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<title>Guide to Translating Web Pages on www.gnu.org 
- GNU Project - Free  Software Foundation</title>
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<h2 id="guide" class="section">Guide id="guide">Guide to Translating Web Pages on

<h3 id="intro">Introduction</h3>

<div class="thin"></div>

<p id="intro">Translating gnu.org with its many articles and keeping them updated 
is a complex task which requires careful organization. Translators are 
grouped into teams, one for each language, and each team normally has a 
coordinator. However, there are some languages for which no team has 
been formed yet, and sometimes a team lacks a coordinator.</p>

<p>Team Coordinators use software tools to update pages efficiently for 
partial changes. One of these tools is a program called <strong>GNUnited 
Nations</strong> (GNUN) that makes it very easy to maintain and keep 
track of translations that need to be updated; it was developed ad hoc 
by our current GNU Translations Manager Yavor Doganov.</p>

<p>The Translations Manager is the person in charge of the overall 
organization of teams and is generally involved in training new Team 

<p>As a Team Member, you can contribute to translations without knowing 
anything about GNUN, but you can help at more levels if you know how to 
use it.</p>

<h3 id="who">Who can help</h3> Help</h3>

<p>All teams are always looking for new volunteers. Basically, there is 
a task for everyone in the translation process: we need people with good 
language skills, as well as people with good technical skills or willing 
to learn some simple technical skills.</p>

  <li><p>If you have a deep understanding of written English and a rich 
    command of your native language, you can certainly engage in 
    translation, or do proof-reading. Writing good English is not 
  <li><p>If your understanding of English is not first class, or if you 
    don't know English at all but have a good mastery of your mother 
    tongue, you can help review other people's translations to make sure 
    they read well and have a good style.</p></li>
  <li><p>If you are a native English speaker, and you can read another 
    language, even if not quickly and easily, you can still help improve 
    translations in that language. Translators sometimes misunderstand 
    English idioms and expressions and write translations that are 
    misleading or even incorrect. These errors are obvious to the native 
    English speaker—you can indicate possible errors and explain 
    the intended meaning, and others can retranslate that part.</p></li>
  <li><p>If you are inclined or willing to go for the more technical 
    side of the translation process, you can help further; for example, 
    by preparing translated texts for publication.</p></li>

<h3 id="how">How to Participate</h3>

  <dt>As a Team Member</dt>
    <dd>Please read the <a href="#general-guide">General Guide for 
      Translations</a> below and then contact the relevant 
      <a href="#teams">translation team</a>. Each team has its own 
      system of organizing the work. Thus, to join an existing team, you 
      need to get detailed information from that team. The Team 
      Coordinator will be able to guide you through their specific 
      methods. If you don't get an answer in two weeks, 
      write to the Translations Manager <a 

  <dt>As an Occasional Contributor</dt>

    <dd>If you just want to submit a new translation and are not 
      interested in collaborating regularly, follow the 
      <a href="#general-guide">General Guide for Translations</a> below 
      and then send your translation to the appropriate <a href="#teams">
      Team Coordinator</a> if there is one, or to the Translations 
      Manager <a 
      if there is no team or coordinator for your language.</dd>

  <dt>As a Team Coordinator</dt>
    <dd>If there is no team established for your language or a new Team 
      Coordinator is needed, we will be grateful if you undertake that task. 
      As a coordinator, you will need to follow both the <a 
      href="#general-guide">General Guide for Translations</a>  and the more 
      specific <a href="#coordinator-guide">Guide for Team Coordinators.</a>

<h3 id="general-guide">General Guide for Translations</h3>

<p>Here are our specific goals for our translated pages.</p>

<h4 id="clarity">Clarity</h4>


<p>With few exceptions, the pages we translate are addressed to the
general public.  Before working on a page, please look at the original
and ask yourself whether it is addressed to programmers or to the
general public.  Then aim your translation at the same audience.

In audience.</p>

<p>In pages meant for the general public, please avoid words that are not
found in common dictionaries, except for our special terms such as
“GNU” and "copyleft" “copyleft” (see the list below). below).</p>

<h4 id="accuracy">Accuracy</h4>

<p>In order to produce a translation which is accurate and faithful to
the original, you need to be familiar with the basic concepts of the
GNU Project and the specific terminology used in gnu.org.

Please study the <a href="/philosophy"> philosophy </a> of the free
software movement, so that you can present it properly and clearly.
The following articles will be particularly helpful:

  <li><a href="/philosophy/free-sw.html">What is Free Software?</a></li>
  <li><a href="/philosophy/categories.html">Categories of Free and 
    Nonfree Software</a></li>

  <li><a href="/philosophy/words-to-avoid.html">Words to Avoid</a></li>
  <li><a href="/gnu/why-gnu-linux.html">What's in a Name?</a></li>
  <li><a href="/philosophy/open-source-misses-the-point.html">Open 
    Source Misses the Point of Free Software</a></li>

These terms and files need special attention:

  <li><p><strong>Copyleft</strong>. This is a term that can be difficult to 
    translate in some languages. It is a pun on the word 
    “Copyright” based on the two meanings of 
    “right”: ethical and directional. You can read the 
    article <a href="/copyleft/copyleft.html">What is Copyleft?</a> to 
    learn more about it and see how it has been translated into other 
    languages. You will see that in most cases it has not been 
    translated at all, so if you can't find a good translation for it in 
    your language, the only option may be to use the English word.</p></li>

  <li><p><strong>Free Software</strong>. Most languages have a word
    for free-as-in-freedom and another word for gratis (zero price).
    In gnu.org we generally use “free” only to refer to
    freedom, and we say “gratis” when we mean zero price.
    Thus, please translate “free” using the word that
    means free-as-in-freedom, not the one that refers to price.</p>

    <p>However, in some old pages, such as the GNU Manifesto and the
    initial announcement, we did not yet make the distinction.  In
    translating these pages, you may need to think carefully about the
    proper treatment of each occurrence of the word
    “free”.  You might choose to leave the word in
    English, followed by the explanation of its meaning in that
    occurrence: either freedom, price, or ambiguously both.</p>

    <p>However, even in these old pages, the word you normally
    use to translate “free” in “free software”
    should be the one that refers to freedom.</p>

    <p>See the <a 
    of the Term  “Free Software”</a> in several languages.</p>

  <li><p><strong>Digital Restrictions Management (DRM)</strong>. This is what 
    we use in gnu.org to avoid the propaganda term “Digital Rights 
    Management”. It means that digital techniques are used to impose 
    restrictions on the user, and these restrictions apply not only to 
    digital but also to physical objects.</p> 

    <p>However, there is a subtle ambiguity in the English term
    “Digital Restrictions Management”.  It can be interpreted in two

      <li> <strong>Digital Management of Restrictions</strong>.</li>
      <li> Management of Digital Restrictions.</li>

    <p>In many languages these require different wording. The correct
    meaning is the first one, so translations should make this clear.
    Likewise with “rights” instead of

    <p><strong>Should</strong>. In regard to an ethical issue, 
    “should” means it would be wrong to do anything else.  For 
    instance, the page entitled “Why Software Should Be Free” 
    explains why it is wrong to make software nonfree in the actual world 
    we live in.</p>

    <p>Therefore, please translate “should” using a verb
    form that implies a strong ethical obligation.  Don't translate it
    in a way that means “it would be preferable for software to
    be free” or “in an ideal world, software would be
    free”.  Those are not strong enough.</p>

  <li><p><strong>GNU's Not Unix</strong>. When translating 
    “GNU's Not Unix”, please ensure that the translation 
    remains recursive. If a recursive translation cannot be conceived, use 
    the following format (this is an example for Swedish): 
    “GNU's Not Unix (<span xml:lang="sv" lang="sv">
    GNU är inte Unix</span>)”.</p></li>
  <li><p>Exception: The page philosophy/words-to-avoid.html is an exception 
    to our usual policies about which terminology to use, because it
    presents examples of what <em>not</em> to say.  For instance, in
    general we shun the term “Digital Rights Management”.
    However, we cite that term in philosophy/words-to-avoid.html in
    order to advise others to shun it.</p>

    <p>As a translator, it is best if you follow the English text.
    Where the English text says “Digital Rights
    Management”, translate that.  Where the English text says
    “Digital Restrictions Management”, translate

  <li><p><strong>Surveillance</strong>. This word has false-friends in 
    Romance languages because of its Latin root. In English, it specifically 
    means the close observation of a person or organization under 
    suspicion of wrongdoing; this makes the surveillee unsafe. In some 
    Romance languages on the other hand (for instance in French), the 
    false-friend of “surveillance” is used more widely; it 
    may describe the benevolent watch of a shepherd over his sheep or of 
    a teacher over her students.</p>

    <p>When translating “surveillance”, please make sure you 
    don't use a word which could be interpreted as “benevolent 
    watch”. If there is no specialized term, the word which means 
    “spying” may be adequate in the context of proprietary 

<p>For more info, see <a
Interpreters Guide</a></p>

<p>Before installing or before submitting your translation for 
installation in gnu.org:</p>

  <li>Have your translation reviewed by as many members of your team as 
      possible. Peer review is crucial for the quality of the translation 
      process. Too many errors are just missed (especially if they are 
      obvious) when the translator does a final review of her own 
      translation. One common technique to performing such reviews is to 
      send the translation to the team's mailing list: members comment on
      specific parts, quoting them appropriately. The result is better 
      quality of the translation, since more people looked at it.</li>

  <li>If there is no team established for your language, show your 
      translations to friends who are not experts on free software or GNU, 
      to see if they understand the translation clearly.</li>

<h4 id="licensing">Licensing of Translations</h4>

<p>A translation page should be licensed just like the original page.
If the original page carries a Creative Commons license, use the same
Creative Commons license.  If the original page says it is in the public
domain, the translation should say the same thing.</p>

<p>For specific rules, see <a
Distribution Terms</a> in the <cite>GNU Web Translators Manual</cite>.</p>

<h4 id="what">What to Translate</h4>

<p>All essays and

<p>We accept contributions of translations of all articles in the following directories should be translated 
in all available languages,
but you should first browse our 
<a href="/server/standards/translations/priorities.html">Web Translation 


<p>Again, please coordinate with your language team before starting any work, 
to get clear instructions on how to proceed and to avoid duplicating efforts.

<p><em><strong>Note:</strong></em> The material in the 
<code>software/</code> directory pertains to individual GNU packages. If you
would like to translate something in that directory, please talk with the 
maintainers of the package to see what they would like to do.</p>

<h4 id="translators-manual">Translators Manual</h4>

<p>You may also want to read the 
<a href="/software/trans-coord/manual/web-trans/">GNU Web Translators 
Manual</a> if you wish to have a better understanding of how our 
translation system works. But please talk to the team first; most 
probably you will not be required to read it in order to start helping.</p>

<h3 id="coordinator-guide">Guide for Team Coordinators</h3>

<p>The following is an explanation of what a Team Coordinator does 
specifically. In addition to what has already been described, a Team 

  <li><p>sees to it that all texts to be published are faithful to the 
    original and respect the terminology used in our website. All 
    translations submitted by team members or by occasional contributors are 
    reviewed and approved by the Team Coordinator before they are 

  <li><p>understands thoroughly how our translation system works, and 
    knows how to use the tools that we have adopted. In the following section 
    we explain briefly how it is done.</p></li>

<h4 id="tools">Tools</h4>

<p>We use .po (Portable Object) files to process and maintain translations. 
A .po file contains the original text and its translation, divided in 
paragraphs. This is how we do it:</p>

  <li><p>When a new article is published in our website, GNUN, the 
    program we mentioned at the beginning of this page, generates a .pot file 
    (.po template) from that article. The .pot file is renamed to .po to be
    translated. Once it is translated, the .po file is committed. Then
    GNUN checks it, and if there are no errors in the code, the translated
    HTML version of the original article is automatically published in the

  <li><p>Whenever there is a change in the original HTML article, the 
    .pot and .po files are regenerated by GNUN to merge the changes, clearly 
    showing the strings that have changed. Translators then update the 
    translation of only those strings in the .po file. When the updated .po 
    file is committed, the HTML version of the translation is automatically 
    updated on the website.</p></li>

  <li><p>.po files can be edited by using any .po file editor.</p>

      <p>Note: Some team members or occasional contributors may find it
      difficult or inconvenient to translate using PO files. However,
      contributions submitted as plain text format should not be rejected.
      To encourage the use of PO files, coordinators can provide those
      contributors with a simple guide aimed at people with little
      computer skills. 
      <a href="/server/standards/translations/po-how-to.html">Here is an 

<p>We have also implemented notification tools to keep translators
informed of changes in the original pages. In any case, a Team
Coordinator needs to subscribe to our <a

mailing list to keep an eye on pages that are modified. You may also
use “<em><code>make report TEAM=LANG</code></em>” if you
have GNUN installed.</p>

<h4 id="coord-manuals">Coordinators Manuals</h4>

<p>The following manuals explain in detail the translation process that 
we have briefly shown above. It is necessary that a coordinator reads and 
becomes well acquainted with them:</p>

  <li><a href="/software/trans-coord/manual/web-trans/">GNU Web
  Translators Manual</a></li>
  <li><a href="/software/trans-coord/manual/gnun/">GNUnited Nations (GNUN) 

  <li><a href="/server/standards/README.webmastering.html">GNU Web Site
    Guidelines: For Volunteers</a></li>
  <li><a href="/server/fsf-html-style-sheet.html">GNU Web Site
  Guidelines: HTML Style Sheet</a></li>

<p>After you have read this entire page, if you intend to volunteer and 
be listed as the Team Coordinator for your language, please inform the 
Translations Manager <a
of your decision. Start reading at least the first two manuals and ask
the Translations Manager for assistance if you have any doubts.</p>

<h3 id="teams">Translation Teams</h3>
<span id="TranslationsUnderway"><!--Some docs refer to this anchor--></span> 

<p>Volunteers to establish new teams are more than welcome and will be
assisted during the learning process.</p>

<p>In the following list, the language code is followed by the name of the
language, and by the name of the Team Coordinator.</p>

  <!-- Please keep this list alphabetical-->
  <li><code>ar</code> - 
    <a href="https://savannah.nongnu.org/projects/www-ar">Arabic</a> 
    (<a href="https://savannah.gnu.org/users/ka2in">Fayçal Alami</a>) Alami</a> - 
    New coordinator needed) </li>

  <li><code>az</code> - Azerbaijani 
    (<a href="https://savannah.gnu.org/users/igrar">Igrar Huseynov</a> - 
    New coordinator needed) </li>
  <li><code>bg</code> - 
    <a href="https://savannah.gnu.org/projects/www-bg">Bulgarian</a> 
    (<a href="https://savannah.gnu.org/users/yavor">Yavor Doganov</a>)</li> Doganov</a> -
    New coordinator needed)</li>
  <li><code>bn</code> - 
    <a href="https://savannah.gnu.org/projects/www-bn">Bengali</a> 
    (<a href="https://savannah.gnu.org/users/suzan">Khandakar Mujahidul
    Islam</a> - New coordinator needed) </li>
  <li><code>ca</code> - 
    <a href="https://savannah.gnu.org/projects/www-ca">Catalan</a> 
    (<a href="https://savannah.gnu.org/users/puigpe">Miquel 
    Puigpelat</a> - New coordinator needed) </li>

  <li><code>cs</code> - 
    <a href="https://savannah.gnu.org/projects/www-cs">Czech</a>
    (<a href="https://savannah.gnu.org/users/franta">František Kučera</a>)</li>
  <li><code>da</code> - 
    <a href="https://savannah.gnu.org/projects/www-da">Danish</a> 
    (<a href="https://savannah.gnu.org/users/erikg">Erik Gravgaard</a> - 
    New coordinator needed) </li>

  <li><code>de</code> - 
    <a href="https://savannah.gnu.org/projects/www-de">German</a> 
    (<a href="https://savannah.gnu.org/users/joeko">Joerg Kohne</a>)</li>
  <li><code>el</code> - 
    <a href="https://savannah.gnu.org/projects/www-el">Greek</a> 
    (<a href="https://savannah.gnu.org/users/gzarkadas">Georgios 
    Zarkadas</a> - New coordinator needed) </li>

  <li><code>eo</code> - 
    <a href="https://savannah.gnu.org/projects/www-eo">Esperanto</a> 
    (<a href="https://savannah.gnu.org/users/civodul">Ludovic 
    Courtès</a> - New coordinator needed) </li>
  <li><code>es</code> - 
    <a href="https://savannah.gnu.org/projects/www-es">Spanish</a> 
    (<a href="https://savannah.gnu.org/users/dora">Dora Scilipoti</a>,
    <a href="https://savannah.gnu.org/users/jfrtnaga">Javier Fernández

  <li><code>fa</code> - 
    <a href="https://savannah.gnu.org/projects/www-fa">Farsi/Persian</a> 
    (<a href="https://savannah.gnu.org/users/esmaeeli">Abbas Esmaeeli
    Some‘eh</a>) href="https://savannah.gnu.org/users/bandali">Amin Bandali</a>) </li>
  <li><code>fi</code> - 
    <a href="https://savannah.gnu.org/projects/www-fi">Finnish</a> 
    (<a href="https://savannah.gnu.org/users/solarius">Ville</a> - New
    coordinator needed)</li>

  <li><code>fr</code> - 
    <a href="https://savannah.gnu.org/projects/www-fr">French</a> 
    (<a href="https://savannah.gnu.org/users/barbier">Denis Barbier</a>,
     <a href="https://savannah.gnu.org/users/th_g">Thérèse Godefroy</a>)</li>
  <li><code>he</code> - 
    <a href="https://savannah.gnu.org/projects/www-he">Hebrew</a> (New
    coordinator needed) </li>

  <li><code>hr</code> - 
    <a href="https://savannah.gnu.org/projects/www-hr">Croatian</a> 
    (<a href="https://savannah.gnu.org/users/mist">Martina Bebek</a>)</li> Bebek</a> -
    New coordinator needed)</li>

  <li><code>id</code> - 
    <a href="https://savannah.gnu.org/projects/www-id">Indonesian</a> 
    (New coordinator needed) </li>
  <li><code>it</code> - 
    <a href="https://savannah.gnu.org/projects/www-it">Italian</a> 
    (<a href="https://savannah.gnu.org/users/pescetti">Andrea 
    Pescetti</a>) </li>

  <li><code>ja</code> - 
    <a href="https://savannah.gnu.org/projects/www-ja">Japanese</a> 
    (<a href="https://savannah.gnu.org/users/gniibe">NIIBE Yutaka</a>)</li>
  <li><code>ko</code> -
    <a href="https://savannah.gnu.org/projects/www-ko">Korean</a> 
    (<a href="https://savannah.gnu.org/users/blueguy">Jongmin Yoon</a>) </li>

  <li><code>ku</code> - 
    <a href="https://savannah.gnu.org/projects/www-ku">Kurdish</a> (New 
    coordinator needed) </li>
  <li><code>ml</code> - 
    <a href="https://savannah.gnu.org/projects/www-ml">Malayalam</a> 
    (New coordinator needed) </li> href="//savannah.gnu.org/projects/www-ml">Malayalam</a> 
    (<a href="//savannah.gnu.org/users/aiswarya">Aiswarya Kaitheri
  <li><code>nb</code> - 
    <a href="https://savannah.gnu.org/projects/www-nb">Norwegian 
    Bokmål</a> (<a href="https://savannah.gnu.org/users/att">
    Andreas Tolfsen</a>
    - New coordinator needed) </li>
  <li><code>nl</code> - 
    <a href="https://savannah.gnu.org/projects/www-nl">Dutch</a> 
    (<a href="https://savannah.gnu.org/users/tuijldert">Tom Uijldert</a>) Uijldert</a>,
     <a href="https://savannah.gnu.org/users/jvs">Justin van Steijn</a>)
  <li><code>nn</code> - Norwegian Nynorsk 
    (<a href="https://savannah.gnu.org/users/att">Andreas Tolfsen</a>
    - New coordinator needed) </li>

  <li><code>pl</code> - 
    <a href="https://savannah.gnu.org/projects/www-pl">Polish</a> 
    (<a href="https://savannah.gnu.org/users/jsowoc">Jan Owoc</a>) </li>
  <li><code>pt-br</code> - 
    <a href="https://savannah.gnu.org/projects/www-pt-br">Brazilian
    (New coordinator needed)
    (<a href="https://savannah.gnu.org/users/rafaelff1">Rafael Fontenelle</a>) </li>

  <li><code>ro</code> - 
    <a href="https://savannah.gnu.org/projects/www-ro">Romanian</a> 
    (<a href="https://savannah.gnu.org/users/tct">Tiberiu C.
    Turbureanu</a> - New coordinator needed) </li>
  <li><code>ru</code> - 
    <a href="https://savannah.nongnu.org/projects/www-ru">Russian</a> 
    (<a href="https://savannah.gnu.org/users/jimcrow">Anatoly A. 
    Kazantsev</a>, <a href="https://savannah.gnu.org/users/ineiev">Pavel  
    Kharitonov</a>) </li>

  <li><code>sk</code> - 
    <a href="https://savannah.nongnu.org/projects/www-sk">Slovak</a> 
    (<a href="https://savannah.gnu.org/users/dominiks">Dominik Smatana</a> 
    - New coordinator needed) </li>
  <li><code>sq</code> - 
    <a href="https://savannah.gnu.org/projects/www-sq">Albanian</a> 
    (<a href="https://savannah.gnu.org/users/beso">Besnik Bleta</a>)</li>

  <li><code>sr</code> - 
    <a href="https://savannah.gnu.org/projects/www-sr">Serbian</a> 
    (<a href="https://savannah.gnu.org/users/Ctpajgep">Strahinya 
    Radich</a>) </li>
  <li><code>ta</code> - 
    <a href="https://savannah.gnu.org/projects/www-ta">Tamil</a> 
    (<a href="https://savannah.gnu.org/users/amachutechie">Sri 
    Ramadoss</a> - New coordinator needed) </li>

  <li><code>th</code> - 
    <a href="https://savannah.gnu.org/projects/www-th">Thai</a> (New 
    coordinator needed) </li>
  <li><code>tl</code> - 
    <a href="https://savannah.gnu.org/projects/www-tl">Tagalog</a> (New 
    coordinator needed) </li>
  <li><code>tr</code> - 
    <a href="https://savannah.gnu.org/projects/www-tr">Turkish</a> 
    (<a href="https://savannah.gnu.org/users/exalted">Ali Servet 
    Dönmez</a>) </li> href="https://savannah.gnu.org/users/tekrei">
    T. E. Kalaycı</a>)</li>

  <li><code>uk</code> - 
    <a href="https://savannah.gnu.org/projects/www-uk">Ukrainian</a> 
    (<a href="https://savannah.gnu.org/users/andriykopanytsia">Andriy
  <li><code>zh-cn</code> - 
    <a href="https://savannah.gnu.org/projects/www-zh-cn">Simplified
    Chinese</a> (<a href="https://savannah.gnu.org/users/monnand">
    Nan Deng</a>, <a href="https://savannah.gnu.org/users/zeuux">Bill 
    Xu</a>, <a href="https://savannah.gnu.org/users/chxiaobin">Chen 
    Xiaobin</a>) href="https://savannah.gnu.org/users/wxie">
    Xie Wensheng</a>) </li>

  <li><code>zh-tw</code> - 
    <a href="https://savannah.gnu.org/projects/www-zh-cn">Traditional href="https://savannah.gnu.org/projects/www-zh-tw">Traditional
    Chinese</a> (<a href="https://savannah.gnu.org/users/cebi0060">
    Karl Lam</a>) </li> href="https://savannah.gnu.org/users/s8321414">
    Po-Yen Huang</a>)</li>
  <li><code>??</code> - Not available? Then this line is reserved for 

  <!-- Please keep this list alphabetical. -->

<p><strong>Note:</strong> <em>English</em> (<code>en</code>) is a special
case. The bulk of the site is written in English, which is the de-facto
language of the GNU Project. We <em>occasionally</em> need to 
translate to English original documents written in other languages. It 
is best to notify the Team Coordinator of that language if you volunteer. If 
there is no team coordinator and you are willing to help with this, please 
contact <a 

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<p class="unprintable">Updated:
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$Date: 2021/05/30 19:03:23 $
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