thegnuproject.ca.po

Mismatched links: 26.

Mismatched ids: 0.

#text
7 | The AI Lab used a timesharing operating system called <abbr
| title="Incompatible Timesharing System">ITS</abbr> (the Incompatible
| Timesharing System) that the lab's staff [-hackers (1)-]
| {+hackers&#8239;<a href="#ft1">[1]</a>+} had designed and written in
| assembler language for the Digital <abbr title="Programmed Data
| Processor">PDP</abbr>-10, one of the large computers of the era. As a
| member of this community, an AI Lab staff system hacker, my job was to
| improve this system. 
The AI Lab used a timesharing operating system called <abbr title="Incompatible Timesharing System">ITS</abbr> (the Incompatible Timesharing System) that the lab's staff hackers&#8239;<a href="#ft1">[1]</a> had designed and written in assembler language for the Digital <abbr title="Programmed Data Processor">PDP</abbr>-10, one of the large computers of the era. As a member of this community, an AI Lab staff system hacker, my job was to improve this system. 
El LIA utilitzava un sistema operatiu de compartiment de temps anomenat ITS <cite>(Incompatible Timesharing System)</cite> que els hackers&nbsp;(1) del laboratori havien dissenyat i escrit en assemblador per al Digital <abbr title="Programmed Data Processor">PDP</abbr>-10, ún dels ordinadors més potents de l'època. Com a membre d'aquesta comunitat, un hacker del LIA, la meva feina era millorar el sistema. 
30 | As an operating system developer, I had the right skills for this job. So
| even though I could not take success for granted, I realized that I was
| elected to do the job. I chose to make the system compatible with Unix so
| that it would be portable, and so that Unix users could easily switch to
| it. The name GNU was chosen, following a hacker tradition, as a recursive
| acronym for &ldquo;GNU's Not Unix.&rdquo; {+It is pronounced as <a
| href="/gnu/pronunciation.html">one syllable with a
| hard&nbsp;<i>g</i></a>.+} 
As an operating system developer, I had the right skills for this job. So even though I could not take success for granted, I realized that I was elected to do the job. I chose to make the system compatible with Unix so that it would be portable, and so that Unix users could easily switch to it. The name GNU was chosen, following a hacker tradition, as a recursive acronym for &ldquo;GNU's Not Unix.&rdquo; It is pronounced as <a href="/gnu/pronunciation.html">one syllable with a hard&nbsp;<i>g</i></a>. 
Com a desenvolupador de sistemes operatius, tenia els coneixements i habilitats adequades per a la feina. Tot i que no n'estava segur dels resultats em vaig adonar que era la persona indicada per a fer-ho. Vaig decidir de fer el sistema compatible amb Unix per tal de que podés ser portable i perquè els usuaris de Unix poguessin fàcilment canviar-se de bàndol. El nom GNU fou escollit seguint una tradició hacker: GNU és un acrònim recursiu que significa <cite>GNU's Not Unix</cite>. 
32 | Later I heard these words, attributed to [-Hillel (1):-] {+Hillel&#8239;<a
| href="#ft2">[2]</a>:+} 
Later I heard these words, attributed to Hillel&#8239;<a href="#ft2">[2]</a>: 
Més tard vaig escoltar aquests versos, atribuïts a Hillel&nbsp;(1): 
67 | The goal of GNU was to give users freedom, not just to be popular. So we
| needed to use distribution terms that would prevent GNU software from
| being turned into proprietary software. The method we use is called
| [-&ldquo;copyleft&rdquo;.(1)-] {+&ldquo;copyleft&rdquo;&#8239;<a
| href="#ft3">[3]</a>.+} 
The goal of GNU was to give users freedom, not just to be popular. So we needed to use distribution terms that would prevent GNU software from being turned into proprietary software. The method we use is called &ldquo;copyleft&rdquo;&#8239;<a href="#ft3">[3]</a>. 
L'objectiu del GNU fou donar als usuaris drets, no només ser populars. Per tant, calia utilitzar uns termes de distribució que no deixessin cap possibilitat de què el programari GNU esdevinguin programari propietari. Aquest mètode que utilitzem és anomenat «copyleft».&nbsp;(1)  
73 | The specific implementation of copyleft that we use for most GNU software
| is the GNU General Public License, or GNU GPL for short. We have other
| kinds of copyleft that are used in specific circumstances. GNU manuals
| are copylefted also, but use a much simpler kind of copyleft, because the
| complexity of the GNU GPL is not necessary for [-manuals.(2)-]
| {+manuals&#8239;<a href="#ft4">[4]</a>.+} 
The specific implementation of copyleft that we use for most GNU software is the GNU General Public License, or GNU GPL for short. We have other kinds of copyleft that are used in specific circumstances. GNU manuals are copylefted also, but use a much simpler kind of copyleft, because the complexity of the GNU GPL is not necessary for manuals&#8239;<a href="#ft4">[4]</a>. 
La implementació específica del copyleft que utilitzem per a la majoria del programari GNU és la Llicència Pública General GNU (GNU GPL abreujadament). Tenim altres tipus de copyleft que utilitzem en circumstàncies particulars. Els manuals GNU també tenen copyleft, però utilitzen un sistema de copyleft més simple, donat que la complexitat de la GNU GPL no és necessària per als manuals.&nbsp;(2) 
75 | As interest in using Emacs was growing, other people became involved in
| the GNU project, and we decided that it was time to seek funding once
| again. So in 1985 we created the <a
| href="http{+s+}://www.fsf.org/">Free Software Foundation</a> (FSF), a
| tax-exempt charity for free software development. The [-<abbr
| title="Free Software Foundation">FSF</abbr>-] {+FSF+} also took over the
| Emacs tape distribution business; later it extended this by adding other
| free software (both GNU and non-GNU) to the tape, and by selling free
| manuals as well. 
As interest in using Emacs was growing, other people became involved in the GNU project, and we decided that it was time to seek funding once again. So in 1985 we created the <a href="https://www.fsf.org/">Free Software Foundation</a> (FSF), a tax-exempt charity for free software development. The FSF also took over the Emacs tape distribution business; later it extended this by adding other free software (both GNU and non-GNU) to the tape, and by selling free manuals as well. 
Com l'interès en utilitzar l'Emacs estava creixent, més gent s'estava involucrant en el projecte GNU, i vam decidir que era hora de cercar fons. Per tant, el 1985 vam crear la <a href="http://www.fsf.org/">Free Software Foundation</a> (FSF), una entitat no lucrativa dedicada al programari lliure. La <abbr title="Free Software Foundation">FSF</abbr> va assumir el negoci de distribució de les cintes amb l'Emacs (més tard s'hi va afegir altre programari lliure (bé GNU o no GNU) ) i la venda de manuals lliures.  
76 | Most of the FSF's income used to come from sales of copies of free
| software and of other related services (CD-ROMs of source code, CD-ROMs
| with binaries, nicely printed manuals, all with the freedom to
| redistribute and modify), and Deluxe Distributions (distributions for
| which we built the whole collection of software for the customer's choice
| of platform). Today the FSF still <a href="http{+s+}://shop.fsf.org/">
| sells manuals and other gear</a>, but it gets the bulk of its funding from
| members' dues. You can join the FSF at <a
| [-href="http://fsf.org/join">fsf.org</a>.-]
| {+href="https://my.fsf.org/join">fsf.org</a>.+} 
Most of the FSF's income used to come from sales of copies of free software and of other related services (CD-ROMs of source code, CD-ROMs with binaries, nicely printed manuals, all with the freedom to redistribute and modify), and Deluxe Distributions (distributions for which we built the whole collection of software for the customer's choice of platform). Today the FSF still <a href="https://shop.fsf.org/"> sells manuals and other gear</a>, but it gets the bulk of its funding from members' dues. You can join the FSF at <a href="https://my.fsf.org/join">fsf.org</a>. 
La majoria dels ingressos de la FSF han provingut sempre de les vendes de còpies de programari lliure i d'altres serveis relacionats (CD-ROMs amb el codi font, CD-ROMs amb els binaris, manuals acuradament impresos, tot amb la llibertat de distribuir i modificar) i distribucions de luxe (distribucions que construïm amb una col·lecció completa de programari segons la plataforma escollida pel client). Encara avui la FSFl <a href="http://shop.fsf.org/"> ven manuals i altres complements</a>, peró obté la major part dels seus fons de les donacions dels membres. Podeu unir-vos a la FSF a <a href="http://fsf.org/join">fsf.org</a>. 
77 | Free Software Foundation employees have written and maintained a number of
| GNU software packages. Two notable ones are the C library and the shell.
| The GNU C library is what every program running on a GNU/Linux system uses
| to communicate with Linux. It was developed by a member of the Free
| Software Foundation staff, Roland McGrath. The shell used on most
| GNU/Linux systems is [-<abbr title="Bourne Again Shell">BASH</abbr>,-]
| {+BASH,+} the Bourne Again [-Shell(1),-] {+SHell&#8239;<a
| href="#ft5">[5]</a>,+} which was developed by FSF employee Brian Fox. 
Free Software Foundation employees have written and maintained a number of GNU software packages. Two notable ones are the C library and the shell. The GNU C library is what every program running on a GNU/Linux system uses to communicate with Linux. It was developed by a member of the Free Software Foundation staff, Roland McGrath. The shell used on most GNU/Linux systems is BASH, the Bourne Again SHell&#8239;<a href="#ft5">[5]</a>, which was developed by FSF employee Brian Fox. 
Els treballadors de la FSF han escrit i mantingut un nombre de paquets de programari GNU. Dos exemples notables són la biblioteca C i la shell. La biblioteca C GNU és el medi amb que qualsevol programa treballant amb GNU/Linux utilitza per a comunicar-se amb Linux. Fou desenvolupada per un membre del nucli de la FSF, Roland McGrath. La shell utilitzada en la majoria dels sistemes GNU/Linux és la <abbr title="Bourne Again Shell">Bash</abbr>, la <cite>Bourne Again Shell</cite>&nbsp;(1), desenvolupada per Brian Fox, treballador de la FSF. 
95 | [-Today (1),-]{+Today&#8239;<a href="#ft6">[6]</a>,+} hardly any Unix
| components are left in the GNU Task List&mdash;those jobs had been done,
| aside from a few inessential ones. But the list is full of projects that
| some might call [-&ldquo;applications&rdquo;.-]
| {+&ldquo;applications.&rdquo;+} Any program that appeals to more than a
| narrow class of users would be a useful thing to add to an operating
| system. 
Today&#8239;<a href="#ft6">[6]</a>, hardly any Unix components are left in the GNU Task List&mdash;those jobs had been done, aside from a few inessential ones. But the list is full of projects that some might call &ldquo;applications.&rdquo; Any program that appeals to more than a narrow class of users would be a useful thing to add to an operating system. 
Actualment&nbsp;(1), gairebé tots els components Unix han deixat d'estar a la llista de tasques del GNU: ja han estat fets, llevat d'alguns que no eren essencials. Però la llista continua plena de projectes que alguns anomenen «aplicacions». Qualsevol programa que sigui atractiu per a un segment d'usuaris prou important és un programa potencial d'afegir al sistema operatiu. 
98 | The GNU C library uses a special kind of copyleft called the GNU
| [-Library-] {+Lesser+} General Public [-License(1),-] {+License&#8239;<a
| href="#ft7">[7]</a>,+} which gives permission to link proprietary
| software with the library. Why make this exception? 
The GNU C library uses a special kind of copyleft called the GNU Lesser General Public License&#8239;<a href="#ft7">[7]</a>, which gives permission to link proprietary software with the library. Why make this exception? 
La Biblioteca C GNU fa servir un tipus especial de copyleft anomenat Llicència Pública General per a Biblioteques GNU&nbsp;(1), que dóna dret a enllaçar programari propietari amb la biblioteca. Per què vam fer aquesta excepció? 
132 | Reverse engineering is a big job; will we have programmers with sufficient
| determination to undertake it? Yes&mdash;if we have built up a strong
| feeling that free software is a matter of principle, and nonfree drivers
| are intolerable. And will large numbers of us spend extra money, or even
| a little extra time, so we can use free drivers? Yes, if the determination
| to have freedom is [-widespread.-] {+widespread&#8239;<a
| href="#ft8">[8]</a>.+} 
Reverse engineering is a big job; will we have programmers with sufficient determination to undertake it? Yes&mdash;if we have built up a strong feeling that free software is a matter of principle, and nonfree drivers are intolerable. And will large numbers of us spend extra money, or even a little extra time, so we can use free drivers? Yes, if the determination to have freedom is widespread&#8239;<a href="#ft8">[8]</a>. 
L'enginyeria inversa és una feinada: tindrem programadors amb prou determinació per a dur-la a terme? Sí, si hem creat l'opinió de què el programari lliure és qüestió de principis, i de què els drivers no lliures no es poden tolerar. I podem gastar diners extra, o fins i tot temps extra, utilitzant drivers lliures? Sí, si la determinació de donar drets i llibertats és estesa.  
141 | In November 1998, the developers of Qt announced a change of license
| which, when carried out, should make Qt free software. There is no way to
| be sure, but I think that this was partly due to the community's firm
| response to the problem that Qt posed when it was nonfree. (The new
| license is inconvenient and inequitable, so it remains desirable to avoid
| using [-Qt.)-] {+Qt&#8239;<a href="#ft9">[9]</a>.)+} 
In November 1998, the developers of Qt announced a change of license which, when carried out, should make Qt free software. There is no way to be sure, but I think that this was partly due to the community's firm response to the problem that Qt posed when it was nonfree. (The new license is inconvenient and inequitable, so it remains desirable to avoid using Qt&#8239;<a href="#ft9">[9]</a>.) 
El novembre de 1998 els desenvolupadors de Qt van anunciar un canvi a la política de llicències, que un cop dut a terme, faria que Qt fos programari lliure. Tot i que no en tinc la certesa absoluta, em sembla que això fou el resultat de la ferma resposta de la comunitat al problema que Qt va plantejar quan no era lliure. Tot i això, la nova llicència no és ni equitativa ni prou bona, per la qual cosa continua sent desitjable evitar l'ús de Qt. 
144 | The worst threat we face comes from software patents, which can put
| algorithms and features off limits to free software for up to twenty
| years. The LZW compression algorithm patents were applied for in 1983,
| and we still cannot release free software to produce proper compressed
| <abbr title="Graphics Interchange [-Format">GIF</abbr>s. [As of 2009
| they have expired.]-] {+Format">GIF</abbr>&#8239;<a
| href="#ft10">[10]</a>.+} In 1998, a free program to produce <abbr
| title="MPEG-1 Audio Layer 3">MP3</abbr> compressed audio was removed
| from distribution under threat of a patent [-suit.-] {+suit&#8239;<a
| href="#ft11">[11]</a>.+} 
The worst threat we face comes from software patents, which can put algorithms and features off limits to free software for up to twenty years. The LZW compression algorithm patents were applied for in 1983, and we still cannot release free software to produce proper compressed <abbr title="Graphics Interchange Format">GIF</abbr>&#8239;<a href="#ft10">[10]</a>. In 1998, a free program to produce <abbr title="MPEG-1 Audio Layer 3">MP3</abbr> compressed audio was removed from distribution under threat of a patent suit&#8239;<a href="#ft11">[11]</a>. 
La pitjor amenaça que tenim prové de les patents de programari, que posen fora de l'abast del programari lliure durant vint anys algorismes i funcionalitats. Les patents de l'algorisme de compressió LZW es van sol·licitar l'any 1983: per tant no podem distribuir programari lliure per a produir fitxers <abbr title="Graphics Interchange Format">GIF</abbr> comprimits. [Aquestes patents van expirar l'any 2009.] L'any 1998, un programa lliure per a produir fitxers de sons comprimits en format <abbr title="MPEG-1 Audio Layer 3">MP3</abbr> va haver de ser eliminat de la distribució per l'amenaça d'un procés judicial. 
171 | [-(1)-]The use of &ldquo;hacker&rdquo; to mean &ldquo;security
| breaker&rdquo; is a confusion on the part of the mass media. We hackers
| refuse to recognize that meaning, and continue using the word to mean
| someone who loves to program, someone who enjoys playful cleverness, or
| the combination of the two. See my article, [-<a
| href="http://stallman.org/articles/on-hacking.html">On Hacking</a>.-]
| {+&ldquo;<a href="https://stallman.org/articles/on-hacking.html">On
| Hacking</a>.&rdquo;+} 
The use of &ldquo;hacker&rdquo; to mean &ldquo;security breaker&rdquo; is a confusion on the part of the mass media. We hackers refuse to recognize that meaning, and continue using the word to mean someone who loves to program, someone who enjoys playful cleverness, or the combination of the two. See my article, &ldquo;<a href="https://stallman.org/articles/on-hacking.html">On Hacking</a>.&rdquo; 
(1) L'ús de «hacker» com a «aquell qui trenca barreres de seguretat» és una confusió per part de la premsa i els medis de comunicació. Nosaltres els hackers refusem aquesta accepció del terme, i continuem emprant el mot per designar aquell qui està enamorat de la programació, aquell que gaudeix d'un enginy juganer o una combinació de les dues coses. Vegeu el meu article <a href="http://stallman.org/articles/on-hacking.html">Sobre el Hacking</a>. 
173 | [-(1)-]In 1984 or 1985, Don Hopkins (a very imaginative fellow) mailed me
| a letter. [-On-] {+<a href="/graphics/copyleft-sticker.html">On+} the
| [-envelope-] {+envelope</a>+} he had written several amusing sayings,
| including this one: &ldquo;Copyleft&mdash;all rights reversed.&rdquo; I
| used the word &ldquo;copyleft&rdquo; to name the distribution concept I
| was developing at the time. 
In 1984 or 1985, Don Hopkins (a very imaginative fellow) mailed me a letter. <a href="/graphics/copyleft-sticker.html">On the envelope</a> he had written several amusing sayings, including this one: &ldquo;Copyleft&mdash;all rights reversed.&rdquo; I used the word &ldquo;copyleft&rdquo; to name the distribution concept I was developing at the time. 
(1) El 1984 o 1985, Don Hopkins (un paio molt imaginatiu) em va enviar una carta. Al sobre havia escrit diverses notes divertides, incloent-hi aquesta: <cite>«Copyleft &ndash; all rights reversed.»</cite> Vaig emprar el mot «copyleft» per nombrar el concepte de distribució que estava desenvolupant en aquell moment. 
178 | [-(-]2008 note: this issue extends to the BIOS as well. There is a free
| BIOS, <a [-href="http://www.libreboot.org/">LibreBoot</a>-]
| {+href="https://libreboot.org/">LibreBoot</a>+} (a distribution of
| coreboot); the problem is getting specs for machines so that LibreBoot can
| support them without nonfree [-&ldquo;blobs&rdquo;.)-]
| {+&ldquo;blobs.&rdquo;+} 
2008 note: this issue extends to the BIOS as well. There is a free BIOS, <a href="https://libreboot.org/">LibreBoot</a> (a distribution of coreboot); the problem is getting specs for machines so that LibreBoot can support them without nonfree &ldquo;blobs.&rdquo; 
(Nota de 2008: aquest problema s'aplica també a la BIOS. Existeix una BIOS lliure, <a href="http://www.libreboot.org/">LibreBoot</a> (una distribució de coreboot; el problema és aconseguir especificacions de màquines, de manera que pugui fer-les funcionar sense <cite>blobs</cite> no lliures). 
184  
Please send general FSF &amp; GNU inquiries to <a href="mailto:gnu@gnu.org">&lt;gnu@gnu.org&gt;</a>. There are also <a href="/contact/">other ways to contact</a> the FSF. Broken links and other corrections or suggestions can be sent to <a href="mailto:webmasters@gnu.org">&lt;webmasters@gnu.org&gt;</a>. 
Envieu les vostres preguntes sobre la FSF i GNU a <a href="mailto:gnu@gnu.org">&lt;gnu@gnu.org&gt;</a>. També hi ha <a href="/contact/contact.html">altres formes de contactar</a> amb la FSF. Envieu els enllaços trencats i altres correccions o suggeriments a <a href="mailto:webmasters@gnu.org">&lt;webmasters@gnu.org&gt;</a>. 
185 || No change detected. The change might only be in amounts of spaces. 
Please see the <a href="/server/standards/README.translations.html">Translations README</a> for information on coordinating and contributing translations of this article. 
Vegeu la <a href="/server/standards/README.translations.html">Guia de traducció</a> per informar-vos sobre la coordinació i publicació de les traduccions d'aquest article. <br />Contacteu amb l'<a href="/server/standards/translations/ca/">Equip de traducció</a> per col·laborar en la traducció al català del web de GNU.