The Emacs Widget Library

Copyright © 2000–2024 Free Software Foundation, Inc.

Permission is granted to copy, distribute and/or modify this document under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License, Version 1.3 or any later version published by the Free Software Foundation; with no Invariant Sections, with the Front-Cover Texts being “A GNU Manual”, and with the Back-Cover Texts as in (a) below. A copy of the license is included in the section entitled “GNU Free Documentation License”.

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Table of Contents

1 Introduction

Most graphical user interface toolkits provide a number of standard user interface controls (sometimes known as “widgets” or “gadgets”). Emacs doesn’t really support anything like this, except for an incredibly powerful text “widget”. On the other hand, Emacs does provide the necessary primitives to implement many other widgets within a text buffer. The widget package simplifies this task.

The basic widgets are:


Areas of text with an associated action. Intended for hypertext links embedded in text.


Like link, but intended for stand-alone buttons.


An editable text field. It can be either variable or fixed length.


Allows the user to choose one of multiple options from a menu, where each option is itself a widget. Only the selected option is visible in the buffer.


Allows the user to choose one of multiple options by activating radio buttons. The options are implemented as widgets. All options are visible in the buffer, with the selected one marked as chosen.


A simple constant widget intended to be used in the menu-choice and radio-button-choice widgets.


A button item only intended for use in choices. When invoked, the user will be asked to select another option from the choice widget.


A simple ‘on’/‘off’ switch.


A checkbox (‘[ ]’/‘[X]’).


Create an editable list. The user can insert or delete items in the list. Each list item is itself a widget.

Now, of what possible use can support for widgets be in a text editor? I’m glad you asked. The answer is that widgets are useful for implementing forms. A form in Emacs is a buffer where the user is supposed to fill out a number of fields, each of which has a specific meaning. The user is not supposed to change or delete any of the text between the fields. Examples of forms in Emacs are the forms package (of course), the customize buffers, the mail and news compose modes, and the HTML form support in the w3 browser.

The advantages for a programmer of using the widget package to implement forms are:

  1. More complex fields than just editable text are supported.
  2. You can give the users immediate feedback if they enter invalid data in a text field, and sometimes prevent entering invalid data.
  3. You can have fixed sized fields, thus allowing multiple fields to be lined up in columns.
  4. It is simple to query or set the value of a field.
  5. Editing happens in the buffer, not in the mini-buffer.
  6. Packages using the library get a uniform look, making them easier for the user to learn.
  7. As support for embedded graphics improve, the Widget library will be extended to use the GUI features. This means that your code using the Widget library will also use the new graphic features automatically.

2 User Interface

A form consists of read only text for documentation and some fields, where each field contains two parts, a tag and a value. The tags are used to identify the fields, so the documentation can refer to the ‘foo field’, meaning the field tagged with ‘Foo’. Here is an example form:

Here is some documentation.

Name: My Name     Choose: This option
Address:  Some Place
In some City
Some country.

See also _other work_ for more information.

Numbers: count to three below
[INS] [DEL] One
[INS] [DEL] Eh, two?
[INS] [DEL] Five!

Select multiple:

[X] This
[ ] That
[X] Thus

Select one:

(*) One
( ) Another One.
( ) A Final One.

[Apply Form] [Reset Form]

The top level widgets in this example are tagged ‘Name’, ‘Choose’, ‘Address’, ‘_other work_’, ‘Numbers’, ‘Select multiple’, ‘Select one’, ‘[Apply Form]’, and ‘[Reset Form]’. There are basically two things the user can do within a form, namely editing the editable text fields and activating the buttons.

2.1 Editable Text Fields

In the example, the value for the ‘Name’ is most likely displayed in an editable text field, and so are values for each of the members of the ‘Numbers’ list. All the normal Emacs editing operations are available for editing these fields. The only restriction is that each change you make must be contained within a single editable text field. For example, capitalizing all text from the middle of one field to the middle of another field is prohibited.

Editable text fields are created by the editable-field widget.

The :format keyword is useful for generating the necessary text; for instance, if you give it a value of "Name: %v ", the ‘Name: ’ part will provide the necessary separating text before the field and the trailing space will provide the separating text after the field. If you don’t include the :size keyword, the field will extend to the end of the line, and the terminating newline will provide separation after.

The editing text fields are highlighted with the widget-field-face face, making them easy to find.

2.2 Buttons

Some portions of the buffer have an associated action, which can be invoked by a standard key or mouse command. These portions are called buttons. The default commands for activating a button are widget-button-press and widget-button-click. The user typically interacts with the buttons with a key, like RET, or with the mouse buttons.

There are several different kind of buttons, all of which are present in the example:

The Option Field Tags

When you invoke one of these buttons, you will be asked to choose between a number of different options. This is how you edit an option field. Option fields are created by the menu-choice widget. In the example, ‘Choose’ is an option field tag.

The ‘[INS]’ and ‘[DEL]’ buttons

Activating these will insert or delete elements from an editable list. The list is created by the editable-list widget.

Embedded Buttons

The ‘_other work_’ is an example of an embedded button. Embedded buttons are not associated with any fields, but can serve any purpose, such as implementing hypertext references. They are usually created by the link widget.

The ‘[ ]’ and ‘[X]’ buttons

Activating one of these will convert it to the other. This is useful for implementing multiple-choice fields. You can create them with the checkbox widget.

The ‘( )’ and ‘(*)’ buttons

Only one radio button in a radio-button-choice widget can be selected at any time. When you invoke one of the unselected radio buttons, it will be selected and the previous selected radio button will become unselected.

The ‘[Apply Form]’ and ‘[Reset Form]’ buttons

These are explicit buttons made with the push-button widget. The main difference from the link widget is that the buttons will be displayed as GUI buttons when possible.

To make them easier to locate, buttons are emphasized in the buffer with a distinctive face, like widget-button-face or widget-mouse-face.

3 Programming Example

Here is the code to implement the user interface example (see User Interface).

(require 'widget)

  (require 'wid-edit))

(defvar widget-example-repeat)

(defun widget-example ()
  "Create the widgets from the Widget manual."
  (switch-to-buffer "*Widget Example*")
  (make-local-variable 'widget-example-repeat)
  (let ((inhibit-read-only t))
  (widget-insert "Here is some documentation.\n\n")
  (widget-create 'editable-field
                 :size 13
                 :format "Name: %v " ; Text after the field!
                 "My Name")
  (widget-create 'menu-choice
                 :tag "Choose"
                 :value "This"
                 :help-echo "Choose me, please!"
                 :notify (lambda (widget &rest ignore)
                           (message "%s is a good choice!"
                                    (widget-value widget)))
                 '(item :tag "This option" :value "This")
                 '(choice-item "That option")
                 '(editable-field :menu-tag "No option" "Thus option"))
  (widget-create 'editable-field
                 :format "Address: %v"
                 "Some Place\nIn some City\nSome country.")
  (widget-insert "\nSee also ")
  (widget-create 'link
                 :notify (lambda (&rest ignore)
                           (widget-value-set widget-example-repeat
                                             '("En" "To" "Tre"))
                 "other work")
    " for more information.\n\nNumbers: count to three below\n")
  (setq widget-example-repeat
        (widget-create 'editable-list
                       :entry-format "%i %d %v"
                       (lambda (widget &rest ignore)
                         (let ((old (widget-get widget
                               (new (length (widget-value widget))))
                           (unless (eq old new)
                             (widget-put widget ':example-length new)
                             (message "You can count to %d." new))))
                       :value '("One" "Eh, two?" "Five!")
                       '(editable-field :value "three")))
  (widget-insert "\n\nSelect multiple:\n\n")
  (widget-create 'checkbox t)
  (widget-insert " This\n")
  (widget-create 'checkbox nil)
  (widget-insert " That\n")
  (widget-create 'checkbox
                 :notify (lambda (&rest ignore) (message "Tickle"))
  (widget-insert " Thus\n\nSelect one:\n\n")
  (widget-create 'radio-button-choice
                 :value "One"
                 :notify (lambda (widget &rest ignore)
                           (message "You selected %s"
                                    (widget-value widget)))
                 '(item "One") '(item "Another One.")
                 '(item "A Final One."))
  (widget-insert "\n")
  (widget-create 'push-button
                 :notify (lambda (&rest ignore)
                           (if (= (length
                                   (widget-value widget-example-repeat))
                               (message "Congratulation!")
                             (error "Three was the count!")))
                 "Apply Form")
  (widget-insert " ")
  (widget-create 'push-button
                 :notify (lambda (&rest ignore)
                 "Reset Form")
  (widget-insert "\n")
  (use-local-map widget-keymap)

4 Widgets Basics

The Widget Library deals with widgets objects. A widget object has properties whose value may be anything, be it numbers, strings, symbols, functions, etc. Those properties are referred to as keywords and are responsible for the way a widget is represented in a buffer, and control the way a user or a program can interact with it.

The library defines several widget types, and gives you a way to define new types as well. In addition, widgets can derive from other types, creating a sort of widget inheritance. In fact, all widgets defined in the Widget Library share a common parent, the default widget. In this manual, when we talk about a default behavior, we usually mean the behavior as defined by this default widget. See Widget Gallery, for a description of each defined widget.

Defining a new type that derives from a previous one is not mandatory to create widgets that work very different from a specified type. When creating a widget, you can override any default property, including functions, that control the widget. That is, you can specialize a widget on creation, without having to define it as a new type of widget.

In addition to the function for defining a widget, this library provides functions to create widgets, query and change its properties, respond to user events and destroy them. The following sections describe them.

One important property of a widget is its value. All widgets may have a value, which is stored in a so-called internal format. For the rest of Emacs, the widget presents its value in a so-called external format. Both formats can be equal or different, and each widget is responsible for defining how the conversion between each format should happen.

The value property is an important property for almost all widgets, and perhaps more important for editable-field widgets. This type of widgets allow the user to edit them via the usual editing commands in Emacs. They can also be edited programmatically. Important: You must call widget-setup after modifying the value of a widget before the user is allowed to edit the widget again. It is enough to call widget-setup once if you modify multiple widgets. This is currently only necessary if the widget contains an editing field, but may be necessary for other widgets in the future.

If your application needs to associate some information with the widget objects, for example a reference to the item being edited, it can be done with the widget-put and widget-get functions. The property names, as shown, are keywords, so they must begin with a ‘:’.

5 Setting Up the Buffer

To show the widgets in a buffer, you have to create them. Widget creation is actually a two-step process: conversion and creation per se. With simple projects, usually the conversion step isn’t really important, and you only care about widget creation, so feel free to skip the conversion description until you really need to know it.

Widget conversion is the process that involves taking a widget specification and transforming it into a widget object, suitable to be created, queried and manipulated with other widget functions. Widget creation is the process that takes a widget object and actually inserts it in the buffer.

The simplest function to create a widget is widget-create, which gets a widget specification and returns a widget object.

Function: widget-create type [ keyword argument ]… args

Create and return a widget of type type, converting it.

type is a symbol that specifies a widget type. keyword may be one of the properties supported by the widget type, and argument specify the value for that property. These keyword arguments can be used to overwrite the keyword arguments that are part of type by default, as well as to provide other properties not present in type by default. args holds additional information for the creation of type and each widget type is responsible for handling that information in a specific way.

The syntax for the type argument is described in Widget Gallery, and in more detail in every widget where it’s relevant.

There are other functions for creating widgets, useful when you work with composite widgets. That is, widgets that are part of other widgets.

Function: widget-create-child-and-convert parent type &rest args

Create a widget of type type as a child of parent.

Before creating it, converts type using the keyword arguments provided in args. Adds the :indent property, unless it is already present, and sets it to the sum of the values of: :indent and :offset from parent and :extra-offset from type.

Returns a widget object, with the property :parent set to PARENT.

Function: widget-create-child parent type

Create a widget of type type as a child of parent.

This function is like widget-create-child-and-convert but it doesn’t convert type, so it expects an already converted widget.

Function: widget-create-child-value parent type value

Create a widget of type type as a child of parent with value value.

This function is like widget-create-child, but it lets you specify a value for the widget.

Converts value to the internal format, as specified by type, and stores it into the :value property of type. That means, value should be in the external format, as specified by type.

All these creating functions described here use the function stored in the :create property. So, to modify the creation logic for a widget, you can provide a different :create function.

When you’re done creating widgets and you’re ready for the user to interact with the buffer, use the function widget-setup.

Function: widget-setup

Setup the current buffer, so that editable widgets can be edited.

This should be called after creating all the widgets and before allowing the user to edit them.

As mentioned, all these functions return a widget object. That widget object can be queried and manipulated with widget functions that take widgets as arguments, until deleting it with the widgets functions available to delete widgets. Even if you don’t save the returned widget object, you still can interact programmatically with the widget. See Working with Widgets.

Function: widget-delete widget

Delete the widget widget and remove it from the buffer.

Function: widget-children-value-delete widget

Delete all children and buttons in widget widget.

This function does not delete widget itself, only the widgets stored in the :children and :buttons properties. It also sets those properties to nil.

As with the creation mechanism, the function stored in :delete controls the deletion mechanism for a widget.

Additionally, the library provides a way to make a copy of a widget.

Function: widget-copy widget

Makes a copy of widget widget and returns it.

It uses the function stored in the :copy property of widget and returns the widget that that function returns.

As discussed, there is a conversion step when creating a widget. To do the conversion without actually creating the widget, you can use the widget-convert function.

Function: widget-convert type &rest args

Convert type to a widget object, using keyword arguments args.

Returns a widget object, suitable for creation. It calls the function stored in the :convert-widget property, after putting into the :args property the arguments that the widget in question needs. If type has a :value property, either originally or after doing the conversion, this function converts the value stored in :value to the internal format, and stores it into :value.

Apart from only creating widgets in the buffer, It’s useful to have plain text. For inserting text, the recommended way is with the widget-insert function.

Function: widget-insert &rest args

Insert args, either strings or characters, at point.

Uses insert to perform the insertion, passing args as argument. See Insertion in the Emacs Lisp Reference Manual, for more information about args.

The resulting text will be read-only.

6 Working with Widgets

This section covers the more important functions needed to query and manipulate widgets in a generic way. Widgets may have additional functions for interacting with them, those are described in the description for each widget. See Widget Gallery.

Function: widgetp widget

Non-nil if widget is a widget.

Function: widget-type widget

Return the type of widget widget, a symbol.

This function is useful to find out which kind of widget widget represents, i.e., the name of the widget type when the widget was created.

Function: widget-member widget property

Non-nil if widget widget has a value (even nil) for property property.

Function: widget-get widget property

For widget widget, return the value of the property property.

property should be a keyword, and the value is what was last set by widget-put for property.

Function: widget-put widget property value

For widget widget, set the property property to value. property should be a keyword, while value can be anything.

Function: widget-at &optional pos

Return the widget at position pos, or at point if pos is nil.

Function: widget-field-at pos

Return the widget field at position POS, or nil if there is none.

Function: widget-apply widget property &rest args

Apply the function stored in property to widget, passing args as additional arguments to the function.

Returns the result of that function call.

Function: widget-value widget

Return the current value contained in widget.

Note that the value returned by this function might differ from what’s stored in the :value property of widget. This is because this function extracts the current value of widget from the buffer, taking editions into account.

The value returned is in the external format, after getting it with the :value-get function.

It is an error to call this function on an uninitialized widget.

Function: widget-value-set widget value

Set the value contained in widget to value.

Converts value to the internal format, and then sets it by applying the :value-set function.

It is an error to call this function with an invalid value, that is, a value that widget cannot represent.

Function: widget-default-get widget

Return the default external value of widget widget.

The default value is the one stored in :value or the result of applying the :default-get function to the arguments of widget, as stored in :args. A value of nil is ignored by default, so in order for a widget to respect nil as a value, it has to override the :default-get function.

Function: widget-type-default-get widget

Convert the :type attribute in widget and return its default value.

Function: widget-child-value-get widget

Return the value of the first member of :children in widget.

Function: widget-child-value-inline widget

Return the inline value of the first member of :children in widget.

The inline value is whatever the function stored in :value-inline returns.

Function: widget-type-value-create widget

Create a child widget for widget, of type stored in :type.

Creates the child widget taking the value from the :value property and stores the newly created widget in the :children property of widget.

The value stored in :type should be an unconverted widget type.

Function: widget-value-convert-widget widget

Initializes the :value property of widget from :args.

Sets :args to nil and returns the modified widget widget.

Function: widget-value-value-get widget

Return the value stored in :value for widget widget.

This is different to getting the current value for widget with widget-value, since that function extracts the value from the buffer.

Function: widget-apply-action widget &optional event

Apply the function stored in :action to widget, in response to event.

It is an error to call this function with an inactive widget.

Function: widget-parent-action widget &optional event

Tell :parent of widget to handle event.

Optional event is the event that triggered the action.

Function: widget-child-validate widget

Check that the first member of :children in widget is valid.

To be valid means that the widget value passes the checks that the function stored in :validate makes.

Function: widget-children-validate widget

Check that all :children in widget are valid.

Returns nil on success, or the first child that isn’t valid.

Function: widget-type-match widget value

Return non-nil if VALUE matches the value for the :type widget.

As with the other type functions, the widget stored in :type should be an unconverted widget.

Function: widget-types-copy widget

Copy the :args value in widget and store them in :args.

Makes the copies by calling widget-copy on each element present in :args. Returns the modified widget widget.

Function: widget-types-convert-widget widget

Convert the :args value in widget and store them in args.

Returns the modified widget widget.

7 Widgets and the Buffer

This chapter describes commands that are specific to buffers that contain widgets.

Const: widget-keymap

Keymap containing useful bindings for buffers containing widgets.

Binds TAB and C-TAB to widget-forward and widget-backward, respectively. It also binds RET to widget-button-press and down-mouse-1 and down-mouse-2 to widget-button-click.

There’s also a keymap for events that the Widget library doesn’t need to handle.

Variable: widget-global-map

Keymap used by widget-button-press and widget-button-click when not on a button. By default this is global-map.

In addition to these two keymaps, each widget might define a keymap of its own, active when events happen at that widget.

The following navigation commands are available:

Command: widget-forward &optional count

Move point count buttons or editing fields forward.

Command: widget-backward &optional count

Move point count buttons or editing fields backward.

When editing an editable-field widget, the following commands are available:

Command: widget-end-of-line

Move point to the end of field or end of line, whichever is first.

Command: widget-kill-line

Kill to end of field or end of line, whichever is first.

Command: widget-complete

Complete the content of the editable field at point.

Command: widget-field-activate

Invoke the editable field at point.

The following two are commands that can execute widget actions.

Command: widget-button-press pos &optional event

Invoke the button at pos, defaulting to point.

Invocation means to run the function stored in the :action property.

If point is not located on a button, invoke the binding in widget-global-map (by default the global map).

Command: widget-button-click event

Invoke the button at the location of the mouse pointer.

If the mouse pointer is located in an editable text field, invoke the binding in widget-global-map (by default the global map).

In case the mouse-click is on a widget, calls the function stored in the :mouse-down-action property.

9 Defining New Widgets

You can define specialized widgets with define-widget. It allows you to create a shorthand for more complex widgets, including specifying component widgets and new default values for the keyword arguments.

Function: define-widget name class doc &rest args

Define a new widget type named name that derives from class.

name and class should both be symbols, and class should be one of the existing widget types.

The third argument doc is a documentation string for the widget.

args should be key-value pairs, overriding keyword values of class, or adding new recognized keywords for name.

Usually, you’ll want to derive from an existing widget type, like the editable-field widget, or the default widget, but it’s also possible to derive from nothing, by passing a value of nil as class. Note that if you do this, you’re entirely responsible for defining a whole new default behavior for your widgets.

After using this function, the following two calls will create identical widgets:

  • (widget-create name)
  • (apply widget-create class args)

Using define-widget just stores the definition of the widget type in the widget-type property of name, which is what widget-create uses.

If you only want to specify defaults for keywords with no complex conversions, you can use identity as your conversion function.

When defining new widgets, the :convert-widget property might be useful:


Function to convert a widget type before creating a widget of that type.

It takes a widget type as an argument, and returns the converted widget type. When a widget is created, this function is called for the widget type and all the widget’s parent types, most derived first.

The predefined functions widget-types-convert-widget and widget-value-convert-widget can be used here.


(defvar widget-ranged-integer-map
  (let ((map (copy-keymap widget-keymap)))
    (define-key map [up] #'widget-ranged-integer-increase)
    (define-key map [down] #'widget-ranged-integer-decrease)

(define-widget 'ranged-integer 'integer
  "A ranged integer widget."
  :min-value most-negative-fixnum
  :max-value most-positive-fixnum
  :keymap widget-ranged-integer-map)

(defun widget-ranged-integer-change (widget how)
  "Change the value of the ranged-integer WIDGET, according to HOW."
  (let* ((value (widget-value widget))
         (newval (cond
                  ((eq how 'up)
                   (if (< (1+ value) (widget-get widget :max-value))
                       (1+ value)
                     (widget-get widget :max-value)))
                  ((eq how 'down)
                   (if (> (1- value) (widget-get widget :min-value))
                       (1- value)
                     (widget-get widget :min-value)))
                  (t (error "HOW has a bad value"))))
         (inhibit-read-only t))
    (widget-value-set widget newval)))

(defun widget-ranged-integer-increase (widget)
  "Increase the value of the ranged-integer WIDGET."
  (interactive (list (widget-at)))
  (widget-ranged-integer-change widget 'up))

(defun widget-ranged-integer-decrease (widget)
  "Decrease the value of the ranged-integer WIDGET."
  (interactive (list (widget-at)))
  (widget-ranged-integer-change widget 'down))

10 Inspecting Widgets

There is a separate package to browse widgets, in ‘wid-browse.el’. This is intended to help programmers who want to examine the content of a widget. The browser shows the value of each keyword, but uses links for certain keywords such as ‘:parent’, which avoids printing cyclic structures.

Command: widget-browse widget

Create a widget browser for widget.

When called interactively, prompt for widget.

Command: widget-browse-other-window widget

Create a widget browser for widget and show it in another window.

When called interactively, prompt for widget.

Command: widget-browse-at pos

Create a widget browser for the widget at pos.

When called interactively, use the position of point.

In addition, there’s a function to describe the widget at point.

Command: widget-describe &optional widget-or-pos

Describe the widget at point.

When called from Lisp, widget-or-pos might be the widget to describe or a buffer position where a widget is present. If widget-or-pos is nil, the widget to describe is the widget at point.

This command sets up a help buffer for providing information about the widget, mainly its :action and :mouse-down-action functions, and provides links to describe it in more detail using the widget-browse commands described above.

11 Widget Minor Mode

There is a minor mode for manipulating widgets in major modes that don’t provide any support for widgets themselves. This is mostly intended to be useful for programmers doing experiments.

Command: widget-minor-mode

Toggle minor mode for traversing widgets. With arg, turn widget mode on if and only if arg is positive.

Variable: widget-minor-mode-keymap

Keymap used in widget-minor-mode.

12 Utilities

Here we describe some utility functions that don’t really have a place earlier in this manual.

Function: widget-prompt-value widget prompt [ value unbound ]

Prompt for a value matching widget, using prompt. The current value is assumed to be value, unless unbound is non-nil.

Converts widget before prompting, and for prompting it uses the :prompt-value function. This function returns the user “answer”, and it’s an error if that answer doesn’t match the widget, as with the :match function.

If the answer matches the widget, returns the answer.

Function: widget-get-sibling widget

Get the item which widget should toggle. This is only meaningful for radio buttons or checkboxes in a list.

Function: widget-choose title items &optional event

Prompt the user to choose an item from a list of options.

title is the name of the list of options. items should be a menu, with its items in the simple format or in the extended format. See Defining Menus in the Emacs Lisp Reference Manual. Independently of the format, you don’t have to provide a title for the menu, just pass the desired title in title. The optional event is an input event. If event is a mouse event and the number of elements in items is less than the user option widget-menu-max-size, then widget-choose uses a popup menu to prompt the user. Otherwise, widget-choose uses the minibuffer.

When items is a keymap menu, the returned value is the symbol in the key vector, as in the argument of define-key (see Changing Key Bindings in the Emacs Lisp Reference Manual). When items is a list whose selectable items are of the form (name . value) (i.e., the simplified format), then the return value is the value of the chosen element.

Function: widget-image-find image

Create a graphical button from image, an image or a file name sans extension.

If image is a file name, the file should be in widget-image-directory, or in a place where find-image will find it.

Function: widget-image-insert widget tag image

As part of widget, insert the text tag or, if supported, the image image.

image should be as described in widget-image-find.

Function: widget-echo-help pos

Display help-echo text for the widget at pos.

Uses the value of :help-echo. If it is a function, it calls it to get a string. Otherwise, it evals it.

13 Customization

This chapter is about the customization options for the Widget library, for the end user.

Face: widget-field-face

Face used for other editing fields.

Face: widget-button-face

Face used for buttons.

User Option: widget-mouse-face

Face used for highlighting a button when the mouse pointer moves across it.

The default value is highlight.

User Option: widget-image-directory

Directory where Widget should look for images.

Widget will look here for a file with the same name as specified for the image, with either a .xpm (if supported) or .xbm extension.

User Option: widget-image-enable

If non-nil, allow images to appear on displays where they are supported.

User Option: widget-image-conversion

An alist to convert symbols from image formats to file name suffixes.

Each element is a cons cell (format . suffix), where format is a symbol that represents an image format and suffix is its correspondent suffix.

User Option: widget-button-prefix

String to prefix buttons.

User Option: widget-button-suffix

String to suffix buttons.

User Option: widget-push-button-prefix

String to prefix push buttons.

User Option: widget-push-button-suffix

String to suffix push buttons.

String to prefix links.

String to suffix links.

User Option: widget-choice-toggle

If non-nil, toggle when there are just two options.

By default, its value is nil.

If non-nil, add hyperlinks to documentation strings.

A regexp that matches potential links in documentation strings. The link itself should match to the first group.

A predicate function to test if a string is useful as a link. The function is called with one argument, a string, and should return non-nil if there should be a link for that string.

By default, the value is intern-soft.

A symbol that represents a widget type to use for links in documentation strings.

By default, the value is documentation-link.

User Option: widget-menu-max-size

Maximum size for a popup menu. By default, its value is 40.

If a function ask you to choose from a menu that is larger than this value, it will use the minibuffer.

User Option: widget-menu-max-shortcuts

Largest number of items for which it works to choose one with a character.

For a larger number, use the minibuffer.

User Option: widget-menu-minibuffer-flag

Whether to use the minibuffer to ask for a choice.

If nil, the default, read a single character.

14 Wishlist

Appendix A GNU Free Documentation License

Version 1.3, 3 November 2008
Copyright © 2000, 2001, 2002, 2007, 2008 Free Software Foundation, Inc.

Everyone is permitted to copy and distribute verbatim copies
of this license document, but changing it is not allowed.

    The purpose of this License is to make a manual, textbook, or other functional and useful document free in the sense of freedom: to assure everyone the effective freedom to copy and redistribute it, with or without modifying it, either commercially or noncommercially. Secondarily, this License preserves for the author and publisher a way to get credit for their work, while not being considered responsible for modifications made by others.

    This License is a kind of “copyleft”, which means that derivative works of the document must themselves be free in the same sense. It complements the GNU General Public License, which is a copyleft license designed for free software.

    We have designed this License in order to use it for manuals for free software, because free software needs free documentation: a free program should come with manuals providing the same freedoms that the software does. But this License is not limited to software manuals; it can be used for any textual work, regardless of subject matter or whether it is published as a printed book. We recommend this License principally for works whose purpose is instruction or reference.


    This License applies to any manual or other work, in any medium, that contains a notice placed by the copyright holder saying it can be distributed under the terms of this License. Such a notice grants a world-wide, royalty-free license, unlimited in duration, to use that work under the conditions stated herein. The “Document”, below, refers to any such manual or work. Any member of the public is a licensee, and is addressed as “you”. You accept the license if you copy, modify or distribute the work in a way requiring permission under copyright law.

    A “Modified Version” of the Document means any work containing the Document or a portion of it, either copied verbatim, or with modifications and/or translated into another language.

    A “Secondary Section” is a named appendix or a front-matter section of the Document that deals exclusively with the relationship of the publishers or authors of the Document to the Document’s overall subject (or to related matters) and contains nothing that could fall directly within that overall subject. (Thus, if the Document is in part a textbook of mathematics, a Secondary Section may not explain any mathematics.) The relationship could be a matter of historical connection with the subject or with related matters, or of legal, commercial, philosophical, ethical or political position regarding them.

    The “Invariant Sections” are certain Secondary Sections whose titles are designated, as being those of Invariant Sections, in the notice that says that the Document is released under this License. If a section does not fit the above definition of Secondary then it is not allowed to be designated as Invariant. The Document may contain zero Invariant Sections. If the Document does not identify any Invariant Sections then there are none.

    The “Cover Texts” are certain short passages of text that are listed, as Front-Cover Texts or Back-Cover Texts, in the notice that says that the Document is released under this License. A Front-Cover Text may be at most 5 words, and a Back-Cover Text may be at most 25 words.

    A “Transparent” copy of the Document means a machine-readable copy, represented in a format whose specification is available to the general public, that is suitable for revising the document straightforwardly with generic text editors or (for images composed of pixels) generic paint programs or (for drawings) some widely available drawing editor, and that is suitable for input to text formatters or for automatic translation to a variety of formats suitable for input to text formatters. A copy made in an otherwise Transparent file format whose markup, or absence of markup, has been arranged to thwart or discourage subsequent modification by readers is not Transparent. An image format is not Transparent if used for any substantial amount of text. A copy that is not “Transparent” is called “Opaque”.

    Examples of suitable formats for Transparent copies include plain ASCII without markup, Texinfo input format, LaTeX input format, SGML or XML using a publicly available DTD, and standard-conforming simple HTML, PostScript or PDF designed for human modification. Examples of transparent image formats include PNG, XCF and JPG. Opaque formats include proprietary formats that can be read and edited only by proprietary word processors, SGML or XML for which the DTD and/or processing tools are not generally available, and the machine-generated HTML, PostScript or PDF produced by some word processors for output purposes only.

    The “Title Page” means, for a printed book, the title page itself, plus such following pages as are needed to hold, legibly, the material this License requires to appear in the title page. For works in formats which do not have any title page as such, “Title Page” means the text near the most prominent appearance of the work’s title, preceding the beginning of the body of the text.

    The “publisher” means any person or entity that distributes copies of the Document to the public.

    A section “Entitled XYZ” means a named subunit of the Document whose title either is precisely XYZ or contains XYZ in parentheses following text that translates XYZ in another language. (Here XYZ stands for a specific section name mentioned below, such as “Acknowledgements”, “Dedications”, “Endorsements”, or “History”.) To “Preserve the Title” of such a section when you modify the Document means that it remains a section “Entitled XYZ” according to this definition.

    The Document may include Warranty Disclaimers next to the notice which states that this License applies to the Document. These Warranty Disclaimers are considered to be included by reference in this License, but only as regards disclaiming warranties: any other implication that these Warranty Disclaimers may have is void and has no effect on the meaning of this License.


    You may copy and distribute the Document in any medium, either commercially or noncommercially, provided that this License, the copyright notices, and the license notice saying this License applies to the Document are reproduced in all copies, and that you add no other conditions whatsoever to those of this License. You may not use technical measures to obstruct or control the reading or further copying of the copies you make or distribute. However, you may accept compensation in exchange for copies. If you distribute a large enough number of copies you must also follow the conditions in section 3.

    You may also lend copies, under the same conditions stated above, and you may publicly display copies.


    If you publish printed copies (or copies in media that commonly have printed covers) of the Document, numbering more than 100, and the Document’s license notice requires Cover Texts, you must enclose the copies in covers that carry, clearly and legibly, all these Cover Texts: Front-Cover Texts on the front cover, and Back-Cover Texts on the back cover. Both covers must also clearly and legibly identify you as the publisher of these copies. The front cover must present the full title with all words of the title equally prominent and visible. You may add other material on the covers in addition. Copying with changes limited to the covers, as long as they preserve the title of the Document and satisfy these conditions, can be treated as verbatim copying in other respects.

    If the required texts for either cover are too voluminous to fit legibly, you should put the first ones listed (as many as fit reasonably) on the actual cover, and continue the rest onto adjacent pages.

    If you publish or distribute Opaque copies of the Document numbering more than 100, you must either include a machine-readable Transparent copy along with each Opaque copy, or state in or with each Opaque copy a computer-network location from which the general network-using public has access to download using public-standard network protocols a complete Transparent copy of the Document, free of added material. If you use the latter option, you must take reasonably prudent steps, when you begin distribution of Opaque copies in quantity, to ensure that this Transparent copy will remain thus accessible at the stated location until at least one year after the last time you distribute an Opaque copy (directly or through your agents or retailers) of that edition to the public.

    It is requested, but not required, that you contact the authors of the Document well before redistributing any large number of copies, to give them a chance to provide you with an updated version of the Document.


    You may copy and distribute a Modified Version of the Document under the conditions of sections 2 and 3 above, provided that you release the Modified Version under precisely this License, with the Modified Version filling the role of the Document, thus licensing distribution and modification of the Modified Version to whoever possesses a copy of it. In addition, you must do these things in the Modified Version:

    1. Use in the Title Page (and on the covers, if any) a title distinct from that of the Document, and from those of previous versions (which should, if there were any, be listed in the History section of the Document). You may use the same title as a previous version if the original publisher of that version gives permission.
    2. List on the Title Page, as authors, one or more persons or entities responsible for authorship of the modifications in the Modified Version, together with at least five of the principal authors of the Document (all of its principal authors, if it has fewer than five), unless they release you from this requirement.
    3. State on the Title page the name of the publisher of the Modified Version, as the publisher.
    4. Preserve all the copyright notices of the Document.
    5. Add an appropriate copyright notice for your modifications adjacent to the other copyright notices.
    6. Include, immediately after the copyright notices, a license notice giving the public permission to use the Modified Version under the terms of this License, in the form shown in the Addendum below.
    7. Preserve in that license notice the full lists of Invariant Sections and required Cover Texts given in the Document’s license notice.
    8. Include an unaltered copy of this License.
    9. Preserve the section Entitled “History”, Preserve its Title, and add to it an item stating at least the title, year, new authors, and publisher of the Modified Version as given on the Title Page. If there is no section Entitled “History” in the Document, create one stating the title, year, authors, and publisher of the Document as given on its Title Page, then add an item describing the Modified Version as stated in the previous sentence.
    10. Preserve the network location, if any, given in the Document for public access to a Transparent copy of the Document, and likewise the network locations given in the Document for previous versions it was based on. These may be placed in the “History” section. You may omit a network location for a work that was published at least four years before the Document itself, or if the original publisher of the version it refers to gives permission.
    11. For any section Entitled “Acknowledgements” or “Dedications”, Preserve the Title of the section, and preserve in the section all the substance and tone of each of the contributor acknowledgements and/or dedications given therein.
    12. Preserve all the Invariant Sections of the Document, unaltered in their text and in their titles. Section numbers or the equivalent are not considered part of the section titles.
    13. Delete any section Entitled “Endorsements”. Such a section may not be included in the Modified Version.
    14. Do not retitle any existing section to be Entitled “Endorsements” or to conflict in title with any Invariant Section.
    15. Preserve any Warranty Disclaimers.

    If the Modified Version includes new front-matter sections or appendices that qualify as Secondary Sections and contain no material copied from the Document, you may at your option designate some or all of these sections as invariant. To do this, add their titles to the list of Invariant Sections in the Modified Version’s license notice. These titles must be distinct from any other section titles.

    You may add a section Entitled “Endorsements”, provided it contains nothing but endorsements of your Modified Version by various parties—for example, statements of peer review or that the text has been approved by an organization as the authoritative definition of a standard.

    You may add a passage of up to five words as a Front-Cover Text, and a passage of up to 25 words as a Back-Cover Text, to the end of the list of Cover Texts in the Modified Version. Only one passage of Front-Cover Text and one of Back-Cover Text may be added by (or through arrangements made by) any one entity. If the Document already includes a cover text for the same cover, previously added by you or by arrangement made by the same entity you are acting on behalf of, you may not add another; but you may replace the old one, on explicit permission from the previous publisher that added the old one.

    The author(s) and publisher(s) of the Document do not by this License give permission to use their names for publicity for or to assert or imply endorsement of any Modified Version.


    You may combine the Document with other documents released under this License, under the terms defined in section 4 above for modified versions, provided that you include in the combination all of the Invariant Sections of all of the original documents, unmodified, and list them all as Invariant Sections of your combined work in its license notice, and that you preserve all their Warranty Disclaimers.

    The combined work need only contain one copy of this License, and multiple identical Invariant Sections may be replaced with a single copy. If there are multiple Invariant Sections with the same name but different contents, make the title of each such section unique by adding at the end of it, in parentheses, the name of the original author or publisher of that section if known, or else a unique number. Make the same adjustment to the section titles in the list of Invariant Sections in the license notice of the combined work.

    In the combination, you must combine any sections Entitled “History” in the various original documents, forming one section Entitled “History”; likewise combine any sections Entitled “Acknowledgements”, and any sections Entitled “Dedications”. You must delete all sections Entitled “Endorsements.”


    You may make a collection consisting of the Document and other documents released under this License, and replace the individual copies of this License in the various documents with a single copy that is included in the collection, provided that you follow the rules of this License for verbatim copying of each of the documents in all other respects.

    You may extract a single document from such a collection, and distribute it individually under this License, provided you insert a copy of this License into the extracted document, and follow this License in all other respects regarding verbatim copying of that document.


    A compilation of the Document or its derivatives with other separate and independent documents or works, in or on a volume of a storage or distribution medium, is called an “aggregate” if the copyright resulting from the compilation is not used to limit the legal rights of the compilation’s users beyond what the individual works permit. When the Document is included in an aggregate, this License does not apply to the other works in the aggregate which are not themselves derivative works of the Document.

    If the Cover Text requirement of section 3 is applicable to these copies of the Document, then if the Document is less than one half of the entire aggregate, the Document’s Cover Texts may be placed on covers that bracket the Document within the aggregate, or the electronic equivalent of covers if the Document is in electronic form. Otherwise they must appear on printed covers that bracket the whole aggregate.


    Translation is considered a kind of modification, so you may distribute translations of the Document under the terms of section 4. Replacing Invariant Sections with translations requires special permission from their copyright holders, but you may include translations of some or all Invariant Sections in addition to the original versions of these Invariant Sections. You may include a translation of this License, and all the license notices in the Document, and any Warranty Disclaimers, provided that you also include the original English version of this License and the original versions of those notices and disclaimers. In case of a disagreement between the translation and the original version of this License or a notice or disclaimer, the original version will prevail.

    If a section in the Document is Entitled “Acknowledgements”, “Dedications”, or “History”, the requirement (section 4) to Preserve its Title (section 1) will typically require changing the actual title.


    You may not copy, modify, sublicense, or distribute the Document except as expressly provided under this License. Any attempt otherwise to copy, modify, sublicense, or distribute it is void, and will automatically terminate your rights under this License.

    However, if you cease all violation of this License, then your license from a particular copyright holder is reinstated (a) provisionally, unless and until the copyright holder explicitly and finally terminates your license, and (b) permanently, if the copyright holder fails to notify you of the violation by some reasonable means prior to 60 days after the cessation.

    Moreover, your license from a particular copyright holder is reinstated permanently if the copyright holder notifies you of the violation by some reasonable means, this is the first time you have received notice of violation of this License (for any work) from that copyright holder, and you cure the violation prior to 30 days after your receipt of the notice.

    Termination of your rights under this section does not terminate the licenses of parties who have received copies or rights from you under this License. If your rights have been terminated and not permanently reinstated, receipt of a copy of some or all of the same material does not give you any rights to use it.


    The Free Software Foundation may publish new, revised versions of the GNU Free Documentation License from time to time. Such new versions will be similar in spirit to the present version, but may differ in detail to address new problems or concerns. See

    Each version of the License is given a distinguishing version number. If the Document specifies that a particular numbered version of this License “or any later version” applies to it, you have the option of following the terms and conditions either of that specified version or of any later version that has been published (not as a draft) by the Free Software Foundation. If the Document does not specify a version number of this License, you may choose any version ever published (not as a draft) by the Free Software Foundation. If the Document specifies that a proxy can decide which future versions of this License can be used, that proxy’s public statement of acceptance of a version permanently authorizes you to choose that version for the Document.


    “Massive Multiauthor Collaboration Site” (or “MMC Site”) means any World Wide Web server that publishes copyrightable works and also provides prominent facilities for anybody to edit those works. A public wiki that anybody can edit is an example of such a server. A “Massive Multiauthor Collaboration” (or “MMC”) contained in the site means any set of copyrightable works thus published on the MMC site.

    “CC-BY-SA” means the Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 3.0 license published by Creative Commons Corporation, a not-for-profit corporation with a principal place of business in San Francisco, California, as well as future copyleft versions of that license published by that same organization.

    “Incorporate” means to publish or republish a Document, in whole or in part, as part of another Document.

    An MMC is “eligible for relicensing” if it is licensed under this License, and if all works that were first published under this License somewhere other than this MMC, and subsequently incorporated in whole or in part into the MMC, (1) had no cover texts or invariant sections, and (2) were thus incorporated prior to November 1, 2008.

    The operator of an MMC Site may republish an MMC contained in the site under CC-BY-SA on the same site at any time before August 1, 2009, provided the MMC is eligible for relicensing.

ADDENDUM: How to use this License for your documents

To use this License in a document you have written, include a copy of the License in the document and put the following copyright and license notices just after the title page:

  Copyright (C)  year  your name.
  Permission is granted to copy, distribute and/or modify this document
  under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License, Version 1.3
  or any later version published by the Free Software Foundation;
  with no Invariant Sections, no Front-Cover Texts, and no Back-Cover
  Texts.  A copy of the license is included in the section entitled ``GNU
  Free Documentation License''.

If you have Invariant Sections, Front-Cover Texts and Back-Cover Texts, replace the “with…Texts.” line with this:

    with the Invariant Sections being list their titles, with
    the Front-Cover Texts being list, and with the Back-Cover Texts
    being list.

If you have Invariant Sections without Cover Texts, or some other combination of the three, merge those two alternatives to suit the situation.

If your document contains nontrivial examples of program code, we recommend releasing these examples in parallel under your choice of free software license, such as the GNU General Public License, to permit their use in free software.


This is an alphabetical listing of all concepts, functions, commands, variables, and widgets described in this manual.

Jump to:   A   B   C   D   E   F   G   H   I   K   L   M   N   O   P   R   S   T   U   V   W  
Index Entry  Section

action keyword: default
activate a widget: default
activate keyword: default
active keyword: default
active widget: default
alist: composite
append-button-args keyword: editable-list
args keyword: menu-choice
args keyword: radio-button-choice
args keyword: checklist
args keyword: editable-list
atomic sexp widget: atoms

basic widgets: Introduction
boolean: atoms
button widgets: User Interface
button-args keyword: radio-button-choice
button-args keyword: checklist
button-face keyword: default
button-face-get keyword: default
button-prefix keyword: default
button-suffix keyword: default
buttons keyword: radio-button-choice
buttons keyword: checklist
buttons keyword: editable-list

case-fold keyword: menu-choice
character: atoms
checkbox widget: checkbox
checklist widget: checklist
children keyword: menu-choice
children keyword: radio-button-choice
children keyword: checklist
children keyword: editable-list
choice: composite
choice keyword: menu-choice
choice keyword: radio-button-choice
choice-item widget: choice-item
coding-system: atoms
color: atoms
completions-function keyword: default
composite sexp widgets: composite
cons: composite
const: constants
constant widgets: constants
convert-widget keyword: Defining New Widgets
copy keyword: default
create keyword: default

deactivate a widget: default
deactivate keyword: default
default: default
default widget: default
default-get keyword: default
define-widget: Defining New Widgets
defining new widgets: Defining New Widgets
delete keyword: default
delete-button-args keyword: editable-list
directory: atoms
doc keyword: default
documentation-string widget: documentation-string

editable-field widget: editable-field
editable-list widget: editable-list
emacs-commentary-link widget: emacs-commentary-link
emacs-library-link widget: emacs-library-link
embedded buttons: User Interface
entry-format keyword: radio-button-choice
entry-format keyword: checklist
entry-format keyword: editable-list
example of using widgets: Programming Example
external format: default
extra-offset keyword: default

face-link widget: face-link
file: atoms
file-link widget: file-link
float: atoms
follow-link keyword: default
format keyword: default
format-handler keyword: default
function: atoms
function-item: constants
function-link widget: function-link

generic sexp widget: generic
greedy keyword: checklist
group widget: group

help-echo keyword: default

inactive widget: default
indent keyword: default
info-link widget: info-link
insert-button-args keyword: editable-list
integer: atoms
internal format: default
item widget: item

key: atoms
keymap keyword: editable-field
keyword arguments: default

lazy: composite
link widget: link
list: composite

match keyword: default
menu-choice widget: menu-choice
menu-tag keyword: default
menu-tag-get keyword: default
mouse-2 (on button widgets): Widgets and the Buffer
mouse-down-action keyword: default
mouse-face-get keyword: default
must-match keyword: atoms

natnum: atoms
new widgets: Defining New Widgets
notify keyword: default
number: atoms

off-glyph keyword: toggle
offset keyword: default
on-glyph keyword: toggle
option field tag: User Interface
other: atoms

parent keyword: default
plist: composite
prompt-value keyword: default
push-button widget: push-button

radio: composite
radio-button-choice widget: radio-button-choice
radio-button-toggle widget: radio-button-toggle
regexp: atoms
repeat: composite
restricted-sexp: generic

secret keyword: editable-field
set: composite
sexp: generic
sexp types: Sexp Types
sibling-args keyword: default
size keyword: editable-field
string: atoms
symbol: atoms

tab-order keyword: default
tag keyword: default
tag-glyph keyword: default
text widget: text
todo: Widget Wishlist
toggle widget: toggle

url-link widget: url-link
utility functions for widgets: Utilities

valid-regexp keyword: editable-field
validate keyword: default
value keyword: default
value-create keyword: default
value-delete keyword: default
value-face keyword: editable-field
value-get keyword: default
value-inline keyword: default
value-set keyword: default
value-to-external keyword: default
value-to-internal keyword: default
variable: atoms
variable-item: constants
variable-link widget: variable-link
vector: composite
void keyword: menu-choice

widget browser: Inspecting Widgets
widget buttons: User Interface
widget creation, widget conversion: Setting Up the Buffer
widget inheritance: Widgets Basics
widget keybindings: Widgets and the Buffer
widget library, why use it: Introduction
widget minor mode: Widget Minor Mode
widget navigation: Widgets and the Buffer
widget object: Widgets Basics
widget properties: Widgets Basics
widget syntax: Widget Gallery
widget value: Widgets Basics
widget-apply: Working with Widgets
widget-apply-action: Working with Widgets
widget-at: Working with Widgets
widget-backward: Widgets and the Buffer
widget-browse: Inspecting Widgets
widget-browse-at: Inspecting Widgets
widget-browse-other-window: Inspecting Widgets
widget-button-click: Widgets and the Buffer
widget-button-click: Widgets and the Buffer
widget-button-face: Customization
widget-button-prefix: Customization
widget-button-press: Widgets and the Buffer
widget-button-press: Widgets and the Buffer
widget-button-suffix: Customization
widget-child-validate: Working with Widgets
widget-child-value-get: Working with Widgets
widget-child-value-inline: Working with Widgets
widget-children-validate: Working with Widgets
widget-children-value-delete: Setting Up the Buffer
widget-choice-toggle: Customization
widget-choose: Utilities
widget-complete: Widgets and the Buffer
widget-convert: Setting Up the Buffer
widget-copy: Setting Up the Buffer
widget-create: Setting Up the Buffer
widget-create-child: Setting Up the Buffer
widget-create-child-and-convert: Setting Up the Buffer
widget-create-child-value: Setting Up the Buffer
widget-default-delete: default
widget-default-format-handler: default
widget-default-get: Working with Widgets
widget-delete: Setting Up the Buffer
widget-describe: Inspecting Widgets
widget-documentation-link-p: Customization
widget-documentation-link-regexp: Customization
widget-documentation-link-type: Customization
widget-documentation-links: Customization
widget-echo-help: Utilities
widget-end-of-line: Widgets and the Buffer
widget-field-activate: Widgets and the Buffer
widget-field-at: Working with Widgets
widget-field-face: Customization
widget-field-keymap: editable-field
widget-forward: Widgets and the Buffer
widget-get: Working with Widgets
widget-get-sibling: Utilities
widget-global-map: Widgets and the Buffer
widget-image-conversion: Customization
widget-image-directory: Customization
widget-image-enable: Customization
widget-image-find: Utilities
widget-image-insert: Utilities
widget-insert: Setting Up the Buffer
widget-keymap: Widgets and the Buffer
widget-kill-line: Widgets and the Buffer
widget-link-prefix: Customization
widget-link-suffix: Customization
widget-member: Working with Widgets
widget-menu-max-shortcuts: Customization
widget-menu-max-size: Customization
widget-menu-minibuffer-flag: Customization
widget-minor-mode: Widget Minor Mode
widget-minor-mode-keymap: Widget Minor Mode
widget-mouse-face: Customization
widget-parent-action: Working with Widgets
widget-prompt-value: Utilities
widget-push-button-prefix: Customization
widget-push-button-suffix: Customization
widget-put: Working with Widgets
widget-radio-add-item: radio-button-choice
widget-setup: Setting Up the Buffer
widget-text-keymap: text
widget-type: Working with Widgets
widget-type-default-get: Working with Widgets
widget-type-match: Working with Widgets
widget-type-value-create: Working with Widgets
widget-types-convert-widget: Working with Widgets
widget-types-copy: Working with Widgets
widget-value: Working with Widgets
widget-value-convert-widget: Working with Widgets
widget-value-set: Working with Widgets
widget-value-value-get: Working with Widgets
widgetp: Working with Widgets
widgets, basic types: Introduction
widgets, programming example: Programming Example