    deleting apps developed by Iranians.</p>

    <p>The root of these wrongs is in Apple. If Apple had not designed
    the iMonsters to let Apple censor applications, Apple would not have
    had the power to stop users from installing whatever kind of apps.</p>
  </li>

  <li id="M201707290">
    <!--#set var="DATE" value='<small class="date-tag">2017-07</small>'
    --><!--#echo encoding="none" var="DATE" -->
    <p>Apple <a
    href="https://www.nytimes.com/2017/07/29/technology/china-apple-censorhip.html">
    deleted several VPNs from its app store for China</a>, thus using its
    own censorship power to strengthen that of the Chinese government.</p>
  </li>

  <li id="M201701064">
    <!--#set var="DATE" value='<small class="date-tag">2017-01</small>'
    --><!--#echo encoding="none" var="DATE" -->
    <p>Apple used its censorship system to enforce Russian surveillance <a
    href="https://web.archive.org/web/20220402210254/https://www.nytimes.com/2017/01/06/technology/linkedin-blocked-in-russia.html">
    by blocking distribution of the LinkedIn app in Russia</a>.</p>

    <p>This is ironic because LinkedIn is a surveillance system itself.
    While subjecting its users to its own surveillance, it tries to
    protect its users from Russian surveillance, and is therefore subject
    to Russian censorship.</p>

    <p>However, the point here is the wrong of Apple's censorship of
    apps.</p>
  </li>

  <li id="M201701050">
    <!--#set var="DATE" value='<small class="date-tag">2017-01</small>'
    --><!--#echo encoding="none" var="DATE" -->
    <p>Apple used its censorship system to enforce China's censorship <a
    href="https://www.theguardian.com/world/2017/jan/05/apple-removes-new-york-times-app-in-china">
    by blocking distribution of the New York Times app</a>.</p>
  </li>

  <li id="M201605190">
    <!--#set var="DATE" value='<small class="date-tag">2016-05</small>'
    --><!--#echo encoding="none" var="DATE" -->
    <p>Apple censors games, <a
    href="https://arstechnica.com/gaming/2016/05/apple-says-game-about-palestinian-child-isnt-a-game/">
    banning some games from the cr…app store</a> because of which
    political points they suggest. Some political points are apparently
    considered acceptable.</p>
  </li>

  <li id="M201509290">
    <!--#set var="DATE" value='<small class="date-tag">2015-09</small>'
    --><!--#echo encoding="none" var="DATE" -->
    <p>Apple <a href="https://www.ifixit.com/News/7401/ifixit-app-pulled">
    banned a program from the App Store</a> because its developers
    committed the enormity of disassembling some iThings.</p>
  </li>

  <li id="M201509230">
    <!--#set var="DATE" value='<small class="date-tag">2015-09</small>'
    --><!--#echo encoding="none" var="DATE" -->
    <p>As of 2015, Apple <a
    href="https://www.theguardian.com/commentisfree/2015/sep/23/apple-anti-choice-tendencies-showing-in-app-store-reproductive-rights">
    systematically bans apps that endorse abortion rights or would help
    women find abortions</a>.</p>

    <p>This particular political slant <a
    href="https://www.theguardian.com/technology/2011/dec/01/siri-abortion-apple-unintenional-omissions">
    affects other Apple services</a>.</p>
  </li>

  <li id="M201506250">
    <!--#set var="DATE" value='<small class="date-tag">2015-06</small>'
    --><!--#echo encoding="none" var="DATE" -->
    <p>Apple has banned iThing
    applications that show the confederate flag.  <a
    href="https://www.huffpost.com/entry/apple-confederate-flag_n_7663754">
    Not only those that use it as a symbol of racism</a>, but even
    strategic games that use it to represent confederate army units
    fighting in the Civil War.</p>

    <p>This ludicrous rigidity illustrates the point that Apple should
    not be allowed to censor apps.  Even if Apple carried out this act of
    censorship with some care, it would still be wrong.  Whether racism
    is bad, whether educating people about drone attacks is bad, are not
    the real issue.  Apple should not have the power to impose its views
    about either of these questions, or any other.</p>
  </li>

  <li id="M201412110">
    <!--#set var="DATE" value='<small class="date-tag">2014-12</small>'
    --><!--#echo encoding="none" var="DATE" -->
    <p><a
    href="https://www.theguardian.com/technology/2014/dec/11/papers-please-game-ipad-nude-body-scans">
    More examples of Apple's arbitrary and inconsistent censorship</a>.</p>
  </li>

  <li id="M201405250">
    <!--#set var="DATE" value='<small class="date-tag">2014-05</small>'
    --><!--#echo encoding="none" var="DATE" -->
    <p>Apple used this censorship power in 2014 to <a
    href="https://boingboing.net/2014/02/07/apple-yanks-last-remaining-bit.html">
    ban all bitcoin apps</a> for the iThings for a time.  It also <a
    href="https://www.gamespot.com/articles/apple-removes-game-about-growing-marijuana-from-app-store/1100-6419864/">
    banned a game about growing marijuana</a>, while permitting games
    about other crimes such as killing people.  Perhaps Apple considers
    killing more acceptable than marijuana.</p>
  </li>

  <li id="M201402070">
    <!--#set var="DATE" value='<small class="date-tag">2014-02</small>'
    --><!--#echo encoding="none" var="DATE" -->
    <p>Apple rejected an app that displayed the locations
    of US drone assassinations, giving various excuses. Each
    time the developers fixed one “problem”, Apple
    complained about another.  After the fifth rejection, Apple <a
    href="https://mashable.com/archive/apple-app-tracks-drone-strikes">
    admitted it was censoring the app based on the subject matter</a>.</p>
  </li>
</ul>


<h3 id="manipulation">Manipulation</h3>

<ul class="blurbs">
  <li id="M201308290">
    <!--#set var="DATE" value='<small class="date-tag">2013-08</small>'
    --><!--#echo encoding="none" var="DATE" -->
    <p>“Dark patterns” are <a
    href="https://www.theverge.com/2013/8/29/4640308/dark-patterns-inside-the-interfaces-designed-to-trick-you">user
    interfaces designed to mislead users, or make option settings hard
    to find</a>.</p>

    <p>This allows a company such as Apple to say, “We allow users
    to turn this off” while ensuring that few will understand how
    to actually turn it off.</p>
  </li>
</ul>


<h3 id="pressuring">Apple Pressuring</h3> id="pressuring">Pressuring</h3>

<p>Proprietary companies can take advantage of their customers by imposing arbitrary limits to their use of the software.  This section reports examples of hard sell and other unjust commercial tactics by Apple.</p>

<ul>
  <li><p>Apple

<ul class="blurbs">
  <li id="M201510270">
    <!--#set var="DATE" value='<small class="date-tag">2015-10</small>'
    --><!--#echo encoding="none" var="DATE" -->
    <p>Apple Siri <a href="http://www.theguardian.com/technology/2015/oct/27/apple-music-subscribers-siri-questions">refuses
    href="https://www.theguardian.com/technology/2015/oct/27/apple-music-subscribers-siri-questions">refuses
    to give you information</a> about music charts if you're not an Apple
    Music subscriber.</p>
  </li>
</ul>


<h3 id="sabotage">Apple Sabotage</h3>

<p>The wrongs in this section id="sabotage">Sabotage</h3>

<p>These are not precisely malware, since they do
not involve making the program that runs situations in a way that hurts the user.
But they are a lot like malware, since they are technical which Apple
actions employs its power over users
to directly intervene in ways that harm them or block their work.</p>

<ul class="blurbs">
  <li id="M201908130">
    <!--#set var="DATE" value='<small class="date-tag">2019-08</small>'
    --><!--#echo encoding="none" var="DATE" -->
    <p>When Apple suspects a user of fraud, it
    judges the case secretly and presents the verdict
    as a fait accompli.  The punishment to a user found guilty <a
    href="https://qz.com/1683460/what-happens-to-your-itunes-account-when-apple-says-youve-committed-fraud">is
    being cut off for life, which more-or-less cripples the users user's Apple
    devices forever</a>.  There is no appeal.</p>
  </li>

  <li id="M201810240">
    <!--#set var="DATE" value='<small class="date-tag">2018-10</small>'
    --><!--#echo encoding="none" var="DATE" -->
    <p>Apple and Samsung deliberately <a
    href="https://www.theguardian.com/technology/2018/oct/24/apple-samsung-fined-for-slowing-down-phones">degrade
    the performance of specific older phones to force users to buy their newer
    phones</a>.</p>
  </li>

  <li id="M201805310">
    <!--#set var="DATE" value='<small class="date-tag">2018-05</small>'
    --><!--#echo encoding="none" var="DATE" -->
    <p>Apple has <a
    href="https://www.theverge.com/2018/5/31/17412396/telegram-apple-app-store-app-updates-russia">blocked
    Telegram from upgrading its app for a month</a>.</p>

    <p>This evidently has to do with Russia's command to Apple software.</p>

<ul>
  <li> to block
    Telegram in Russia.</p>

    <p>The Apple Music Telegram client
      program is free software on other platforms, but not on
    iThings. Since <a href="https://blog.vellumatlanta.com/2016/05/04/apple-stole-my-music-no-seriously/">scans href="/proprietary/proprietary-jails.html#apple">they
    are jails</a>, they don't permit any app to be free software.</p>
  </li>

  <li id="M201710044">
    <!--#set var="DATE" value='<small class="date-tag">2017-10</small>'
    --><!--#echo encoding="none" var="DATE" -->
    <p>MacOS High Sierra forcibly reformats SSD boot drives, and <a
    href="https://www.macworld.com/article/230582/apple-file-system-apfs-faq.html">
    changes the user's file system from HFS+  to APFS</a>, which cannot be
    accessed from GNU/Linux, Windows or even older versions of MacOS.</p>
  </li>

  <li id="M201706060">
    <!--#set var="DATE" value='<small class="date-tag">2017-06</small>'
    --><!--#echo encoding="none" var="DATE" -->
    <p>Apple will stop <a
    href="https://www.theguardian.com/technology/2017/jun/06/iphone-ipad-apps-games-apple-5-5c-obsolete">fixing
    bugs for music files, copies them older model iThings</a>.</p>

    <p>Meanwhile, Apple stops people from fixing problems themselves;
    that's the nature of proprietary software.</p>
  </li>

  <li id="M201704070">
    <!--#set var="DATE" value='<small class="date-tag">2017-04</small>'
    --><!--#echo encoding="none" var="DATE" -->
    <p id="iphone7-sabotage">The
    iPhone 7 contains DRM specifically designed to <a
    href="https://www.vice.com/en/article/kbjm8e/iphone-7-home-button-unreplaceable-repair-software-lock">
    brick it if an Apple
      server, and deletes them</a>.</p> “unauthorized” repair shop fixes it</a>.
    “Unauthorized” essentially means anyone besides Apple.</p>

    <p><small>(The article uses the term “lock”
    to describe the DRM, but we prefer to use the term <a
    href="/philosophy/words-to-avoid.html#DigitalLocks"> digital
    handcuffs</a>.)</small></p>
  </li>

  <li>

  <li id="M201606080">
    <!--#set var="DATE" value='<small class="date-tag">2016-06</small>'
    --><!--#echo encoding="none" var="DATE" -->
    <p>Apple <a
href="https://web.archive.org/web/20160608183145/http://www.theregister.co.uk/2016/04/14/uninstall_quicktime_for_windows/">
    href="https://www.theregister.com/2016/04/14/uninstall_quicktime_for_windows/">
    stops users from fixing the security bugs in Quicktime for Windows</a>,
    while refusing to fix them itself.</p>
  </li>

  <li>

  <li id="M201605040">
    <!--#set var="DATE" value='<small class="date-tag">2016-05</small>'
    --><!--#echo encoding="none" var="DATE" -->
    <p>The Apple Music client program <a
    href="https://web.archive.org/web/20170520213355/https://blog.vellumatlanta.com/2016/05/04/apple-stole-my-music-no-seriously/">scans
    the user's file system for music files, copies them to an Apple server,
    and deletes them</a>.</p>
  </li>

  <li id="M201602050">
    <!--#set var="DATE" value='<small class="date-tag">2016-02</small>'
    --><!--#echo encoding="none" var="DATE" -->
    <p>iOS version 9 for iThings <a
    href="https://www.theguardian.com/money/2016/feb/05/error-53-apple-iphone-software-update-handset-worthless-third-party-repair">sabotages
    them irreparably if they were repaired by someone other than
    Apple</a>. Apple eventually backed off from this policy under
    criticism from the users. However, it has not acknowledged that this
    was wrong.</p>
  </li>

  <li><p><a href="http://www.computerworld.com/article/2541250/apple-mac/update--apple-plays-hardball--upgrade--bricks--unlocked-iphones.html">

  <li id="M201510020">
    <!--#set var="DATE" value='<small class="date-tag">2015-10</small>'
    --><!--#echo encoding="none" var="DATE" -->
    <p>Apple forced millions of iThings to <a
    href="https://discussions.apple.com/thread/7256669?tstart=0">download
    a system upgrade without asking the users</a>. Apple did not
    forcibly install the upgrade but the downloading alone caused lots
    of trouble.</p>
  </li>

  <li id="M201412040">
    <!--#set var="DATE" value='<small class="date-tag">2014-12</small>'
    --><!--#echo encoding="none" var="DATE" -->
    <p>Apple <a
    href="https://www.theguardian.com/technology/2014/dec/04/apple-deleted-music-ipods-rivals-steve-jobs">
    deleted from iPods the music that users had got from internet music
    stores that competed with iTunes</a>.</p>
  </li>

  <li id="M200709270">
    <!--#set var="DATE" value='<small class="date-tag">2007-09</small>'
    --><!--#echo encoding="none" var="DATE" -->
    <p><a
    href="https://www.computerworld.com/article/2541250/update--apple-plays-hardball--upgrade--bricks--unlocked-iphones.html">
    An Apple firmware “upgrade” bricked iPhones that had been
  unlocked.</a>
    unlocked</a>.  The “upgrade” also deactivated applications
    not approved by <a href="/proprietary/proprietary-jails.html">Apple
    censorship</a>.  All this was apparently intentional.</p>
  </li>

  <li><p>Apple
</ul>


<h3 id="subscriptions">Subscriptions</h3>

<ul class="blurbs">
  <li id="M202008180">
    <!--#set var="DATE" value='<small class="date-tag">2020-08</small>'
    --><!--#echo encoding="none" var="DATE" -->
    <p>Apple can remotely <a href="http://www.theguardian.com/technology/2014/dec/04/apple-deleted-music-ipods-rivals-steve-jobs">
  deleted from iPods
    href="https://www.theguardian.com/games/2020/aug/18/apple-sets-deadline-in-feud-with-fortnite-maker-epic-games">
    cut off any developer's access to the music tools for developing software</a>
    for iOS or MacOS.</p>

    <p>Epic (Apple's target in this example)
    makes nonfree games which have their own <a
    href="https://ekgaming.com/2019/03/17/is-the-epic-games-store-spying-on-your-computer/">
    malicious features</a>, but that users doesn't make it acceptable for Apple
    to have this sort of power.</p>
  </li>
</ul>


<h3 id="surveillance">Surveillance</h3>

<ul class="blurbs">
  <li id="M202211140">
    <!--#set var="DATE" value='<small class="date-tag">2022-11</small>'
    --><!--#echo encoding="none" var="DATE" -->
    <p><a
    href="https://gizmodo.com/apple-iphone-analytics-tracking-even-when-off-app-store-1849757558">
    The iMonsters' app store client programs collect many kinds of data</a>
    about the user's actions and private communications. “Do not
    track” options are available, but tracking doesn't stop if
    the user activates them: Apple keeps on collecting data for itself,
    although it claims not to share it with third parties.</p>

    <p><a
    href="https://www.theregister.com/2022/11/14/apple_data_collection_lawsuit/">
    Apple is being sued</a> for that.</p>
  </li>

  <li id="M202105240">
    <!--#set var="DATE" value='<small class="date-tag">2021-05</small>'
    --><!--#echo encoding="none" var="DATE" -->
    <p><a
    href="https://www.cpomagazine.com/data-privacy/icloud-data-turned-over-to-chinese-government-conflicts-with-apples-privacy-first-focus/">Apple
    is moving its Chinese customers' iCloud data to a datacenter controlled
    by the Chinese government</a>. Apple is already storing the encryption
    keys on these servers, obeying Chinese authority, making all Chinese
    user data available to the government.</p>
  </li>

  <li id="M202004200">
    <!--#set var="DATE" value='<small class="date-tag">2020-04</small>'
    --><!--#echo encoding="none" var="DATE" -->
    <p>Apple whistleblower Thomas Le Bonniec reports that Apple
    made a practice of surreptitiously activating the Siri software to <a
    href="https://www.politico.eu/wp-content/uploads/2020/05/Public-Statement-Siri-recordings-TLB.pdf">
    record users' conversations when they had got not activated Siri</a>.
    This was not just occasional, it was systematic practice.</p>

    <p>His job was to listen to these recordings, in a group that made
    transcripts of them. He does not believes that Apple has ceased this
    practice.</p>

    <p>The only reliable way to prevent this is, for the program that
    controls access to the microphone to decide when the user has
    “activated” any service, to be free software, and the
    operating system under it free as well. This way, users could make
    sure Apple can't listen to them.</p>
  </li>

  <li id="M202004131">
    <!--#set var="DATE" value='<small class="date-tag">2020-04</small>'
    --><!--#echo encoding="none" var="DATE" -->
    <p>Google, Apple, and Microsoft (and probably some other companies)
    <a href="https://www.lifewire.com/wifi-positioning-system-1683343">are
    collecting people's access points and GPS coordinates (which can
    identify people's precise location) even if their GPS is turned
    off</a>, without the person's consent, using proprietary software
    implemented in person's smartphone. Though merely asking for permission
    would not necessarily legitimize this.</p>
  </li>

  <li id="M201910131">
    <!--#set var="DATE" value='<small class="date-tag">2019-10</small>'
    --><!--#echo encoding="none" var="DATE" -->
    <p>Safari occasionally <a
    href="https://blog.cryptographyengineering.com/2019/10/13/dear-apple-safe-browsing-might-not-be-that-safe/">
    sends browsing data from internet music
  stores Apple devices in China to the Tencent Safe
    Browsing service</a>, to check URLs that competed possibly correspond to
    “fraudulent” websites. Since Tencent collaborates
    with iTunes</a>.</p> the Chinese government, its Safe Browsing black list most certainly
    contains the websites of political opponents. By linking the requests
    originating from single IP addresses, the government can identify
    dissenters in China and Hong Kong, thus endangering their lives.</p>
  </li>
</ul>

<h3 id="surveillance">Apple Surveillance</h3>
<ul>
  <li><p>iPhones

  <li id="M201910130">
    <!--#set var="DATE" value='<small class="date-tag">2019-10</small>'
    --><!--#echo encoding="none" var="DATE" -->
    <p>The Chinese Communist Party's “Study
    the Great Nation” app requires users to grant it <a
    href="https://www.ndtv.com/world-news/chinese-app-allows-officials-access-to-100-million-users-phone-report-2115962">
    access to the phone's microphone, photos, text messages, contacts, and
    internet history</a>, and the Android version was found to contain a
    back-door allowing developers to run any code they wish in the users'
    phone, as “superusers.” Downloading and using this
    app is mandatory at some workplaces.</p>

    <p>Note: The <a
    href="http://web-old.archive.org/web/20191015005153/https://www.washingtonpost.com/world/asia_pacific/chinese-app-on-xis-ideology-allows-data-access-to-100-million-users-phones-report-says/2019/10/11/2d53bbae-eb4d-11e9-bafb-da248f8d5734_story.html">
    Washington Post version of the article</a> (partly obfuscated, but
    readable after copy-pasting in a text editor) includes a clarification
    saying that the tests were only performed on the Android version
    of the app, and that, according to Apple, “this kind of
    ‘superuser’ surveillance could not be conducted on
    Apple's operating system.”</p>
  </li>

  <li id="M201905280">
    <!--#set var="DATE" value='<small class="date-tag">2019-05</small>'
    --><!--#echo encoding="none" var="DATE" -->
    <p>In spite of Apple's supposed commitment to
    privacy, iPhone apps contain trackers that are busy at night <a
    href="https://www.oregonlive.com/opinion/2019/05/its-3-am-do-you-know-who-your-iphone-is-talking-to.html">
    sending users' personal information to third parties</a>.</p>

    <p>The article mentions specific examples: Microsoft OneDrive,
    Intuit's Mint, Nike, Spotify, The Washington Post, The Weather
    Channel (owned by IBM), the crime-alert service Citizen, Yelp
    and DoorDash. But it is likely that most nonfree apps contain
    trackers. Some of these send personally identifying data such as phone
    fingerprint, exact location, email address, phone number or even
    delivery address (in the case of DoorDash). Once this information
    is collected by the company, there is no telling what it will be
    used for.</p>
  </li>

  <li id="M201809070">
    <!--#set var="DATE" value='<small class="date-tag">2018-09</small>'
    --><!--#echo encoding="none" var="DATE" -->
    <p>Adware Doctor, an ad blocker for MacOS, <a
    href="https://www.vice.com/en/article/wjye8x/mac-anti-adware-doctor-app-steals-browsing-history">reports
    the user's browsing history</a>.</p>
  </li>

  <li id="M201711250">
    <!--#set var="DATE" value='<small class="date-tag">2017-11</small>'
    --><!--#echo encoding="none" var="DATE" -->
    <p>The DMCA and the EU Copyright Directive make it <a
    href="https://boingboing.net/2017/11/25/la-la-la-cant-hear-you.html">
    illegal to study how iOS cr…apps spy on users</a>, because
    this would require circumventing the iOS DRM.</p>
  </li>

  <li id="M201709210">
    <!--#set var="DATE" value='<small class="date-tag">2017-09</small>'
    --><!--#echo encoding="none" var="DATE" -->
    <p>In the latest iThings system,
    “turning off” WiFi and Bluetooth the obvious way <a
    href="https://www.theguardian.com/technology/2017/sep/21/ios-11-apple-toggling-wifi-bluetooth-control-centre-doesnt-turn-them-off">
    doesn't really turn them off</a>.  A more advanced way really does turn
    them off—only until 5am.  That's Apple for you—“We
    know you want to be spied on”.</p>
  </li>

  <li id="M201702150">
    <!--#set var="DATE" value='<small class="date-tag">2017-02</small>'
    --><!--#echo encoding="none" var="DATE" -->
    <p>Apple proposes <a
    href="https://www.theguardian.com/technology/2017/feb/15/apple-removing-iphone-home-button-fingerprint-scanning-screen">a
    fingerprint-scanning touch screen</a>—which would mean no way
    to use it without having your fingerprints taken. Users would have
    no way to tell whether the phone is snooping on them.</p>
  </li>

  <li id="M201611170">
    <!--#set var="DATE" value='<small class="date-tag">2016-11</small>'
    --><!--#echo encoding="none" var="DATE" -->
    <p>iPhones <a href="https://theintercept.com/2016/11/17/iphones-secretly-send-call-history-to-apple-security-firm-says">send
    href="https://theintercept.com/2016/11/17/iphones-secretly-send-call-history-to-apple-security-firm-says/">send
    lots of personal data to Apple's servers</a>.  Big Brother can get
    them from there.</p>
  </li>

  <li><p>The

  <li id="M201609280">
    <!--#set var="DATE" value='<small class="date-tag">2016-09</small>'
    --><!--#echo encoding="none" var="DATE" -->
    <p>The iMessage app on iThings <a
    href="https://theintercept.com/2016/09/28/apple-logs-your-imessage-contacts-and-may-share-them-with-police/">tells
    a server every phone number that the user types into it</a>; the
    server records these numbers for at least 30 days.</p>
  </li>

  <li><p>Users cannot make an Apple ID (<a href="http://apple.stackexchange.com/questions/49951/how-can-i-download-free-apps-without-registering-an-apple-idcool">necessary to install even gratis apps</a>) without giving a valid email address and receiving the verification code Apple 
      sends to it.</p>
  </li>
  <li><p>iThings

  <li id="M201509240">
    <!--#set var="DATE" value='<small class="date-tag">2015-09</small>'
    --><!--#echo encoding="none" var="DATE" -->
    <p>iThings automatically upload to Apple's servers all the photos
    and videos they make.</p>

    <blockquote><p> iCloud Photo Library stores every photo and video you
    take, and keeps them up to date on all your devices. Any edits you
    make are automatically updated everywhere. [...] […] </p></blockquote>

    <p>(From <a href="https://www.apple.com/icloud/photos/">Apple's href="https://web.archive.org/web/20150921152044/https://www.apple.com/icloud/photos/">Apple's iCloud
    information</a> as accessed on 24 Sep 2015.) The iCloud feature is
    <a href="https://support.apple.com/en-us/HT202033">activated by the
    startup of iOS</a>. The term “cloud” means “please
    don't ask where.”</p>

    <p>There is a way to
    <a href="https://support.apple.com/en-us/HT201104"> deactivate
    iCloud</a>, but it's active by default so it still counts as a
    surveillance functionality.</p>

    <p>Unknown people apparently took advantage of this to <a
    href="https://www.theguardian.com/technology/2014/sep/01/naked-celebrity-hack-icloud-backup-jennifer-lawrence">get
    nude photos of many celebrities</a>. They needed to break Apple's
    security to get at them, but NSA can access any of them through <a href="/philosophy/surveillance-vs-democracy.html#digitalcash">PRISM</a>.
  </p></li>

  <li><p><a href="http://www.washingtonpost.com/blogs/the-switch/wp/2014/10/30/how-one-mans-private-files-ended-up-on-apples-icloud-without-his-consent/">
  MacOS automatically sends to Apple servers unsaved documents being
  edited</a>. The <a
  href="https://www.schneier.com/blog/archives/2014/10/apple_copies_yo.html?utm_source=twitterfeed&utm_medium=twitter">
  things you have not decided to save are even more sensitive than the
  things you have stored in files</a>.</p>
    href="/philosophy/surveillance-vs-democracy.html#digitalcash">PRISM</a>.</p>
  </li>

  <li><p>Apple

  <li id="M201411040">
    <!--#set var="DATE" value='<small class="date-tag">2014-11</small>'
    --><!--#echo encoding="none" var="DATE" -->
    <p>Apple has made various <a href="http://www.theguardian.com/technology/2014/nov/04/apple-data-privacy-icloud">
    href="https://www.theguardian.com/technology/2014/nov/04/apple-data-privacy-icloud">
    MacOS programs send files to Apple servers without asking
    permission</a>.  This exposes the files to Big Brother and perhaps
    to other snoops.</p>

    <p>It also demonstrates how you can't trust proprietary software,
    because even if today's version doesn't have a malicious functionality,
    tomorrow's version might add it. The developer won't remove the
    malfeature unless many users push back hard, and the users can't
    remove it themselves.</p>
  </li>

  <li><p>Various operations in
  <a href="http://lifehacker.com/safari-and-spotlight-can-send-data-to-apple-heres-how-1648453540">
  the latest

  <li id="M201410300">
    <!--#set var="DATE" value='<small class="date-tag">2014-10</small>'
    --><!--#echo encoding="none" var="DATE" -->
    <p> MacOS send reports to Apple</a> servers.</p>
  </li>

  <li><p>Spyware in MacOS: automatically <a href="http://finance.yahoo.com/blogs/the-exchange/privacy-advocates-worry-over-new-apple-iphone-tracking-feature-161836223.html">
  Spotlight search</a>
    href="https://web.archive.org/web/20170831144456/https://www.washingtonpost.com/news/the-switch/wp/2014/10/30/how-one-mans-private-files-ended-up-on-apples-icloud-without-his-consent/">
    sends users' search terms to Apple.</p> Apple servers unsaved documents being edited</a>. The
    things you have not decided to save are <a
    href="https://www.schneier.com/blog/archives/2014/10/apple_copies_yo.html?utm_source=twitterfeed&utm_medium=twitter/">
    even more sensitive</a> than the things you have stored in files.</p>
  </li>

  <li><p>Apple

  <li id="M201410220">
    <!--#set var="DATE" value='<small class="date-tag">2014-10</small>'
    --><!--#echo encoding="none" var="DATE" -->
    <p>Apple admits the <a href="http://www.intego.com/mac-security-blog/spotlight-suggestions-in-os-x-yosemite-and-ios-are-you-staying-private/">
    href="https://www.intego.com/mac-security-blog/spotlight-suggestions-in-os-x-yosemite-and-ios-are-you-staying-private/">
    spying in a search facility</a>, but there's a lot <a
    href="https://github.com/fix-macosx/yosemite-phone-home"> more snooping
    that Apple has not talked about</a>.</p>
  </li>

  <li><p><a href="http://www.theguardian.com/technology/2014/jul/23/iphone-backdoors-surveillance-forensic-services">
  Several “features” of iOS seem to exist for no possible
  purpose other than surveillance</a>.  Here is the <a
  href="http://www.zdziarski.com/blog/wp-content/uploads/2014/07/iOS_Backdoors_Attack_Points_Surveillance_Mechanisms_Moved.pdf">
  Technical presentation</a>.</p>
  </li>

  <li><p>The

  <li id="M201410200">
    <!--#set var="DATE" value='<small class="date-tag">2014-10</small>'
    --><!--#echo encoding="none" var="DATE" -->
    <p>Various operations in <a
  href="http://finance.yahoo.com/blogs/the-exchange/privacy-advocates-worry-over-new-apple-iphone-tracking-feature-161836223.html">
  iBeacon</a> lets stores determine exactly where
    href="https://lifehacker.com/safari-and-spotlight-can-send-data-to-apple-heres-how-1648453540">
    the iThing is, and
  get other info too.</p> latest MacOS send reports to Apple</a> servers.</p>
  </li>

  <li><p>Apple

  <li id="M201409220">
    <!--#set var="DATE" value='<small class="date-tag">2014-09</small>'
    --><!--#echo encoding="none" var="DATE" -->
    <p>Apple can, and regularly does, <a
  href="http://arstechnica.com/apple/2014/05/new-guidelines-outline-what-iphone-data-apple-can-give-to-police/">
    href="https://arstechnica.com/gadgets/2014/05/new-guidelines-outline-what-iphone-data-apple-can-give-to-police/">
    remotely extract some data from iPhones for the state</a>.
  </p> state</a>.</p>

    <p>This may have improved with <a href="http://www.washingtonpost.com/business/technology/2014/09/17/2612af58-3ed2-11e4-b03f-de718edeb92f_story.html">
    href="https://www.denverpost.com/2014/09/17/apple-will-no-longer-unlock-most-iphones-ipads-for-police/">
    iOS 8 security improvements</a>; but <a href="https://firstlook.org/theintercept/2014/09/22/apple-data/">
    href="https://theintercept.com/2014/09/22/apple-data/">
    not as much as Apple claims</a>.</p>
  </li>
</ul>

<h3 id="drm">Apple DRM</h3>
<ul>
  <li><p><a
  href="http://motherboard.vice.com/read/switzerland-wants-a-single-universal-phone-charger-by-2017">
  Apple uses DRM software to prevent people from charging an iThing with a 
  generic USB cable</a>.</p></li>
  
  <li><p><a
  href="https://www.eff.org/deeplinks/2008/11/apple-downgrades-macbook-video-drm">
  DRM (digital restrictions mechanisms) in MacOS</a>. This article
  focuses on the fact that a new model

  <li id="M201407230">
    <!--#set var="DATE" value='<small class="date-tag">2014-07</small>'
    --><!--#echo encoding="none" var="DATE" -->
    <p><a
    href="https://www.theguardian.com/technology/2014/jul/23/iphone-backdoors-surveillance-forensic-services">
    Several “features” of Macbook introduced a requirement
  for monitors iOS seem to have malicious hardware, but DRM software in MacOS is
  involved in activating the hardware. The software exist
    for accessing iTunes no possible purpose other than surveillance</a>.  Here is also responsible.</p> the <a
    href="http://www.zdziarski.com/blog/wp-content/uploads/2014/07/iOS_Backdoors_Attack_Points_Surveillance_Mechanisms_Moved.pdf">
    Technical presentation</a>.</p>
  </li>

  <li><p><a href="http://arstechnica.com/apple/2007/08/aacs-tentacles/">
  DRM that caters

  <li id="M201401100.1">
    <!--#set var="DATE" value='<small class="date-tag">2014-01</small>'
    --><!--#echo encoding="none" var="DATE" -->
    <p><a
    href="https://finance.yahoo.com/blogs/the-exchange/privacy-advocates-worry-over-new-apple-iphone-tracking-feature-161836223.html">
    Spotlight search</a> sends users' search terms to Bluray disks</a>.  (The article focused on Windows
  and said that MacOS would do Apple.</p>
  </li>

  <li id="M201401100">
    <!--#set var="DATE" value='<small class="date-tag">2014-01</small>'
    --><!--#echo encoding="none" var="DATE" -->
    <p>The <a class="not-a-duplicate"
    href="https://finance.yahoo.com/blogs/the-exchange/privacy-advocates-worry-over-new-apple-iphone-tracking-feature-161836223.html">
    iBeacon</a> lets stores determine exactly where the same thing subsequently.)</p></li>
</ul>

<h3 id="jails">Apple Jails</h3>
<ul>
  <li><p><a href="http://boingboing.net/2010/04/02/why-i-wont-buy-an-ipad-and-think-yo.html">
  iOS, iThing is, and
    get other info too.</p>
  </li>

  <li id="M201312300">
    <!--#set var="DATE" value='<small class="date-tag">2013-12</small>'
    --><!--#echo encoding="none" var="DATE" -->
    <p><a
    href="https://web.archive.org/web/20190924053515/https://www.zerohedge.com/news/2013-12-30/how-nsa-hacks-your-iphone-presenting-dropout-jeep">
    Either Apple helps the operating system of NSA snoop on all the data in an iThing, or it
    is totally incompetent</a>.</p>
  </li>

  <li id="M201308080">
    <!--#set var="DATE" value='<small class="date-tag">2013-08</small>'
    --><!--#echo encoding="none" var="DATE" -->
    <p>The iThing also <a
    href="https://www.theregister.com/2013/08/08/ios7_tracking_now_its_a_favourite_feature/">
    tells Apple iThings, its geolocation</a> by default, though that can be
    turned off.</p>
  </li>

  <li id="M201210170">
    <!--#set var="DATE" value='<small class="date-tag">2012-10</small>'
    --><!--#echo encoding="none" var="DATE" -->
    <p>There is also a jail feature for
  users.</a>  That means it imposes censorship of application programs.</p>

  <p>Apple has used this power web sites to
  <a href="http://boingboing.net/2014/02/07/apple-yanks-last-remaining-bit.html">
  censor all bitcoin apps</a> for the iThings.</p>

  <p>Apple, in the iThings, pioneered the practice of general purpose
  computers that are jails, and the term comes from iThing track users, who
  referred to escaping from the censorship as “jailbreaking.”</p>

  <p>Here which is an <a
    href="https://nakedsecurity.sophos.com/2012/10/17/how-to-disable-apple-ios-user-tracking-ios-6/">
    enabled by default</a>.  (That article talks about the <a
  href="http://weblog.rogueamoeba.com/2008/03/07/code-signing-and-you/">
  code signing</a> that the iThings use to jail the user.</p>

  <p>Curiously, Apple is beginning to allow limited passage through the
  walls of the the iThing jail: users can now install apps built from
  source code, provided the source code iOS 6, but it is written
    still true in Swift.  Users iOS 7.)</p>
  </li>

  <li id="M201204280">
    <!--#set var="DATE" value='<small class="date-tag">2012-04</small>'
    --><!--#echo encoding="none" var="DATE" -->
    <p>Users cannot do this freely because they are required make an Apple ID (<a
    href="https://apple.stackexchange.com/questions/49951/how-can-i-download-free-apps-without-registering-an-apple-id">necessary
    to identify themselves.
  <a href="https://developer.apple.com/xcode/">Here are details.</a></p>

  <p>While this is install even gratis apps</a>) without giving a crack in valid
    email address and receiving the prison walls, it is not big enough verification code Apple sends
    to
  mean that the iThings are no longer jails.</p></li>

  <li><p><a href="http://www.theguardian.com/technology/2014/dec/11/papers-please-game-ipad-nude-body-scans">
  More examples of Apple's arbitrary and inconsistent censorship</a>.</p> it.</p>
  </li>
</ul>


<h3 id="tyrants">Apple Tyrants</h3>
<ul>
  <li><p>Apple id="tyrants">Tyrants</h3>

<p>Tyrants are systems that reject any operating system not
“authorized” by the manufacturer.</p>

<ul class="blurbs">
  <li id="M201412010">
    <!--#set var="DATE" value='<small class="date-tag">2014-12</small>'
    --><!--#echo encoding="none" var="DATE" -->
    <p>Apple arbitrarily <a href="http://9to5mac.com/2014/12/01/ios-8-1-signing-window-closed/">
  blocks
    href="https://9to5mac.com/2014/12/01/ios-8-1-signing-window-closed/">blocks
    users from installing old versions of iOS</a>.</p>
  </li>

  <li><p>The

  <li id="M201205280">
    <!--#set var="DATE" value='<small class="date-tag">2012-05</small>'
    --><!--#echo encoding="none" var="DATE" -->
    <p>The Apple iThings are tyrant devices: they do not permit
  installing a different or modified operating system. devices.  There is a
    port of Android to the iThings, but installing it requires <a
    href="https://web.archive.org/web/20150721065208/http://www.idroidproject.org/wiki/Status">
    finding a bug or “exploit”</a> to make it possible to
    install a different system.</p>
  </li>
</ul>

<h3 id="deception">Apple Deception</h3>
<ul>
  <li><p>“Dark patterns”
      are <a href="http://www.theverge.com/2013/8/29/4640308/dark-patterns-inside-the-interfaces-designed-to-trick-you">user
      interfaces designed to mislead users, or make option settings
      hard to find</a>.</p>

    <p>This allows a company such as Apple to say, “We allow
    users to turn this off” while ensuring that few will
    understand how to actually turn it off.</p>
  </li>
</ul>
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