No, there’s nothing here about X, so be quiet.
nil, Gnus will delete all
other windows and occupy the entire Emacs screen by itself. It is
t by default.
Setting this variable to
nil kinda works, but there are
glitches. Use at your own peril.
gnus-buffer-configuration describes how much space each Gnus
buffer should be given. Here’s an excerpt of this variable:
((group (vertical 1.0 (group 1.0 point))) (article (vertical 1.0 (summary 0.25 point) (article 1.0))))
This is an alist. The key is a symbol that names some action or
other. For instance, when displaying the group buffer, the window
configuration function will use
group as the key. A full list of
possible names is listed below.
The value (i.e., the split) says how much space each buffer
should occupy. To take the
article split as an example:
(article (vertical 1.0 (summary 0.25 point) (article 1.0)))
This split says that the summary buffer should occupy 25% of upper
half of the screen, and that it is placed over the article buffer. As
you may have noticed, 100% + 25% is actually 125% (yup, I saw y’all
reaching for that calculator there). However, the special number
1.0 is used to signal that this buffer should soak up all the
rest of the space available after the rest of the buffers have taken
whatever they need. There should be only one buffer with the
size spec per split.
Point will be put in the buffer that has the optional third element
point. In a
frame split, the last subsplit having a leaf
split where the tag
frame-focus is a member (i.e., is the third or
fourth element in the list, depending on whether the
point tag is
present) gets focus.
Here’s a more complicated example:
(article (vertical 1.0 (group 4) (summary 0.25 point) (article 1.0)))
If the size spec is an integer instead of a floating point number, then that number will be used to say how many lines a buffer should occupy, not a percentage.
If the split looks like something that can be
evaled (to be
car of the split is a function or a subr), this
split will be
evaled. If the result is non-
nil, it will
be used as a split.
Not complicated enough for you? Well, try this on for size:
(article (horizontal 1.0 (vertical 0.5 (group 1.0)) (vertical 1.0 (summary 0.25 point) (article 1.0))))
Whoops. Two buffers with the mystery 100% tag. And what’s that
If the first element in one of the split is
horizontal, Gnus will
split the window horizontally, giving you two windows side-by-side.
Inside each of these strips you may carry on all you like in the normal
fashion. The number following
horizontal says what percentage of
the screen is to be given to this strip.
For each split, there must be one element that has the 100% tag. The splitting is never accurate, and this buffer will eat any leftover lines from the splits.
To be slightly more formal, here’s a definition of what a valid split may look like:
split = frame | horizontal | vertical | buffer | form frame = "(frame " size *split ")" horizontal = "(horizontal " size *split ")" vertical = "(vertical " size *split ")" buffer = "(" buf-name " " size *[ "point" ] *[ "frame-focus"] ")" size = number | frame-params buf-name = group | article | summary ...
The limitations are that the
frame split can only appear as the
top-level split. form should be an Emacs Lisp form that should
return a valid split. We see that each split is fully recursive, and
may contain any number of
Finding the right sizes can be a bit complicated. No window may be less
gnus-window-min-height (default 1) characters high, and all
windows must be at least
gnus-window-min-width (default 1)
characters wide. Gnus will try to enforce this before applying the
splits. If you want to use the normal Emacs window width/height limit,
you can just set these two variables to
If you’re not familiar with Emacs terminology,
vertical splits may work the opposite way of what you’d expect.
Windows inside a
horizontal split are shown side-by-side, and
windows within a
vertical split are shown above each other.
If you want to experiment with window placement, a good tip is to call
gnus-configure-frame directly with a split. This is the function
that does all the real work when splitting buffers. Below is a pretty
nonsensical configuration with 5 windows; two for the group buffer and
three for the article buffer. (I said it was nonsensical.) If you
eval the statement below, you can get an idea of how that would
look straight away, without going through the normal Gnus channels.
Play with it until you’re satisfied, and then use
gnus-add-configuration to add your new creation to the buffer
(gnus-configure-frame '(horizontal 1.0 (vertical 10 (group 1.0) (article 0.3 point)) (vertical 1.0 (article 1.0) (horizontal 4 (group 1.0) (article 10)))))
You might want to have several frames as well. No prob—just use the
(gnus-configure-frame '(frame 1.0 (vertical 1.0 (summary 0.25 point frame-focus) (article 1.0)) (vertical ((height . 5) (width . 15) (user-position . t) (left . -1) (top . 1)) (picon 1.0))))
This split will result in the familiar summary/article window
configuration in the first (or “main”) frame, while a small additional
frame will be created where picons will be shown. As you can see,
instead of the normal
1.0 top-level spec, each additional split
should have a frame parameter alist as the size spec.
See Frame Parameters in The GNU Emacs Lisp
The list of all possible keys for
be found in its default value.
Note that the
message key is used for both
it is desirable to distinguish between the two, something like this
might be used:
(message (horizontal 1.0 (vertical 1.0 (message 1.0 point)) (vertical 0.24 (if (buffer-live-p gnus-summary-buffer) '(summary 0.5)) (group 1.0))))
One common desire for a multiple frame split is to have a separate frame for composing mail and news while leaving the original frame intact. To accomplish that, something like the following can be done:
(message (frame 1.0 (if (not (buffer-live-p gnus-summary-buffer)) (car (cdr (assoc 'group gnus-buffer-configuration))) (car (cdr (assoc 'summary gnus-buffer-configuration)))) (vertical ((user-position . t) (top . 1) (left . 1) (name . "Message")) (message 1.0 point))))
gnus-buffer-configuration variable is so long and
complicated, there’s a function you can use to ease changing the config
of a single setting:
gnus-add-configuration. If, for instance,
you want to change the
article setting, you could say:
(gnus-add-configuration '(article (vertical 1.0 (group 4) (summary .25 point) (article 1.0))))
You’d typically stick these
gnus-add-configuration calls in your
~/.gnus.el file or in some startup hook—they should be run after
Gnus has been loaded.
If all windows mentioned in the configuration are already visible, Gnus
won’t change the window configuration. If you always want to force the
“right” window configuration, you can set
gnus-always-force-window-configuration to non-
If you’re using tree displays (see Tree Display), and the tree
window is displayed vertically next to another window, you may also want
to fiddle with
gnus-tree-minimize-window to avoid having the
Lastly, it’s possible to make Gnus window layouts “atomic”
(see Atomic Windows in The GNU Emacs Lisp
Reference Manual) by setting
t. This will ensure that pop-up buffers (e.g. help or
completion buffers), will appear below or to the side of the entire
Gnus window layout and not, for example, squashed between the summary
and article buffers.
Here’s a list of most of the currently known window configurations, and when they’re used:
The group buffer.
Entering a group and showing only the summary.
Selecting an article.
The server buffer.
Browsing groups from the server buffer.
Composing a (new) message.
Showing only the article buffer.
Editing an article.
Editing group parameters and the like.
Editing a server definition.
Composing a news message.
Replying or following up an article without yanking the text.
Forwarding a message.
Replying or following up an article with yanking the text.
Bouncing a message.
Sending an article to an external process.
Sending a bug report.
Displaying the score trace.
Displaying the score words.
Displaying the split trace.
Composing a bounce message.
Previewing a MIME part.
(gnus-add-configuration '(article (horizontal 1.0 (vertical 25 (group 1.0)) (vertical 1.0 (summary 0.16 point) (article 1.0))))) (gnus-add-configuration '(summary (horizontal 1.0 (vertical 25 (group 1.0)) (vertical 1.0 (summary 1.0 point)))))