EIEIO (“Enhanced Implementation of Emacs Interpreted Objects”) provides an Object Oriented layer for Emacs Lisp, following the basic concepts of the Common Lisp Object System (CLOS). It provides a framework for writing object-oriented applications in Emacs.

This manual documents EIEIO, an object framework for Emacs Lisp.

Copyright © 2007–2017 Free Software Foundation, Inc.

Permission is granted to copy, distribute and/or modify this document under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License, Version 1.3 or any later version published by the Free Software Foundation; with no Invariant Sections, with the Front-Cover Texts being “A GNU Manual,” and with the Back-Cover Texts as in (a) below. A copy of the license is included in the section entitled “GNU Free Documentation License.”

(a) The FSF's Back-Cover Text is: “You have the freedom to copy and modify this GNU manual.”

Quick Start Quick start for EIEIO.
Introduction Why use EIEIO? Basic overview, samples list.
Building Classes How to write new class structures.
Making New Objects How to construct new objects.
Accessing Slots How to access a slot.
Writing Methods How to write a method.
Method Invocation How methods are invoked.
Predicates Class-p, Object-p, etc-p.
Association Lists List of objects as association lists.
Customizing Customizing objects.
Introspection Looking inside a class.
Base Classes Additional classes you can inherit from.
Browsing Browsing your class lists.
Class Values Displaying information about a class or object.
Default Superclass The root superclasses.
Signals When you make errors.
Naming Conventions Name your objects in an Emacs friendly way.
CLOS compatibility What are the differences?
Wish List Things about EIEIO that could be improved.
GNU Free Documentation License The license for this documentation.
Function Index

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1 Quick Start

EIEIO provides an Object Oriented layer for Emacs Lisp. You can use EIEIO to create classes, methods for those classes, and instances of classes.

Here is a simple example of a class named record, containing three slots named name, birthday, and phone:

     (defclass record () ; No superclasses
       ((name :initarg :name
              :initform ""
              :type string
              :custom string
              :documentation "The name of a person.")
        (birthday :initarg :birthday
                  :initform "Jan 1, 1970"
                  :custom string
                  :type string
                  :documentation "The person's birthday.")
        (phone :initarg :phone
               :initform ""
               :documentation "Phone number."))
       "A single record for tracking people I know.")

Each class can have methods, which are defined like this:

     (defmethod call-record ((rec record) &optional scriptname)
       "Dial the phone for the record REC.
     Execute the program SCRIPTNAME to dial the phone."
       (message "Dialing the phone for %s"  (oref rec name))
       (shell-command (concat (or scriptname "dialphone.sh")
                              " "
                              (oref rec phone))))

In this example, the first argument to call-record is a list, of the form (varname classname). varname is the name of the variable used for the first argument; classname is the name of the class that is expected as the first argument for this method.

EIEIO dispatches methods based on the type of the first argument. You can have multiple methods with the same name for different classes of object. When the call-record method is called, the first argument is examined to determine the class of that argument, and the method matching the input type is then executed.

Once the behavior of a class is defined, you can create a new object of type record. Objects are created by calling the constructor. The constructor is a function with the same name as your class which returns a new instance of that class. Here is an example:

     (setq rec (record :name "Eric" :birthday "June" :phone "555-5555"))

For backward compatibility reasons, the first argument can be a string (a name given to this instance). Each instance used to be given a name, so different instances could be easily distinguished when debugging.

It can be a bit repetitive to also have a :name slot. To avoid doing this, it is sometimes handy to use the base class eieio-named. See eieio-named.

Calling methods on an object is a lot like calling any function. The first argument should be an object of a class which has had this method defined for it. In this example it would look like this:

     (call-record rec)


     (call-record rec "my-call-script")

In these examples, EIEIO automatically examines the class of rec, and ensures that the method defined above is called. If rec is some other class lacking a call-record method, or some other data type, Emacs signals a no-method-definition error. Signals.

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2 Introduction

First off, please note that this manual cannot serve as a complete introduction to object oriented programming and generic functions in LISP. Although EIEIO is not a complete implementation of the Common Lisp Object System (CLOS) and also differs from it in several aspects, it follows the same basic concepts. Therefore, it is highly recommended to learn those from a textbook or tutorial first, especially if you only know OOP from languages like C++ or Java. If on the other hand you are already familiar with CLOS, you should be aware that EIEIO does not implement the full CLOS specification and also differs in some other aspects which are mentioned below (also see CLOS compatibility).

EIEIO supports the following features:

  1. A structured framework for the creation of basic classes with attributes and methods using singular inheritance similar to CLOS.
  2. Type checking, and slot unbinding.
  3. Method definitions similar to CLOS.
  4. Simple and complex class browsers.
  5. Edebug support for methods.
  6. Imenu updates.
  7. Byte compilation support of methods.
  8. Help system extensions for classes and methods.
  9. Several base classes for interesting tasks.
  10. Simple test suite.
  11. Public and private classifications for slots (extensions to CLOS)
  12. Customization support in a class (extension to CLOS)

Due to restrictions in the Emacs Lisp language, CLOS cannot be completely supported, and a few functions have been added in place of setf. Here are some important CLOS features that EIEIO presently lacks:

Method dispatch
EIEO does not support method dispatch for built-in types and multiple arguments types. In other words, method dispatch only looks at the first argument, and this one must be an EIEIO type.
Support for metaclasses
There is just one default metaclass, eieio-default-superclass, and you cannot define your own. The :metaclass tag in defclass is ignored. Also, functions like find-class, which should return instances of the metaclass, behave differently in EIEIO in that they return symbols or plain structures instead.
EQL specialization
EIEIO does not support it.
:around method tag
This CLOS method tag is non-functional.
:default-initargs in defclass
Each slot can have an :initform tag, so this is not really necessary.
Mock object initializers
Each class contains a mock object used for fast initialization of instantiated objects. Using functions with side effects on object slot values can potentially cause modifications in the mock object. EIEIO should use a deep copy but currently does not.

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3 Building Classes

A class is a definition for organizing data and methods together. An EIEIO class has structures similar to the classes found in other object-oriented (OO) languages.

To create a new class, use the defclass macro:

— Macro: defclass class-name superclass-list slot-list &rest options-and-doc

Create a new class named class-name. The class is represented by a symbol with the name class-name. EIEIO stores the structure of the class as a symbol property of class-name (see Symbol Components).

The class-name symbol's variable documentation string is a modified version of the doc string found in options-and-doc. Each time a method is defined, the symbol's documentation string is updated to include the methods documentation as well.

The parent classes for class-name is superclass-list. Each element of superclass-list must be a class. These classes are the parents of the class being created. Every slot that appears in each parent class is replicated in the new class.

If two parents share the same slot name, the parent which appears in the superclass-list first sets the tags for that slot. If the new class has a slot with the same name as the parent, the new slot overrides the parent's slot.

When overriding a slot, some slot attributes cannot be overridden because they break basic OO rules. You cannot override :type or :protection.

Whenever defclass is used to create a new class, a predicate is created for it, named CLASS-NAME-p:

— Function: CLASS-NAME-p object

Return non-nil if and only if OBJECT is of the class CLASS-NAME.

— Variable: eieio-error-unsupported-class-tags

If non-nil, defclass signals an error if a tag in a slot specifier is unsupported.

This option is here to support programs written with older versions of EIEIO, which did not produce such errors.

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3.1 Inheritance

Inheritance is a basic feature of an object-oriented language. In EIEIO, a defined class specifies the super classes from which it inherits by using the second argument to defclass. Here is an example:

     (defclass my-baseclass ()
        ((slot-A :initarg :slot-A)
         (slot-B :initarg :slot-B))
       "My Baseclass.")

To subclass from my-baseclass, we specify it in the superclass list:

     (defclass my-subclass (my-baseclass)
        ((specific-slot-A :initarg specific-slot-A)
        "My subclass of my-baseclass")

Instances of my-subclass will inherit slot-A and slot-B, in addition to having specific-slot-A from the declaration of my-subclass.

EIEIO also supports multiple inheritance. Suppose we define a second baseclass, perhaps an “interface” class, like this:

     (defclass my-interface ()
        ((interface-slot :initarg :interface-slot))
        "An interface to special behavior."
        :abstract t)

The interface class defines a special interface-slot, and also specifies itself as abstract. Abstract classes cannot be instantiated. It is not required to make interfaces abstract, but it is a good programming practice.

We can now modify our definition of my-subclass to use this interface class, together with our original base class:

     (defclass my-subclass (my-baseclass my-interface)
        ((specific-slot-A :initarg specific-slot-A)
        "My subclass of my-baseclass")

With this, my-subclass also has interface-slot.

If my-baseclass and my-interface had slots with the same name, then the superclass showing up in the list first defines the slot attributes.

Inheritance in EIEIO is more than just combining different slots. It is also important in method invocation. Methods.

If a method is called on an instance of my-subclass, and that method only has an implementation on my-baseclass, or perhaps my-interface, then the implementation for the baseclass is called.

If there is a method implementation for my-subclass, and another in my-baseclass, the implementation for my-subclass can call up to the superclass as well.

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3.2 Slot Options

The slot-list argument to defclass is a list of elements where each element defines one slot. Each slot is a list of the form

                  :TAG2 ATTRIB-VALUE2
                  :TAGN ATTRIB-VALUEN)

where SLOT-NAME is a symbol that will be used to refer to the slot. :TAG is a symbol that describes a feature to be set on the slot. ATTRIB-VALUE is a lisp expression that will be used for :TAG.

Valid tags are:

A symbol that can be used in the argument list of the constructor to specify a value for this slot of the new instance being created.

A good symbol to use for initarg is one that starts with a colon :.

The slot specified like this:

            (myslot :initarg :myslot)

could then be initialized to the number 1 like this:

            (myobject :myslot 1)

See Making New Objects.

An expression used as the default value for this slot.

If :initform is left out, that slot defaults to being unbound. It is an error to reference an unbound slot, so if you need slots to always be in a bound state, you should always use an :initform specifier.

Use slot-boundp to test if a slot is unbound (see Predicates). Use slot-makeunbound to set a slot to being unbound after giving it a value (see Accessing Slots).

The value passed to initform used to be automatically quoted. Thus,

          :initform (1 2 3)

will use the list as a value. This is incompatible with CLOS (which would signal an error since 1 is not a valid function) and will likely change in the future, so better quote your initforms if they're just values.

An unquoted type specifier used to validate data set into this slot. See Type Predicates. Here are some examples:
A symbol.
A number type
An object of your class type.
(or null symbol)
A symbol, or nil.

Either :class or :instance (defaults to :instance) used to specify how data is stored. Slots stored per instance have unique values for each object. Slots stored per class have shared values for each object. If one object changes a :class allocated slot, then all objects for that class gain the new value.
Documentation detailing the use of this slot. This documentation is exposed when the user describes a class, and during customization of an object.
Name of a generic function which can be used to fetch the value of this slot. You can call this function later on your object and retrieve the value of the slot.

This options is in the CLOS spec, but is not fully compliant in EIEIO.

Name of a generic function which will write this slot.

This options is in the CLOS spec, but is not fully compliant in EIEIO.

Name of a generic function which will read this slot.

This options is in the CLOS spec, but is not fully compliant in EIEIO.

A custom :type specifier used when editing an object of this type. See documentation for defcustom for details. This specifier is equivalent to the :type spec of a defcustom call.

This options is specific to Emacs, and is not in the CLOS spec.

When customizing an object, the value of :label will be used instead of the slot name. This enables better descriptions of the data than would usually be afforded.

This options is specific to Emacs, and is not in the CLOS spec.

Similar to defcustom's :group command, this organizes different slots in an object into groups. When customizing an object, only the slots belonging to a specific group need be worked with, simplifying the size of the display.

This options is specific to Emacs, and is not in the CLOS spec.

This routine takes a symbol which is a function name. The function should accept one argument. The argument is the value from the slot to be printed. The function in object-write will write the slot value out to a printable form on standard-output.

The output format MUST be something that could in turn be interpreted with read such that the object can be brought back in from the output stream. Thus, if you wanted to output a symbol, you would need to quote the symbol. If you wanted to run a function on load, you can output the code to do the construction of the value.

This is an old option that is not supported any more.

When using a slot referencing function such as slot-value, and the value behind slot is private or protected, then the current scope of operation must be within a method of the calling object.

This protection is not enforced by the code any more, so it's only useful as documentation.

Valid values are:

Access this slot from any scope.
Access this slot only from methods of the same class or a child class.
Access this slot only from methods of the same class.

This options is specific to Emacs, and is not in the CLOS spec.

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3.3 Class Options

In the options-and-doc arguments to defclass, the following class options may be specified:

A documentation string for this class.

If an Emacs-style documentation string is also provided, then this option is ignored. An Emacs-style documentation string is not prefixed by the :documentation tag, and appears after the list of slots, and before the options.

If this option is non-nil, and the :initform is nil, but the :type is specifies something such as string then allow this to pass. The default is to have this option be off. This is implemented as an alternative to unbound slots.

This options is specific to Emacs, and is not in the CLOS spec.

A class which is :abstract cannot be instantiated, and instead is used to define an interface which subclasses should implement.

This option is specific to Emacs, and is not in the CLOS spec.

This is a list of groups that can be customized within this class. This slot is auto-generated when a class is created and need not be specified. It can be retrieved with the class-option command, however, to see what groups are available.

This option is specific to Emacs, and is not in the CLOS spec.

This controls the order in which method resolution occurs for :primary methods in cases of multiple inheritance. The order affects which method is called first in a tree, and if call-next-method is used, it controls the order in which the stack of methods are run.

Valid values are:

Search for methods in the class hierarchy in breadth first order. This is the default.
Search for methods in the class hierarchy in a depth first order.
Searches for methods in a linearized way that most closely matches what CLOS does when a monotonic class structure is defined.

See Method Invocation, for more on method invocation order.

Unsupported CLOS option. Enables the use of a different base class other than standard-class.
Unsupported CLOS option. Specifies a list of initargs to be used when creating new objects. As far as I can tell, this duplicates the function of :initform.

See CLOS compatibility, for more details on CLOS tags versus EIEIO-specific tags.

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4 Making New Objects

Suppose we have a simple class is defined, such as:

     (defclass record ()
        ( ) "Doc String")

It is now possible to create objects of that class type.

Calling defclass has defined two new functions. One is the constructor record, and the other is the predicate, record-p.

— Function: record object-name &rest slots

This creates and returns a new object. This object is not assigned to anything, and will be garbage collected if not saved. This object will be given the string name object-name. There can be multiple objects of the same name, but the name slot provides a handy way to keep track of your objects. slots is just all the slots you wish to preset. Any slot set as such will not get its default value, and any side effects from a slot's :initform that may be a function will not occur.

An example pair would appear simply as :value 1. Of course you can do any valid Lispy thing you want with it, such as :value (if (boundp 'special-symbol) special-symbol nil)

Example of creating an object from a class:

          (record :value 3 :reference nil)

To create an object from a class symbol, use make-instance.

— Function: make-instance class &rest initargs

Make a new instance of class based on initargs. class is a class symbol. For example:

            (make-instance 'foo)

initargs is a property list with keywords based on the :initarg for each slot. For example:

            (make-instance 'foo :slot1 value1 :slotN valueN)

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5 Accessing Slots

There are several ways to access slot values in an object. The naming and argument-order conventions are similar to those used for referencing vectors (see Vectors).

— Macro: oset object slot value

This macro sets the value behind slot to value in object. It returns value.

— Macro: oset-default class slot value

This macro sets the value for the class-allocated slot in class to value.

For example, if a user wanted all data-objects (see Building Classes) to inform a special object of his own devising when they changed, this can be arranged by simply executing this bit of code:

          (oset-default data-object reference (list my-special-object))
— Macro: oref obj slot

Retrieve the value stored in obj in the slot named by slot. Slot is the name of the slot when created by defclass.

— Macro: oref-default class slot

Get the value of the class-allocated slot from class.

The following accessors are defined by CLOS to reference or modify slot values, and use the previously mentioned set/ref routines.

— Function: slot-value object slot

This function retrieves the value of slot from object. Unlike oref, the symbol for slot must be quoted.

— Function: set-slot-value object slot value

This is not a CLOS function, but is the setter for slot-value used by the setf macro. This function sets the value of slot from object. Unlike oset, the symbol for slot must be quoted.

— Function: slot-makeunbound object slot

This function unbinds slot in object. Referencing an unbound slot can signal an error.

— Function: object-add-to-list object slot item &optional append

In OBJECT's slot, add item to the list of elements. Optional argument append indicates we need to append to the list. If item already exists in the list in slot, then it is not added. Comparison is done with equal through the member function call. If slot is unbound, bind it to the list containing item.

— Function: object-remove-from-list object slot item

In OBJECT's slot, remove occurrences of item. Deletion is done with delete, which deletes by side effect and comparisons are done with equal. If slot is unbound, do nothing.

— Function: with-slots spec-list object &rest body

Bind spec-list lexically to slot values in object, and execute body. This establishes a lexical environment for referring to the slots in the instance named by the given slot-names as though they were variables. Within such a context the value of the slot can be specified by using its slot name, as if it were a lexically bound variable. Both setf and setq can be used to set the value of the slot.

spec-list is of a form similar to let. For example:

            ((VAR1 SLOT1)
             (VARN+1 SLOTN+1))

Where each var is the local variable given to the associated slot. A slot specified without a variable name is given a variable name of the same name as the slot.

          (defclass myclass () (x :initform 1))
          (setq mc (make-instance 'myclass))
          (with-slots (x) mc x)                      => 1
          (with-slots ((something x)) mc something)  => 1

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6 Writing Methods

Writing a method in EIEIO is similar to writing a function. The differences are that there are some extra options and there can be multiple definitions under the same function symbol.

Where a method defines an implementation for a particular data type, a generic method accepts any argument, but contains no code. It is used to provide the dispatching to the defined methods. A generic method has no body, and is merely a symbol upon which methods are attached. It also provides the base documentation for what methods with that name do.

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6.1 Generics

Each EIEIO method has one corresponding generic. This generic provides a function binding and the base documentation for the method symbol (see Symbol Components).

— Macro: defgeneric method arglist [doc-string]

This macro turns the (unquoted) symbol method into a function. arglist is the default list of arguments to use (not implemented yet). doc-string is the documentation used for this symbol.

A generic function acts as a placeholder for methods. There is no need to call defgeneric yourself, as defmethod will call it if necessary. Currently the argument list is unused.

defgeneric signals an error if you attempt to turn an existing Emacs Lisp function into a generic function.

You can also create a generic method with defmethod (see Methods). When a method is created and there is no generic method in place with that name, then a new generic will be created, and the new method will use it.

In CLOS, a generic call also be used to provide an argument list and dispatch precedence for all the arguments. In EIEIO, dispatching only occurs for the first argument, so the arglist is not used.

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6.2 Methods

A method is a function that is executed if the first argument passed to it matches the method's class. Different EIEIO classes may share the same method names.

Methods are created with the defmethod macro, which is similar to defun.

— Macro: defmethod method [:before | :primary | :after | :static ] arglist [doc-string] forms

method is the name of the function to create.

:before and :after specify execution order (i.e., when this form is called). If neither of these symbols are present, the default priority is used (before :after and after :before); this default priority is represented in CLOS as :primary.

Note: The :BEFORE, :PRIMARY, :AFTER, and :STATIC method tags were in all capital letters in previous versions of EIEIO.

arglist is the list of arguments to this method. The first argument in this list—and only the first argument—may have a type specifier (see the example below). If no type specifier is supplied, the method applies to any object.

doc-string is the documentation attached to the implementation. All method doc-strings are incorporated into the generic method's function documentation.

forms is the body of the function.

In the following example, we create a method mymethod for the classname class:

     (defmethod mymethod ((obj classname) secondarg)
       "Doc string" )

This method only executes if the obj argument passed to it is an EIEIO object of class classname.

A method with no type specifier is a default method. If a given class has no implementation, then the default method is called when that method is used on a given object of that class.

Only one default method per execution specifier (:before, :primary, or :after) is allowed. If two defmethods appear with arglists lacking a type specifier, and having the same execution specifier, then the first implementation is replaced.

When a method is called on an object, but there is no method specified for that object, but there is a method specified for object's parent class, the parent class' method is called. If there is a method defined for both, only the child's method is called. A child method may call a parent's method using call-next-method, described below.

If multiple methods and default methods are defined for the same method and class, they are executed in this order:

  1. method :before
  2. default :before
  3. method :primary
  4. default :primary
  5. method :after
  6. default :after

If no methods exist, Emacs signals a no-method-definition error. See Signals.

— Function: call-next-method &rest replacement-args

This function calls the superclass method from a subclass method. This is the “next method” specified in the current method list.

If replacement-args is non-nil, then use them instead of eieio-generic-call-arglst. At the top level, the generic argument list is passed in.

Use next-method-p to find out if there is a next method to call.

— Function: next-method-p

Non-nil if there is a next method. Returns a list of lambda expressions which is the next-method order.

At present, EIEIO does not implement all the features of CLOS:

  1. There is currently no :around tag.
  2. CLOS allows multiple sets of type-cast arguments, but EIEIO only allows the first argument to be cast.

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6.3 Static Methods

Static methods do not depend on an object instance, but instead operate on a class. You can create a static method by using the :static key with defmethod.

The first argument of a :static method will be a class rather than an object. Use the functions oref-default or oset-default which will work on a class.

A class's make-instance method is defined as a :static method.

Note: The :static keyword is unique to EIEIO.

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7 Method Invocation

When classes are defined, you can specify the :method-invocation-order. This is a feature specific to EIEIO.

This controls the order in which method resolution occurs for :primary methods in cases of multiple inheritance. The order affects which method is called first in a tree, and if call-next-method is used, it controls the order in which the stack of methods are run.

The original EIEIO order turned out to be broken for multiple inheritance, but some programs depended on it. As such this option was added when the default invocation order was fixed to something that made more sense in that case.

Valid values are:

Search for methods in the class hierarchy in breadth first order. This is the default.
Search for methods in the class hierarchy in a depth first order.
Searches for methods in a linearized way that most closely matches what CLOS does when a monotonic class structure is defined.

This is derived from the Dylan language documents by Kim Barrett et al.: A Monotonic Superclass Linearization for Dylan Retrieved from:

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8 Predicates and Utilities

Now that we know how to create classes, access slots, and define methods, it might be useful to verify that everything is doing ok. To help with this a plethora of predicates have been created.

— Function: find-class symbol &optional errorp

Return the class that symbol represents. If there is no class, nil is returned if errorp is nil. If errorp is non-nil, wrong-argument-type is signaled.

— Function: class-p class

Return t if class is a valid class vector. class is a symbol.

— Function: slot-exists-p object-or-class slot

Non-nil if object-or-class has slot.

— Function: slot-boundp object slot

Non-nil if OBJECT's slot is bound. Setting a slot's value makes it bound. Calling slot-makeunbound will make a slot unbound. object can be an instance or a class.

— Function: eieio-class-name class

Return a string of the form ‘#<class myclassname>’ which should look similar to other Lisp objects like buffers and processes. Printing a class results only in a symbol.

— Function: class-option class option

Return the value in CLASS of a given OPTION. For example:

          (class-option eieio-default-superclass :documentation)

Will fetch the documentation string for eieio-default-superclass.

— Function: eieio-object-name obj

Return a string of the form ‘#<object-class myobjname>’ for obj. This should look like Lisp symbols from other parts of Emacs such as buffers and processes, and is shorter and cleaner than printing the object's vector. It is more useful to use object-print to get and object's print form, as this allows the object to add extra display information into the symbol.

— Function: eieio-object-class obj

Returns the class symbol from obj.

— Function: eieio-object-class-name obj

Returns the symbol of obj's class.

— Function: eieio-class-parents class

Returns the direct parents class of class. Returns nil if it is a superclass.

— Function: eieio-class-parents-fast class

Just like eieio-class-parents except it is a macro and no type checking is performed.

— Function: eieio-class-parent class

Deprecated function which returns the first parent of class.

— Function: eieio-class-children class

Return the list of classes inheriting from class.

— Function: eieio-class-children-fast class

Just like eieio-class-children, but with no checks.

— Function: same-class-p obj class

Returns t if obj's class is the same as class.

— Function: same-class-fast-p obj class

Same as same-class-p except this is a macro and no type checking is performed.

— Function: object-of-class-p obj class

Returns t if obj inherits anything from class. This is different from same-class-p because it checks for inheritance.

— Function: child-of-class-p child class

Returns t if child is a subclass of class.

— Function: generic-p method-symbol

Returns t if method-symbol is a generic function, as opposed to a regular Emacs Lisp function.

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9 Association Lists

Lisp offers the concept of association lists, with primitives such as assoc used to access them. The following functions can be used to manage association lists of EIEIO objects:

— Function: object-assoc key slot list

Return an object if key is equal to SLOT's value of an object in list. list is a list of objects whose slots are searched. Objects in list do not need to have a slot named slot, nor does slot need to be bound. If these errors occur, those objects will be ignored.

— Function: object-assoc-list slot list

Return an association list generated by extracting slot from all objects in list. For each element of list the car is the value of slot, and the cdr is the object it was extracted from. This is useful for generating completion tables.

— Function: eieio-build-class-alist &optional base-class

Returns an alist of all currently defined classes. This alist is suitable for completion lists used by interactive functions to select a class. The optional argument base-class allows the programmer to select only a subset of classes which includes base-class and all its subclasses.

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10 Customizing Objects

EIEIO supports the Custom facility through two new widget types. If a variable is declared as type object, then full editing of slots via the widgets is made possible. This should be used carefully, however, because modified objects are cloned, so if there are other references to these objects, they will no longer be linked together.

If you want in place editing of objects, use the following methods:

— Function: eieio-customize-object object

Create a custom buffer and insert a widget for editing object. At the end, an Apply and Reset button are available. This will edit the object "in place" so references to it are also changed. There is no effort to prevent multiple edits of a singular object, so care must be taken by the user of this function.

— Function: eieio-custom-widget-insert object flags

This method inserts an edit object into the current buffer in place. It is implemented as (widget-create 'object-edit :value object). This method is provided as a locale for adding tracking, or specializing the widget insert procedure for any object.

To define a slot with an object in it, use the object tag. This widget type will be automatically converted to object-edit if you do in place editing of you object.

If you want to have additional actions taken when a user clicks on the Apply button, then overload the method eieio-done-customizing. This method does nothing by default, but that may change in the future. This would be the best way to make your objects persistent when using in-place editing.

10.1 Widget extension

When widgets are being created, one new widget extension has been added, called the :slotofchoices. When this occurs in a widget definition, all elements after it are removed, and the slot is specifies is queried and converted into a series of constants.

     (choice (const :tag "None" nil)
             :slotofchoices morestuff)

and if the slot morestuff contains (sym1 sym2 sym3), the above example is converted into:

     (choice (const :tag "None" nil)
             (const sym1)
             (const sym2)
             (const sym3))

This is useful when a given item needs to be selected from a list of items defined in this second slot.

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11 Introspection

Introspection permits a programmer to peek at the contents of a class without any previous knowledge of that class. While EIEIO implements objects on top of vectors, and thus everything is technically visible, some functions have been provided. None of these functions are a part of CLOS.

— Function: object-slots obj

Return the list of public slots for obj.

— Function: class-slot-initarg class slot

For the given class return an :initarg associated with slot. Not all slots have initargs, so the return value can be nil.

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12 Base Classes

All defined classes, if created with no specified parent class, inherit from a special class called eieio-default-superclass. See Default Superclass.

Often, it is more convenient to inherit from one of the other base classes provided by EIEIO, which have useful pre-defined properties. (Since EIEIO supports multiple inheritance, you can even inherit from more than one of these classes at once.)

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12.1 eieio-instance-inheritor

This class is defined in the package eieio-base.

Instance inheritance is a mechanism whereby the value of a slot in object instance can reference the parent instance. If the parent's slot value is changed, then the child instance is also changed. If the child's slot is set, then the parent's slot is not modified.

— Class: eieio-instance-inheritor parent-instance

A class whose instances are enabled with instance inheritance. The parent-instance slot indicates the instance which is considered the parent of the current instance. Default is nil.

To use this class, inherit from it with your own class. To make a new instance that inherits from and existing instance of your class, use the clone method with additional parameters to specify local values.

The eieio-instance-inheritor class works by causing cloned objects to have all slots unbound. This class' slot-unbound method will cause references to unbound slots to be redirected to the parent instance. If the parent slot is also unbound, then slot-unbound will signal an error named slot-unbound.

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12.2 eieio-instance-tracker

This class is defined in the package eieio-base.

Sometimes it is useful to keep a master list of all instances of a given class. The class eieio-instance-tracker performs this task.

— Class: eieio-instance-tracker tracker-symbol

Enable instance tracking for this class. The slot tracker-symbol should be initialized in inheritors of this class to a symbol created with defvar. This symbol will serve as the variable used as a master list of all objects of the given class.

— Method on eieio-instance-tracker: initialize-instance obj slot

This method is defined as an :after method. It adds new instances to the master list. Do not overload this method unless you use call-next-method.

— Method on eieio-instance-tracker: delete-instance obj

Remove obj from the master list of instances of this class. This may let the garbage collector nab this instance.

— eieio-instance-tracker-find: key slot list-symbol

This convenience function lets you find instances. key is the value to search for. slot is the slot to compare KEY against. The function equal is used for comparison. The parameter list-symbol is the variable symbol which contains the list of objects to be searched.

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12.3 eieio-singleton

This class is defined in the package eieio-base.

— Class: eieio-singleton

Inheriting from the singleton class will guarantee that there will only ever be one instance of this class. Multiple calls to make-instance will always return the same object.

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12.4 eieio-persistent

This class is defined in the package eieio-base.

If you want an object, or set of objects to be persistent, meaning the slot values are important to keep saved between sessions, then you will want your top level object to inherit from eieio-persistent.

To make sure your persistent object can be moved, make sure all file names stored to disk are made relative with eieio-persistent-path-relative.

— Class: eieio-persistent file file-header-line

Enables persistence for instances of this class. Slot file with initarg :file is the file name in which this object will be saved. Class allocated slot file-header-line is used with method object-write as a header comment.

All objects can write themselves to a file, but persistent objects have several additional methods that aid in maintaining them.

— Method on eieio-persistent: eieio-persistent-save obj &optional file

Write the object obj to its file. If optional argument file is specified, use that file name instead.

— Method on eieio-persistent: eieio-persistent-path-relative obj file

Return a file name derived from file which is relative to the stored location of OBJ. This method should be used to convert file names so that they are relative to the save file, making any system of files movable from one location to another.

— Method on eieio-persistent: object-write obj &optional comment

Like object-write for standard-object, but will derive a header line comment from the class allocated slot if one is not provided.

— Function: eieio-persistent-read filename &optional class allow-subclass

Read a persistent object from filename, and return it. Signal an error if the object in FILENAME is not a constructor for CLASS. Optional allow-subclass says that it is ok for eieio-persistent-read to load in subclasses of class instead of being pedantic.

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12.5 eieio-named

This class is defined in the package eieio-base.

— Class: eieio-named

Object with a name. Name storage already occurs in an object. This object provides get/set access to it.

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12.6 eieio-speedbar

This class is in package eieio-speedbar.

If a series of class instances map to a tree structure, it is possible to cause your classes to be displayable in Speedbar. See Top. Inheriting from these classes will enable a speedbar major display mode with a minimum of effort.

— Class: eieio-speedbar buttontype buttonface

Enables base speedbar display for a class. The slot buttontype is any of the symbols allowed by the function speedbar-make-tag-line for the exp-button-type argument See Extending. The slot buttonface is the face to use for the text of the string displayed in speedbar. The slots buttontype and buttonface are class allocated slots, and do not take up space in your instances.

— Class: eieio-speedbar-directory-button buttontype buttonface

This class inherits from eieio-speedbar and initializes buttontype and buttonface to appear as directory level lines.

— Class: eieio-speedbar-file-button buttontype buttonface

This class inherits from eieio-speedbar and initializes buttontype and buttonface to appear as file level lines.

To use these classes, inherit from one of them in you class. You can use multiple inheritance with them safely. To customize your class for speedbar display, override the default values for buttontype and buttonface to get the desired effects.

Useful methods to define for your new class include:

— Method on eieio-speedbar: eieio-speedbar-derive-line-path obj depth

Return a string representing a directory associated with an instance of obj. depth can be used to index how many levels of indentation have been opened by the user where obj is shown.

— Method on eieio-speedbar: eieio-speedbar-description obj

Return a string description of OBJ. This is shown in the minibuffer or tooltip when the mouse hovers over this instance in speedbar.

— Method on eieio-speedbar: eieio-speedbar-child-description obj

Return a string representing a description of a child node of obj when that child is not an object. It is often useful to just use item info helper functions such as speedbar-item-info-file-helper.

— Method on eieio-speedbar: eieio-speedbar-object-buttonname obj

Return a string which is the text displayed in speedbar for obj.

— Method on eieio-speedbar: eieio-speedbar-object-children obj

Return a list of children of obj.

— Method on eieio-speedbar: eieio-speedbar-child-make-tag-lines obj depth

This method inserts a list of speedbar tag lines for obj to represent its children. Implement this method for your class if your children are not objects themselves. You still need to implement eieio-speedbar-object-children.

In this method, use techniques specified in the Speedbar manual. See Extending.

Some other functions you will need to learn to use are:

— eieio-speedbar-create: make-map key-map menu name toplevelfn

Register your object display mode with speedbar. make-map is a function which initialized you keymap. key-map is a symbol you keymap is installed into. menu is an easy menu vector representing menu items specific to your object display. name is a short string to use as a name identifying you mode. toplevelfn is a function called which must return a list of objects representing those in the instance system you wish to browse in speedbar.

Read the Extending chapter in the speedbar manual for more information on how speedbar modes work See Extending.

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13 Browsing class trees

The command M-x eieio-browse displays a buffer listing all the currently loaded classes in Emacs. The classes are listed in an indented tree structure, starting from eieio-default-superclass (see Default Superclass).

With a prefix argument, this command prompts for a class name; it then lists only that class and its subclasses.

Here is a sample tree from our current example:


Note: new classes are consed into the inheritance lists, so the tree comes out upside-down.

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14 Class Values

You can use the normal describe-function command to retrieve information about a class. Running it on constructors will show a full description of the generated class. If you call it on a generic function, all implementations of that generic function will be listed, together with links through which you can directly jump to the source.

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15 Default Superclass

All defined classes, if created with no specified parent class, will inherit from a special class stored in eieio-default-superclass. This superclass is quite simple, but with it, certain default methods or attributes can be added to all objects. In CLOS, this would be named STANDARD-CLASS, and that symbol is an alias to eieio-default-superclass.

Currently, the default superclass is defined as follows:

     (defclass eieio-default-superclass nil
       "Default parent class for classes with no specified parent class.
     Its slots are automatically adopted by classes with no specified
     parents.  This class is not stored in the `parent' slot of a class vector."
       :abstract t)

The default superclass implements several methods providing a default behavior for all objects created by EIEIO.

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15.1 Initialization

When creating an object of any type, you can use its constructor, or make-instance. This, in turns calls the method initialize-instance, which then calls the method shared-initialize.

These methods are all implemented on the default superclass so you do not need to write them yourself, unless you need to override one of their behaviors.

Users should not need to call initialize-instance or shared-initialize, as these are used by make-instance to initialize the object. They are instead provided so that users can augment these behaviors.

— Function: initialize-instance obj &rest slots

Initialize obj. Sets slots of obj with slots which is a list of name/value pairs. These are actually just passed to shared-initialize.

— Function: shared-initialize obj &rest slots

Sets slots of obj with slots which is a list of name/value pairs.

This is called from the default constructor.

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15.2 Basic Methods

Additional useful methods defined on the base subclass are:

— Function: clone obj &rest params

Make a copy of obj, and then apply params. params is a parameter list of the same form as initialize-instance which are applied to change the object. When overloading clone, be sure to call call-next-method first and modify the returned object.

— Function: object-print this &rest strings

Pretty printer for object this. Call function eieio-object-name with strings. The default method for printing object this is to use the function eieio-object-name.

It is sometimes useful to put a summary of the object into the default #<notation> string when using eieio browsing tools.

Implement this function and specify strings in a call to call-next-method to provide additional summary information. When passing in extra strings from child classes, always remember to prepend a space.

          (defclass data-object ()
             "Object containing one data slot.")
          (defmethod object-print ((this data-object) &optional strings)
            "Return a string with a summary of the data object as part of the name."
            (apply 'call-next-method this
                   (cons (format " value: %s" (render this)) strings)))

Here is what some output could look like:

          (object-print test-object)
             => #<data-object test-object value: 3>
— Function: object-write obj &optional comment

Write obj onto a stream in a readable fashion. The resulting output will be Lisp code which can be used with read and eval to recover the object. Only slots with :initargs are written to the stream.

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15.3 Signal Handling

The default superclass defines methods for managing error conditions. These methods all throw a signal for a particular error condition.

By implementing one of these methods for a class, you can change the behavior that occurs during one of these error cases, or even ignore the error by providing some behavior.

— Function: slot-missing object slot-name operation &optional new-value

Method invoked when an attempt to access a slot in object fails. slot-name is the name of the failed slot, operation is the type of access that was requested, and optional new-value is the value that was desired to be set.

This method is called from oref, oset, and other functions which directly reference slots in EIEIO objects.

The default method signals an error of type invalid-slot-name. See Signals.

You may override this behavior, but it is not expected to return in the current implementation.

This function takes arguments in a different order than in CLOS.

— Function: slot-unbound object class slot-name fn

Slot unbound is invoked during an attempt to reference an unbound slot. object is the instance of the object being reference. class is the class of object, and slot-name is the offending slot. This function throws the signal unbound-slot. You can overload this function and return the value to use in place of the unbound value. Argument fn is the function signaling this error. Use slot-boundp to determine if a slot is bound or not.

In clos, the argument list is (class object slot-name), but eieio can only dispatch on the first argument, so the first two are swapped.

— Function: no-applicable-method object method &rest args

Called if there are no implementations for object in method. object is the object which has no method implementation. args are the arguments that were passed to method.

Implement this for a class to block this signal. The return value becomes the return value of the original method call.

— Function: no-next-method object &rest args

Called from call-next-method when no additional methods are available. object is othe object being called on call-next-method. args are the arguments it is called by. This method signals no-next-method by default. Override this method to not throw an error, and its return value becomes the return value of call-next-method.

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16 Signals

There are new condition names (signals) that can be caught when using EIEIO.

— Signal: invalid-slot-name obj-or-class slot

This signal is called when an attempt to reference a slot in an obj-or-class is made, and the slot is not defined for it.

— Signal: no-method-definition method arguments

This signal is called when method is called, with arguments and nothing is resolved. This occurs when method has been defined, but the arguments make it impossible for EIEIO to determine which method body to run.

To prevent this signal from occurring in your class, implement the method no-applicable-method for your class. This method is called when to throw this signal, so implementing this for your class allows you block the signal, and perform some work.

— Signal: no-next-method class arguments

This signal is called if the function call-next-method is called and there is no next method to be called.

Overload the method no-next-method to protect against this signal.

— Signal: invalid-slot-type slot spec value

This signal is called when an attempt to set slot is made, and value doesn't match the specified type spec.

In EIEIO, this is also used if a slot specifier has an invalid value during a defclass.

— Signal: unbound-slot object class slot

This signal is called when an attempt to reference slot in object is made, and that instance is currently unbound.

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17 Naming Conventions

See Tips and Conventions, for a description of Emacs Lisp programming conventions. These conventions help ensure that Emacs packages work nicely one another, so an EIEIO-based program should follow them. Here are some conventions that apply specifically to EIEIO-based programs:

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18 CLOS compatibility

Currently, the following functions should behave almost as expected from CLOS.

All slot keywords are available but not all work correctly. Slot keyword differences are:
:reader, and :writer tags
Create methods that signal errors instead of creating an unqualified method. You can still create new ones to do its business.
This should create an unqualified method to access a slot, but instead pre-builds a method that gets the slot's value.
Specifier uses the typep function from the cl package. See Type Predicates. It therefore has the same issues as that package. Extensions include the ability to provide object names.

defclass also supports class options, but does not currently use values of :metaclass, and :default-initargs.

Make instance works as expected, however it just uses the EIEIO instance creator automatically generated when a new class is created. See Making New Objects.
Creates the desired symbol, and accepts all of the expected arguments except :around.
Calls defgeneric, and accepts most of the expected arguments. Only the first argument to the created method may have a type specifier. To type cast against a class, the class must exist before defmethod is called. In addition, the :around tag is not supported.
Inside a method, calls the next available method up the inheritance tree for the given object. This is different than that found in CLOS because in EIEIO this function accepts replacement arguments. This permits subclasses to modify arguments as they are passed up the tree. If no arguments are given, the expected CLOS behavior is used.

CLOS supports the describe command, but EIEIO provides support for using the standard describe-function command on a constructor or generic function.

When creating a new class (see Building Classes) there are several new keywords supported by EIEIO.

In EIEIO tags are in lower case, not mixed case.

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19 Wish List

EIEIO is an incomplete implementation of CLOS. Finding ways to improve the compatibility would help make CLOS style programs run better in Emacs.

Some important compatibility features that would be good to add are:

  1. Support for metaclasses and EQL specialization.
  2. :around method key.
  3. Method dispatch for built-in types.
  4. Method dispatch for multiple argument typing.
  5. Improve integration with the cl package.

There are also improvements to be made to allow EIEIO to operate better in the Emacs environment.

  1. Allow subclassing of Emacs built-in types, such as faces, markers, and buffers.
  2. Allow method overloading of method-like functions in Emacs.

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Appendix A GNU Free Documentation License

Version 1.3, 3 November 2008
     Copyright © 2000, 2001, 2002, 2007, 2008 Free Software Foundation, Inc.
     Everyone is permitted to copy and distribute verbatim copies
     of this license document, but changing it is not allowed.

    The purpose of this License is to make a manual, textbook, or other functional and useful document free in the sense of freedom: to assure everyone the effective freedom to copy and redistribute it, with or without modifying it, either commercially or noncommercially. Secondarily, this License preserves for the author and publisher a way to get credit for their work, while not being considered responsible for modifications made by others.

    This License is a kind of “copyleft”, which means that derivative works of the document must themselves be free in the same sense. It complements the GNU General Public License, which is a copyleft license designed for free software.

    We have designed this License in order to use it for manuals for free software, because free software needs free documentation: a free program should come with manuals providing the same freedoms that the software does. But this License is not limited to software manuals; it can be used for any textual work, regardless of subject matter or whether it is published as a printed book. We recommend this License principally for works whose purpose is instruction or reference.


    This License applies to any manual or other work, in any medium, that contains a notice placed by the copyright holder saying it can be distributed under the terms of this License. Such a notice grants a world-wide, royalty-free license, unlimited in duration, to use that work under the conditions stated herein. The “Document”, below, refers to any such manual or work. Any member of the public is a licensee, and is addressed as “you”. You accept the license if you copy, modify or distribute the work in a way requiring permission under copyright law.

    A “Modified Version” of the Document means any work containing the Document or a portion of it, either copied verbatim, or with modifications and/or translated into another language.

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    You may copy and distribute the Document in any medium, either commercially or noncommercially, provided that this License, the copyright notices, and the license notice saying this License applies to the Document are reproduced in all copies, and that you add no other conditions whatsoever to those of this License. You may not use technical measures to obstruct or control the reading or further copying of the copies you make or distribute. However, you may accept compensation in exchange for copies. If you distribute a large enough number of copies you must also follow the conditions in section 3.

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    You may copy and distribute a Modified Version of the Document under the conditions of sections 2 and 3 above, provided that you release the Modified Version under precisely this License, with the Modified Version filling the role of the Document, thus licensing distribution and modification of the Modified Version to whoever possesses a copy of it. In addition, you must do these things in the Modified Version:

    1. Use in the Title Page (and on the covers, if any) a title distinct from that of the Document, and from those of previous versions (which should, if there were any, be listed in the History section of the Document). You may use the same title as a previous version if the original publisher of that version gives permission.
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    8. Include an unaltered copy of this License.
    9. Preserve the section Entitled “History”, Preserve its Title, and add to it an item stating at least the title, year, new authors, and publisher of the Modified Version as given on the Title Page. If there is no section Entitled “History” in the Document, create one stating the title, year, authors, and publisher of the Document as given on its Title Page, then add an item describing the Modified Version as stated in the previous sentence.
    10. Preserve the network location, if any, given in the Document for public access to a Transparent copy of the Document, and likewise the network locations given in the Document for previous versions it was based on. These may be placed in the “History” section. You may omit a network location for a work that was published at least four years before the Document itself, or if the original publisher of the version it refers to gives permission.
    11. For any section Entitled “Acknowledgements” or “Dedications”, Preserve the Title of the section, and preserve in the section all the substance and tone of each of the contributor acknowledgements and/or dedications given therein.
    12. Preserve all the Invariant Sections of the Document, unaltered in their text and in their titles. Section numbers or the equivalent are not considered part of the section titles.
    13. Delete any section Entitled “Endorsements”. Such a section may not be included in the Modified Version.
    14. Do not retitle any existing section to be Entitled “Endorsements” or to conflict in title with any Invariant Section.
    15. Preserve any Warranty Disclaimers.

    If the Modified Version includes new front-matter sections or appendices that qualify as Secondary Sections and contain no material copied from the Document, you may at your option designate some or all of these sections as invariant. To do this, add their titles to the list of Invariant Sections in the Modified Version's license notice. These titles must be distinct from any other section titles.

    You may add a section Entitled “Endorsements”, provided it contains nothing but endorsements of your Modified Version by various parties—for example, statements of peer review or that the text has been approved by an organization as the authoritative definition of a standard.

    You may add a passage of up to five words as a Front-Cover Text, and a passage of up to 25 words as a Back-Cover Text, to the end of the list of Cover Texts in the Modified Version. Only one passage of Front-Cover Text and one of Back-Cover Text may be added by (or through arrangements made by) any one entity. If the Document already includes a cover text for the same cover, previously added by you or by arrangement made by the same entity you are acting on behalf of, you may not add another; but you may replace the old one, on explicit permission from the previous publisher that added the old one.

    The author(s) and publisher(s) of the Document do not by this License give permission to use their names for publicity for or to assert or imply endorsement of any Modified Version.


    You may combine the Document with other documents released under this License, under the terms defined in section 4 above for modified versions, provided that you include in the combination all of the Invariant Sections of all of the original documents, unmodified, and list them all as Invariant Sections of your combined work in its license notice, and that you preserve all their Warranty Disclaimers.

    The combined work need only contain one copy of this License, and multiple identical Invariant Sections may be replaced with a single copy. If there are multiple Invariant Sections with the same name but different contents, make the title of each such section unique by adding at the end of it, in parentheses, the name of the original author or publisher of that section if known, or else a unique number. Make the same adjustment to the section titles in the list of Invariant Sections in the license notice of the combined work.

    In the combination, you must combine any sections Entitled “History” in the various original documents, forming one section Entitled “History”; likewise combine any sections Entitled “Acknowledgements”, and any sections Entitled “Dedications”. You must delete all sections Entitled “Endorsements.”


    You may make a collection consisting of the Document and other documents released under this License, and replace the individual copies of this License in the various documents with a single copy that is included in the collection, provided that you follow the rules of this License for verbatim copying of each of the documents in all other respects.

    You may extract a single document from such a collection, and distribute it individually under this License, provided you insert a copy of this License into the extracted document, and follow this License in all other respects regarding verbatim copying of that document.


    A compilation of the Document or its derivatives with other separate and independent documents or works, in or on a volume of a storage or distribution medium, is called an “aggregate” if the copyright resulting from the compilation is not used to limit the legal rights of the compilation's users beyond what the individual works permit. When the Document is included in an aggregate, this License does not apply to the other works in the aggregate which are not themselves derivative works of the Document.

    If the Cover Text requirement of section 3 is applicable to these copies of the Document, then if the Document is less than one half of the entire aggregate, the Document's Cover Texts may be placed on covers that bracket the Document within the aggregate, or the electronic equivalent of covers if the Document is in electronic form. Otherwise they must appear on printed covers that bracket the whole aggregate.


    Translation is considered a kind of modification, so you may distribute translations of the Document under the terms of section 4. Replacing Invariant Sections with translations requires special permission from their copyright holders, but you may include translations of some or all Invariant Sections in addition to the original versions of these Invariant Sections. You may include a translation of this License, and all the license notices in the Document, and any Warranty Disclaimers, provided that you also include the original English version of this License and the original versions of those notices and disclaimers. In case of a disagreement between the translation and the original version of this License or a notice or disclaimer, the original version will prevail.

    If a section in the Document is Entitled “Acknowledgements”, “Dedications”, or “History”, the requirement (section 4) to Preserve its Title (section 1) will typically require changing the actual title.


    You may not copy, modify, sublicense, or distribute the Document except as expressly provided under this License. Any attempt otherwise to copy, modify, sublicense, or distribute it is void, and will automatically terminate your rights under this License.

    However, if you cease all violation of this License, then your license from a particular copyright holder is reinstated (a) provisionally, unless and until the copyright holder explicitly and finally terminates your license, and (b) permanently, if the copyright holder fails to notify you of the violation by some reasonable means prior to 60 days after the cessation.

    Moreover, your license from a particular copyright holder is reinstated permanently if the copyright holder notifies you of the violation by some reasonable means, this is the first time you have received notice of violation of this License (for any work) from that copyright holder, and you cure the violation prior to 30 days after your receipt of the notice.

    Termination of your rights under this section does not terminate the licenses of parties who have received copies or rights from you under this License. If your rights have been terminated and not permanently reinstated, receipt of a copy of some or all of the same material does not give you any rights to use it.


    The Free Software Foundation may publish new, revised versions of the GNU Free Documentation License from time to time. Such new versions will be similar in spirit to the present version, but may differ in detail to address new problems or concerns. See http://www.gnu.org/copyleft/.

    Each version of the License is given a distinguishing version number. If the Document specifies that a particular numbered version of this License “or any later version” applies to it, you have the option of following the terms and conditions either of that specified version or of any later version that has been published (not as a draft) by the Free Software Foundation. If the Document does not specify a version number of this License, you may choose any version ever published (not as a draft) by the Free Software Foundation. If the Document specifies that a proxy can decide which future versions of this License can be used, that proxy's public statement of acceptance of a version permanently authorizes you to choose that version for the Document.


    “Massive Multiauthor Collaboration Site” (or “MMC Site”) means any World Wide Web server that publishes copyrightable works and also provides prominent facilities for anybody to edit those works. A public wiki that anybody can edit is an example of such a server. A “Massive Multiauthor Collaboration” (or “MMC”) contained in the site means any set of copyrightable works thus published on the MMC site.

    “CC-BY-SA” means the Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 3.0 license published by Creative Commons Corporation, a not-for-profit corporation with a principal place of business in San Francisco, California, as well as future copyleft versions of that license published by that same organization.

    “Incorporate” means to publish or republish a Document, in whole or in part, as part of another Document.

    An MMC is “eligible for relicensing” if it is licensed under this License, and if all works that were first published under this License somewhere other than this MMC, and subsequently incorporated in whole or in part into the MMC, (1) had no cover texts or invariant sections, and (2) were thus incorporated prior to November 1, 2008.

    The operator of an MMC Site may republish an MMC contained in the site under CC-BY-SA on the same site at any time before August 1, 2009, provided the MMC is eligible for relicensing.

ADDENDUM: How to use this License for your documents

To use this License in a document you have written, include a copy of the License in the document and put the following copyright and license notices just after the title page:

       Copyright (C)  year  your name.
       Permission is granted to copy, distribute and/or modify this document
       under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License, Version 1.3
       or any later version published by the Free Software Foundation;
       with no Invariant Sections, no Front-Cover Texts, and no Back-Cover
       Texts.  A copy of the license is included in the section entitled ``GNU
       Free Documentation License''.

If you have Invariant Sections, Front-Cover Texts and Back-Cover Texts, replace the “with...Texts.” line with this:

         with the Invariant Sections being list their titles, with
         the Front-Cover Texts being list, and with the Back-Cover Texts
         being list.

If you have Invariant Sections without Cover Texts, or some other combination of the three, merge those two alternatives to suit the situation.

If your document contains nontrivial examples of program code, we recommend releasing these examples in parallel under your choice of free software license, such as the GNU General Public License, to permit their use in free software.

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