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9.3.3 Modifiers

After the optional word designator, you can add a sequence of one or more of the following modifiers, each preceded by a ‘:’. These modify, or edit, the word or words selected from the history event.


Remove a trailing pathname component, leaving only the head.


Remove all leading pathname components, leaving the tail.


Remove a trailing suffix of the form ‘.suffix’, leaving the basename.


Remove all but the trailing suffix.


Print the new command but do not execute it.


Quote the substituted words, escaping further substitutions.


Quote the substituted words as with ‘q’, but break into words at spaces, tabs, and newlines. The ‘q’ and ‘x’ modifiers are mutually exclusive; the last one supplied is used.


Substitute new for the first occurrence of old in the event line. Any character may be used as the delimiter in place of ‘/’. The delimiter may be quoted in old and new with a single backslash. If ‘&’ appears in new, it is replaced by old. A single backslash will quote the ‘&’. If old is null, it is set to the last old substituted, or, if no previous history substitutions took place, the last string in a !?string[?] search. If new is null, each matching old is deleted. The final delimiter is optional if it is the last character on the input line.


Repeat the previous substitution.


Cause changes to be applied over the entire event line. Used in conjunction with ‘s’, as in gs/old/new/, or with ‘&’.


Apply the following ‘s’ or ‘&’ modifier once to each word in the event.

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