In some groups (particularly in archive groups), the
isn’t very interesting, since all the articles there are written by
you. To display the information in the
headers instead, you need to decide three things: What information to
gather; where to display it; and when to display it.
gnus-extra-headers. This is a list of header symbols. For instance:
(setq gnus-extra-headers '(To Newsgroups X-Newsreader))
This will result in Gnus trying to obtain these three headers, and storing it in header structures for later easy retrieval.
gnus-extra-headerfunction. Here’s a format line spec that will access the
"%~(form (gnus-extra-header 'X-Newsreader))@"
gnus-ignored-from-addressesvariable says when the ‘%f’ summary line spec returns the
Fromheader. The variable may be a regexp or a predicate function. If this matches the contents of the
Fromheader, the value of the
Newsreaderheaders are used instead.
To distinguish regular articles from those where the
has been swapped, a string is prefixed to the
Newsgroups header in the summary line. By default the string is
‘-> ’ for
To and ‘=> ’ for
Newsgroups, you can
customize these strings with
A related variable is
nnmail-extra-headers, which controls when
to include extra headers when generating overview (NOV) files.
If you have old overview files, you should regenerate them after
changing this variable, by entering the server buffer using ^,
and then g on the appropriate mail server (e.g., nnml) to cause
You also have to instruct Gnus to display the data by changing the
%n spec to the
%f spec in the
In summary, you’d typically put something like the following in ~/.gnus.el:
(setq gnus-extra-headers '(To Newsgroups)) (setq nnmail-extra-headers gnus-extra-headers) (setq gnus-summary-line-format "%U%R%z%I%(%[%4L: %-23,23f%]%) %s\n") (setq gnus-ignored-from-addresses "Your Name Here")
(The values listed above are the default values in Gnus. Alter them to fit your needs.)
A note for news server administrators, or for users who wish to try to convince their news server administrator to provide some additional support:
The above is mostly useful for mail groups, where you have control over the NOV files that are created. However, if you can persuade your nntp admin to add (in the usual implementation, notably INN):
to the end of her overview.fmt file, then you can use that just as you would the extra headers from the mail groups. Otherwise, you have to disable fetching headers with ‘XOVER’:
(setq nntp-nov-is-evil t gnus-nov-is-evil t)
Be aware, though, that this will make entering an NNTP group much, much slower, so this is not recommended.
One particular scenario in which it can be desirable to not use
‘XOVER’ is for
nnvirtual groups in order to support
limiting by extra headers (e.g., by the newsgroup of its component
groups). Because group parameters are not inherited, a separate
select method for the component groups with the appropriate
nov-is-evil set as a method variable is required.