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<h2>Proprietary Deception</h2>

<p><a href="/proprietary/proprietary.html">Other examples of proprietary malware</a></p>

<div class="infobox">
<hr class="full-width" />
<p>Nonfree (proprietary) software is very often malware (designed to
mistreat the user). Nonfree software is controlled by its developers,
which puts them in a position of power over the users; <a
href="/philosophy/free-software-even-more-important.html">that is the
basic injustice</a>. The developers and manufacturers often exercise
that power to the detriment of the users they ought to serve.</p>

<p>This document reports instances where proprietary software typically takes the form of malicious functionalities.</p>
<hr class="full-width" />

<div class="article">
<p>Deception is a malicious functionality that makes the program
dishonest or conceals trickery. Here are examples of such
malicious functionalities. Cases of deception or trickery.</p> that involve taking
people's money are listed in <a
Proprietary Fraud</a>.</p>

<div class="important">
<p>If you know of an example that ought to be in this page but isn't
here, please write
to <a href="mailto:webmasters@gnu.org"><webmasters@gnu.org></a>
to inform us. Please include the URL of a trustworthy reference or two
to present serve as specific substantiation.</p>

<div class="column-limit" id="proprietary-deception"></div>

<ul class="blurbs">
  <li id="M202202151">
    <!--#set var="DATE" value='<small class="date-tag">2022-02</small>'
    --><!--#echo encoding="none" var="DATE" -->
    <p>Honorlock set a network of fake test answer
    honeypot sites, tempting people to get exam answers, but <a
    is a way to entrap students, so as to identify them and punish
    them</a>, using nonfree JS code to identify them.</p>

  <li id="M202011050">
    <!--#set var="DATE" value='<small class="date-tag">2020-11</small>'
    --><!--#echo encoding="none" var="DATE" -->
    <p>HP tricked users into installing
    a mischievous update in their printers that <a
    the devices reject all third-party ink cartridges</a>.</p>

  <li id="M202002020">
    <!--#set var="DATE" value='<small class="date-tag">2020-02</small>'
    --><!--#echo encoding="none" var="DATE" -->
    <p>Many Android apps fool their users by asking
    them to decide what permissions to give the program, and then <a
    bypassing these permissions</a>.</p>

    <p>The Android system is supposed to prevent data leaks by running apps
    in isolated sandboxes, but developers have found ways to access the
    data by other means, and there is nothing the user can do to stop
    them from doing so, since both the system and the apps are nonfree.</p>

  <li id="M201904150">
    <!--#set var="DATE" value='<small class="date-tag">2019-04</small>'
    --><!--#echo encoding="none" var="DATE" -->
    <p id="M201509210">Volkswagen programmed its car engine computers to <a
    detect the Environmental Protection Agency's emission tests</a>, and
    run dirty the rest of the time. In real driving, the cars exceeded
    emissions standards by a factor of up to 35.</p>

    <p>Using free software would not have stopped Volkswagen from
    programming it this way, but would have made it harder to conceal,
    and given the users the possibility of correcting the specifics.</p>

<li> deception.</p>

    <p>Former executives of Volkswagen are being <a
    sued over this fraud</a>.</p>

  <li id="M201903281">
    <!--#set var="DATE" value='<small class="date-tag">2019-03</small>'
    --><!--#echo encoding="none" var="DATE" -->
    <p>OfficeMax cheated customers by <a
    using proprietary “PC Health Check” software</a> rigged
    to give false results, deceiving the customer into thinking per
    computer was infected and buy unneeded support services from the

  <li id="M201902041.2">
    <!--#set var="DATE" value='<small class="date-tag">2019-02</small>'
    --><!--#echo encoding="none" var="DATE" -->
    <p>Twenty nine “beauty camera” apps that used to
    be on Google Play had one or more malicious functionalities, such as <a
    stealing users' photos instead of “beautifying” them</a>,
    pushing unwanted and often malicious ads on users, and redirecting
    them to phishing sites that stole their credentials. Furthermore,
    the user interface of most of them was designed to make uninstallation

    <p>Users should of course uninstall these dangerous apps if they
    haven't yet, but they should also stay away from nonfree apps in
    general. <em>All</em> nonfree apps carry a potential risk because
    there is no easy way of knowing what they really do.</p>

  <li id="M201611060">
    <!--#set var="DATE" value='<small class="date-tag">2016-11</small>'
    --><!--#echo encoding="none" var="DATE" -->
    Audi's proprietary software used a simple method to cheat on emissions
    tests</a>: to activate a special low-emission gearshifting mode until
    the first time the car made a turn. turn.</p>

  <li id="M201609010">
    <!--#set var="DATE" value='<small class="date-tag">2016-09</small>'
    --><!--#echo encoding="none" var="DATE" -->
    <p>Many proprietary programs secretly <a href="https://web.archive.org/web/20160901222135/http://www.theregister.co.uk/2016/08/05/payperinstall_study/">install
    other proprietary programs that the users don't want</a>.</p>

  <li id="M201607140">
    <!--#set var="DATE" value='<small class="date-tag">2016-07</small>'
    --><!--#echo encoding="none" var="DATE" -->
    <p>The proprietor of the Pokémon Go game <a
    invites restaurants and other businesses to pay to have the game lure
    people there</a>.
    <p>“Dark patterns”
      are <a href="http://www.theverge.com/2013/8/29/4640308/dark-patterns-inside-the-interfaces-designed-to-trick-you">user
      interfaces designed to mislead users, or make option settings
      hard to find</a>.</p>

    <p>This allows a company such as Apple to say, “We allow
    users to turn this off” while ensuring that few will
    understand how to actually turn it off.</p> there</a>.</p>

  <li id="M201511110">
    <!--#set var="DATE" value='<small class="date-tag">2015-11</small>'
    --><!--#echo encoding="none" var="DATE" -->
    <p>A top-ranking proprietary Instagram client promising
    to tell users who's been watching their pictures was in reality <a href="http://www.theguardian.com/technology/2015/nov/11/top-ranking-free-app-stole-instagram-passwords">stealing
    their credentials</a>, advertising itself on their feed, and posting
    images without their consent.</p>
    <p>Volkswagen programmed its car engine computers to detect the
      Environmental Protection Agency's emission tests,
      and run dirty the rest of the time.</p>

    <p><a href="https://www.petri.com/volkswagen-used-software-to-cheat-on-emissions">https://www.petri.com/volkswagen-used-software-to-cheat-on-emissions</a>.</p>

    <p>In real driving, the cars exceeded emissions standards by a
      factor of up to 35.</p>

    <p>Using free software would not have stopped Volkswagen from
      programming it this way, but would have made it harder to
      conceal, and given the users the possibility of correcting the

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