Marshall Rose once wrote a paper on MH entitled, How to process 200 messages a day and still get some real work done. This chapter could be entitled, How to process 1000 spams a day and still get some real work done.
We use the terms junk mail and spam interchangeably for any unwanted message which includes spam, viruses, and worms. The opposite of spam is ham. The act of classifying a sender as one who sends junk mail is called blacklisting; the opposite is called whitelisting.
Display cheat sheet for the commands of the current prefix in
Blacklist range as spam (
Whitelist range as ham (
Identify spammers who are repeat offenders.
The following table lists the options from the ‘mh-junk’ customization group.
If on, spam programs are run in background (default: ‘off’).
Disposition of junk mail (default: ‘Delete Spam’).
Spam program that MH-E should use (default: ‘Auto-detect’).
The following option in the ‘mh-sequences’ customization group is also available.
On means that sequences are preserved when messages are whitelisted (default: ‘on’).
The following hooks are available.
Hook run by J b (
mh-junk-blacklist) after marking each
message for blacklisting (default:
Hook run by J w (
mh-junk-whitelist) after marking each
message for whitelisting (default ‘nil’).
The following faces are available.
Blacklisted message face.
Whitelisted message face
MH-E depends on SpamAssassin, bogofilter, or SpamProbe to throw the dreck away. This chapter describes briefly how to configure these programs to work well with MH-E and how to use MH-E’s interface that provides continuing education for these programs.
The default setting of the option
‘Auto-detect’ which means that MH-E will automatically choose one
of SpamAssassin, bogofilter, or SpamProbe in that order. If, for
example, you have both SpamAssassin and bogofilter installed and you
want to use bogofilter, then you can set this option to
The command J b (
mh-junk-blacklist) trains the spam
program in use with the content of the range (see Ranges) and then
handles the message(s) as specified by the option
mh-junk-disposition. By default, this option is set to
‘Delete Spam’ but you can also specify the name of the folder
which is useful for building a corpus of spam for training purposes.
In contrast, the command J w (
reclassifies a range of messages (see Ranges) as ham if it were
incorrectly classified as spam. It then refiles the message into the
If a message is in any sequence (except ‘Previous-Sequence:’ and
‘cur’) when it is whitelisted, then it will still be in those
sequences in the destination folder. If this behavior is not desired,
then turn off the option
By default, the programs are run in the foreground, but this can be
slow when junking large numbers of messages. If you have enough memory
or don’t junk that many messages at the same time, you might try
turning on the option
The following sections discuss the various counter-spam measures that MH-E can work with.
SpamAssassin is one of the more popular spam filtering programs. Get it from your local distribution or from the SpamAssassin web site.
To use SpamAssassin, add the following recipes to ~/.procmailrc:
PATH=$PATH:/usr/bin/mh MAILDIR=$HOME/`mhparam Path` # Fight spam with SpamAssassin. :0fw | spamc # Anything with a spam level of 10 or more is junked immediately. :0: * ^X-Spam-Level: .......... /dev/null :0: * ^X-Spam-Status: Yes spam/.
If you don’t use
spamc, use ‘spamassassin -P -a’.
Note that one of the recipes above throws away messages with a score greater than or equal to 10. Here’s how you can determine a value that works best for you.
First, run ‘spamassassin -t’ on every mail message in your
archive and use
gnumeric to verify that the average plus the
standard deviation of good mail is under 5, the SpamAssassin default
gnumeric, sort the messages by score and view the
messages with the highest score. Determine the score which encompasses
all of your interesting messages and add a couple of points to be
conservative. Add that many dots to the ‘X-Spam-Level:’ header
field above to send messages with that score down the drain.
In the example above, messages with a score of 5–9 are set aside in the ‘+spam’ folder for later review. The major weakness of rules-based filters is a plethora of false positives so it is worthwhile to check.
If SpamAssassin classifies a message incorrectly, or is unsure, you can
use the MH-E commands J b (
J w (
The command J b (
mh-junk-blacklist) adds a
‘blacklist_from’ entry to ~/spamassassin/user_prefs,
deletes the message, and sends the message to the Razor, so that
others might not see this spam. If the
sa-learn command is
available, the message is also recategorized as spam.
The commandJ w (
mh-junk-whitelist) adds a
‘whitelist_from’ rule to ‘~/.spamassassin/user_prefs’. If
sa-learn command is available, the message is also
recategorized as ham.
Over time, you’ll observe that the same host or domain occurs
repeatedly in the ‘blacklist_from’ entries, so you might think
that you could avoid future spam by blacklisting all mail from a
particular domain. The utility function
mh-spamassassin-identify-spammers helps you do precisely that.
This function displays a frequency count of the hosts and domains in
the ‘blacklist_from’ entries from the last blank line in
~/.spamassassin/user_prefs to the end of the file. This
information can be used so that you can replace multiple
‘blacklist_from’ entries with a single wildcard entry such as:
In versions of SpamAssassin (2.50 and on) that support a Bayesian
classifier, J b
(mh-junk-blacklist) uses the program
sa-learn to recategorize the message as spam. Neither MH-E,
nor SpamAssassin, rebuilds the database after adding words, so you
will need to run ‘sa-learn --rebuild’ periodically. This can be
done by adding the following to your crontab:
0 * * * * sa-learn --rebuild > /dev/null 2>&1
Bogofilter is a Bayesian spam filtering program. Get it from your local distribution or from the bogofilter web site.
Bogofilter is taught by running:
bogofilter -n < good-message
on every good message, and
bogofilter -s < spam-message
on every spam message. This is called a full training; three other training methods are described in the FAQ that is distributed with bogofilter. Note that most Bayesian filters need 1000 to 5000 of each type of message to start doing a good job.
To use bogofilter, add the following recipes to ~/.procmailrc:
PATH=$PATH:/usr/bin/mh MAILDIR=$HOME/`mhparam Path` # Fight spam with Bogofilter. :0fw | bogofilter -3 -e -p :0: * ^X-Bogosity: Yes, tests=bogofilter spam/. :0: * ^X-Bogosity: Unsure, tests=bogofilter spam/unsure/.
If bogofilter classifies a message incorrectly, or is unsure, you can
use the MH-E commands J b (
mh-junk-blacklist) and J
mh-junk-whitelist) to update bogofilter’s training.
The Bogofilter FAQ suggests that you run the following occasionally to shrink the database:
bogoutil -d wordlist.db | bogoutil -l wordlist.db.new mv wordlist.db wordlist.db.prv mv wordlist.db.new wordlist.db
The Bogofilter tuning HOWTO describes how you can fine-tune bogofilter.
SpamProbe is a Bayesian spam filtering program. Get it from your local distribution or from the SpamProbe web site.
To use SpamProbe, add the following recipes to ~/.procmailrc:
PATH=$PATH:/usr/bin/mh MAILDIR=$HOME/`mhparam Path` # Fight spam with SpamProbe. :0 SCORE=| spamprobe receive :0 wf | formail -I "X-SpamProbe: $SCORE" :0: *^X-SpamProbe: SPAM spam/.
If SpamProbe classifies a message incorrectly, you can use the MH-E
commands J b (
mh-junk-blacklist) and J w
mh-junk-whitelist) to update SpamProbe’s training.
There are a couple of things that you can add to ~/.procmailrc in order to filter out a lot of spam and viruses. The first is to eliminate any message with a Windows executable (which is most likely a virus). The second is to eliminate mail in character sets that you can’t read.
PATH=$PATH:/usr/bin/mh MAILDIR=$HOME/`mhparam Path` # # Filter messages with w32 executables/virii. # # These attachments are base64 and have a TVqQAAMAAAAEAAAA//8AALg # pattern. The string "this program cannot be run in MS-DOS mode" # encoded in base64 is 4fug4AtAnNIbg and helps to avoid false # positives (Roland Smith via Pete from the bogofilter mailing list). # :0 B: * ^Content-Transfer-Encoding:.*base64 * ^TVqQAAMAAAAEAAAA//8AALg * 4fug4AtAnNIbg spam/exe/. # # Filter mail in unreadable character sets (from the Bogofilter FAQ). # UNREADABLE='[^?"]*big5|iso-2022-jp|ISO-2022-KR|euc-kr|gb2312|ks_c_5601-1987' :0: * 1^0 $ ^Subject:.*=\?($UNREADABLE) * 1^0 $ ^Content-Type:.*charset="?($UNREADABLE) spam/unreadable/. :0: * ^Content-Type:.*multipart * B ?? $ ^Content-Type:.*^?.*charset="?($UNREADABLE) spam/unreadable/.
mh-junk-background is used as the
argument in the call to
call-process. Therefore, turning on
this option means setting its value to ‘0’. You can also set its
value to ‘t’ to direct the programs’ output to the *MH-E
Log* buffer; this may be useful for debugging.