This package defines a number of macros that operate on generalized variables. Many are interesting and useful even when the place is just a variable name.
This macro is to
cl-psetq is to
When several places and forms are involved, the
assignments take place in parallel rather than sequentially.
Specifically, all subforms are evaluated from left to right, then
all the assignments are done (in an undefined order).
This macro increments the number stored in place by one, or
by x if specified. The incremented value is returned. For
(cl-incf i) is equivalent to
(setq i (1+ i)), and
(cl-incf (car x) 2) is equivalent to
(setcar x (+ (car x) 2)).
setf, care is taken to preserve the “apparent” order
of evaluation. For example,
(cl-incf (aref vec (cl-incf i)))
appears to increment
i once, then increment the element of
vec addressed by
i; this is indeed exactly what it
does, which means the above form is not equivalent to the
(setf (aref vec (cl-incf i)) (1+ (aref vec (cl-incf i)))) ; wrong!
but rather to something more like
(let ((temp (cl-incf i))) (setf (aref vec temp) (1+ (aref vec temp))))
Again, all of this is taken care of automatically by
the other generalized-variable macros.
As a more Emacs-specific example of
cl-incf, the expression
(cl-incf (point) n) is essentially equivalent to
This macro decrements the number stored in place by one, or by x if specified.
This macro inserts x at the front of the list stored in
place, but only if x was not
eql to any
existing element of the list. The optional keyword arguments
are interpreted in the same way as for
See Lists as Sets.
This macro shifts the places left by one, shifting in the
value of newvalue (which may be any Lisp expression, not just
a generalized variable), and returning the value shifted out of
the first place. Thus,
(cl-shiftf a b c
d) is equivalent to
(prog1 a (cl-psetf a b b c c d))
except that the subforms of a, b, and c are actually evaluated only once each and in the apparent order.
This macro rotates the places left by one in circular fashion.
(cl-rotatef a b c d) is equivalent to
(cl-psetf a b b c c d d a)
except for the evaluation of subforms.
nil. Note that
(cl-rotatef a b)
conveniently exchanges a and b.
The following macros were invented for this package; they have no analogues in Common Lisp.
This macro is analogous to
let, but for generalized variables
rather than just symbols. Each binding should be of the form
(place value); the original contents of the
places are saved, the values are stored in them, and
then the body forms are executed. Afterwards, the places
are set back to their original saved contents. This cleanup happens
even if the forms exit irregularly due to a
throw or an
(cl-letf (((point) (point-min)) (a 17)) …)
moves point in the current buffer to the beginning of the buffer,
and also binds
a to 17 (as if by a normal
a is just a regular variable). After the body exits,
is set back to its original value and point is moved back to its
(point) is not quite like a
save-excursion, as the latter effectively saves a marker
which tracks insertions and deletions in the buffer. Actually,
(point-marker) is much closer to this
point-marker are equivalent
setf places; each will accept either an integer or a
marker as the stored value.)
Like in the case of
let, the value forms are evaluated in
the order they appear, but the order of bindings is unspecified.
Therefore, avoid binding the same place more than once in a
Since generalized variables look like lists,
of using ‘foo’ for ‘(foo nil)’ as a binding would
be ambiguous in
cl-letf and is not allowed.
However, a binding specifier may be a one-element list
‘(place)’, which is similar to ‘(place
place)’. In other words, the place is not disturbed
on entry to the body, and the only effect of the
to restore the original value of place afterwards.
Note that in this case, and in fact almost every case, place
must have a well-defined value outside the
There is essentially only one exception to this, which is place
a plain variable with a specified value (such as
in the above example).
This macro is to
let* is to
It does the bindings in sequential rather than parallel order.
This is the “generic” modify macro. It calls function,
which should be an unquoted function name, macro name, or lambda.
It passes place and args as arguments, and assigns the
result back to place. For example,
n) is the same as
(cl-callf + place n).
Some more examples:
(cl-callf abs my-number) (cl-callf concat (buffer-name) "<" (number-to-string n) ">") (cl-callf cl-union happy-people (list joe bob) :test 'same-person)
Note again that
cl-callf is an extension to standard Common Lisp.
This macro is like
cl-callf, except that place is
the second argument of function rather than the
first. For example,
(push x place) is
(cl-callf2 cons x place).
cl-callf2 macros serve as building
blocks for other macros like
cl-letf* macros are used in the processing
of symbol macros; see Macro Bindings.