This file documents the GNU Emacs Web Wowser (EWW) package.
Copyright © 2014–2017 Free Software Foundation, Inc.
Permission is granted to copy, distribute and/or modify this document under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License, Version 1.3 or any later version published by the Free Software Foundation; with no Invariant Sections, with the Front-Cover Texts being “A GNU Manual,” and with the Back-Cover Texts as in (a) below. A copy of the license is included in the section entitled “GNU Free Documentation License.”
(a) The FSF's Back-Cover Text is: “You have the freedom to copy and modify this GNU manual.”
|History and Acknowledgments|
|GNU Free Documentation License||The license for this documentation.|
|Lisp Function Index|
EWW, the Emacs Web Wowser, is a web browser for GNU Emacs. It
can load, parse, and display various web pages using shr.el.
However a GNU Emacs with
libxml2 support is required.
2 Basic Usage
You can open a URL or search the web with the command M-x eww.
If the input doesn't look like a URL or domain name the web will be
eww-search-prefix. The default search engine is
DuckDuckGo. If you want to open a file
either prefix the file name with
file:// or use the command
If loading the URL was successful the buffer *eww* is opened
and the web page is rendered in it. You can leave EWW by pressing
q or exit the browser by calling eww-quit. To reload the
web page hit g (
eww-reload). Pressing w
eww-copy-page-url) will copy the current URL to the kill ring.
EWW remembers the URLs you have visited to allow you to go back and
forth between them. By pressing l (
eww-back-url) you go
to the previous URL. You can go forward again with r
eww-forward-url). If you want an overview of your browsing
history press H (
eww-list-histories) to open the history
buffer *eww history*. The history is lost when EWW is quit.
If you want to remember websites you can use bookmarks.
Along with the URLs visited, EWW also remembers both the rendered
page (as it appears in the buffer) and its source. This can take a
considerable amount of memory, so EWW discards the history entries to
keep their number within a set limit, as specified by
eww-history-limit; the default being 50. This variable could
also be set to
nil to allow for the history list to grow
PDFs are viewed inline, by default, with
this can be customized by using the mailcap (see mailcap)
mechanism, in particular
EWW allows you to bookmark URLs. Simply hit b
eww-add-bookmark) to store a bookmark for the current website.
You can view stored bookmarks with B
eww-list-bookmarks). This will open the bookmark buffer
Although EWW and shr.el do their best to render webpages in GNU
Emacs some websites use features which can not be properly represented
viewing a website with EWW then hit &
eww-browse-with-external-browser) inside the EWW buffer to
open the website in the external browser specified by
shr-external-browser. Some content types, such as video or
audio content, do not make sense to display in GNU Emacs at all. You
can tell EWW to open specific content automatically in an external
browser by customizing
The D command (
the paragraphs direction between left-to-right and right-to-left
text. This can be useful on web pages that display right-to-left test
(like Arabic and Hebrew), but where the web pages don't explicitly
state the directionality.
Loading random images from the web can be problematic due to their
size or content. By customizing
can set the maximal image proportion in relation to the window they
are displayed in. E.g., 0.7 means an image is allowed to take up 70%
of the width and height. If Emacs supports image scaling (ImageMagick
support required) then larger images are scaled down. You can block
specific images completely by customizing
EWW (or rather its HTML renderer
shr) uses the colors declared
in the HTML page, but adjusts them if needed to keep a certain minimum
contrast. If that is still too low for you, you can customize the
shr-color-visible-luminance-min to get a better contrast.
In addition to maintaining the history at run-time, EWW will also save the partial state of its buffers (the URIs and the titles of the pages visited) in the desktop file if one is used. See Saving Emacs Sessions.
EWW history may sensibly contain multiple entries for the same page
URI. At run-time, these entries may still have different associated
point positions or the actual Web page contents.
The latter, however, tend to be overly large to preserve in the
desktop file, so they get omitted, thus rendering the respective
entries entirely equivalent. By default, such duplicate entries are
not saved. Setting
eww-desktop-remove-duplicates to nil will
force EWW to save them anyway.
Restoring EWW buffers' contents may prove to take too long to
finish. When the
eww-restore-desktop variable is set to
nil (the default), EWW will not try to reload the last visited
Web page when the buffer is restored from the desktop file, thus
allowing for faster Emacs start-up times. When set to
restoring the buffers will also initiate the reloading of such pages.
The EWW buffer restored from the desktop file but not yet reloaded
will contain a prompt, as specified by the
eww-restore-reload-prompt variable. The value of this variable
will be passed through
substitute-command-keys upon each use,
thus allowing for the use of the usual substitutions, such as
\[eww-reload] for the current key binding of the
Appendix A History and Acknowledgments
EWW was originally written by Lars Ingebrigtsen, known for his work on
Gnus. He started writing an Emacs HTML rendering library,
shr.el, to read blogs in Gnus. He eventually added a web
browser front end and HTML form support. Which resulted in EWW, the
Emacs Web Wowser. EWW was announced on 16 June 2013:
EWW was then moved from the Gnus repository to GNU Emacs and several developers started contributing to it as well.
2 GNU Free Documentation License
Copyright © 2000, 2001, 2002, 2007, 2008 Free Software Foundation, Inc. http://fsf.org/ Everyone is permitted to copy and distribute verbatim copies of this license document, but changing it is not allowed.
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We have designed this License in order to use it for manuals for free software, because free software needs free documentation: a free program should come with manuals providing the same freedoms that the software does. But this License is not limited to software manuals; it can be used for any textual work, regardless of subject matter or whether it is published as a printed book. We recommend this License principally for works whose purpose is instruction or reference.
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- FUTURE REVISIONS OF THIS LICENSE
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ADDENDUM: How to use this License for your documents
To use this License in a document you have written, include a copy of the License in the document and put the following copyright and license notices just after the title page:
Copyright (C) year your name. Permission is granted to copy, distribute and/or modify this document under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License, Version 1.3 or any later version published by the Free Software Foundation; with no Invariant Sections, no Front-Cover Texts, and no Back-Cover Texts. A copy of the license is included in the section entitled ``GNU Free Documentation License''.
If you have Invariant Sections, Front-Cover Texts and Back-Cover Texts, replace the “with...Texts.” line with this:
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eww-after-render-hook: Variable Index
- Bookmarks: Basics
- Contrast: Advanced
- Cookies: Advanced
- Desktop Support: Advanced
- Download: Basics
- eww: Basics
- External Browser: Basics
- Header: Advanced
- History: Basics
- Image Display: Advanced
- Multiple Buffers: Basics
- paragraph direction: Advanced
- PDF: Basics
- Saving Sessions: Advanced
- Viewing Source: Advanced
- Web Browsing: Basics