free-sw.ca.po

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We campaign for these freedoms because everyone deserves them. With these freedoms, the users (both individually and collectively) control the program and what it does for them. When users don't control the program, we call it a &ldquo;nonfree&rdquo; or &ldquo;proprietary&rdquo; program. The nonfree program controls the users, and the developer controls the program; this makes the program <a href="/philosophy/free-software-even-more-important.html"> an instrument of unjust power</a>. 
 
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&ldquo;Open source&rdquo; is something different: it has a very different philosophy based on different values. Its practical definition is different too, but nearly all open source programs are in fact free. We explain the difference in <a href="/philosophy/open-source-misses-the-point.html"> Why &ldquo;Open Source&rdquo; misses the point of Free Software</a>. 
 
10 | [-The-]{+<a href="#fs-definition">The+} Free Software [-Definition-]
| {+Definition</a>+} 
<a href="#fs-definition">The Free Software Definition</a> 
La definició de Programari Lliure 
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<a href="#four-freedoms">The four essential freedoms</a> 
 
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<a href="#selling">Free software <em>can</em> be commercial</a> 
 
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<a href="#clarifying">Clarifying the Boundary Between Free and Nonfree</a> 
 
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<a href="#run-the-program">The freedom to run the program as you wish</a> 
 
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<a href="#make-changes">The freedom to study the source code and make changes</a> 
 
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<a href="#redistribute">The freedom to redistribute if you wish: basic requirements</a> 
 
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<a href="#copyleft">Copyleft</a> 
 
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<a href="#packaging">Rules about packaging and distribution details</a> 
 
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<a href="#exportcontrol">Export regulations</a> 
 
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<a href="#legal-details">Legal considerations</a> 
 
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<a href="#contracts">Contract-based licenses</a> 
 
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<a href="#in-practice">The Free Software Definition in Practice</a> 
 
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<a href="#interpretation">How we interpret these criteria</a> 
 
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<a href="#get-help">Get help with free licenses</a> 
 
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<a href="#terminology">Use the right words when talking about free software</a> 
 
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<a href="#beyond-software">Beyond Software</a> 
 
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<a href="#History">History</a> 
 
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Have a question about free software licensing not answered here? See our other <a href="http://www.fsf.org/licensing">licensing resources</a>, and if necessary contact the FSF Compliance Lab at <a href="mailto:licensing@fsf.org">licensing@fsf.org</a>. 
 
30 | [-We maintain this-]{+The+} free software definition [-to show clearly
| what must be true about-] {+presents the criteria for whether+} a
| particular software program [-for-] {+qualifies as free software. From
| time to time we revise this definition, to clarify+} it {+or+} to [-be
| considered-] {+resolve questions about subtle issues. See the <a
| href="#History">History section</a> below for a list of changes that
| affect the definition of+} free software. 
The free software definition presents the criteria for whether a particular software program qualifies as free software. From time to time we revise this definition, to clarify it or to resolve questions about subtle issues. See the <a href="#History">History section</a> below for a list of changes that affect the definition of free software. 
Mantenim aquesta definició del programari lliure per a mostrar clarament com ha de ser un determinat programa per a poder ser considerat programari lliure. 
32 | [-Free software-]{+A program+} is [-a matter of the users' freedom to run,
| copy, distribute, study, change and improve the software. More precisely,
| it refers to four kinds of freedom, for-] {+free software if+} the
| {+program's+} users [-of-] {+have+} the [-software:-] {+four essential
| freedoms: <a href="#f1">[1]</a>+} 
A program is free software if the program's users have the four essential freedoms: <a href="#f1">[1]</a> 
El Programari Lliure és un afer de la llibertat del usuaris per a executar, copiar, distribuir, estudiar, canviar i millorar el programari. Més precisament, es refereix a quatre tipus de llibertat, per a usuaris de programari: 
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Freedom 3 includes the freedom to release your modified versions as free software. A free license may also permit other ways of releasing them; in other words, it does not have to be a <a href="/licenses/copyleft.html">copyleft</a> license. However, a license that requires modified versions to be nonfree does not qualify as a free license. 
 
63 | Certain kinds of rules about the manner of distributing free software are
| acceptable, when they don't conflict with the central freedoms. For
| example, <a [-href="/copyleft/copyleft.html">copyleft</a>-]
| {+href="/licenses/copyleft.html">copyleft</a>+} (very simply stated) is
| the rule that when redistributing the program, you cannot add restrictions
| to deny other people the central freedoms. This rule does not conflict
| with the central freedoms; rather it protects them. 
Certain kinds of rules about the manner of distributing free software are acceptable, when they don't conflict with the central freedoms. For example, <a href="/licenses/copyleft.html">copyleft</a> (very simply stated) is the rule that when redistributing the program, you cannot add restrictions to deny other people the central freedoms. This rule does not conflict with the central freedoms; rather it protects them. 
Certs tipus de regles sobre la distribució de programari lliure són acceptables, quan no hi ha cap conflicte amb les llibertats centrals. Per exemple, el <a href="/copyleft/copyleft.html">copyleft</a> (explicat molt breument) és una regla que fa que quan redistribuïm el programa, no es poden afegir restriccions per a denegar a altra gent les llibertats centrals. Aquesta norma no crea cap conflicte amb les llibertats centrals; més aviat les protegeix. 
70 | Sometimes government [-<a id="exportcontrol">export-] {+export+} control
| [-regulations</a>-] {+regulations+} and trade sanctions can constrain your
| freedom to distribute copies of programs internationally. Software
| developers do not have the power to eliminate or override these
| restrictions, but what they can and must do is refuse to impose them as
| conditions of use of the program. In this way, the restrictions will not
| affect activities and people outside the jurisdictions of these
| governments. {+Thus, free software licenses must not require obedience to
| any nontrivial export regulations as a condition of exercising any of the
| essential freedoms.+} 
Sometimes government export control regulations and trade sanctions can constrain your freedom to distribute copies of programs internationally. Software developers do not have the power to eliminate or override these restrictions, but what they can and must do is refuse to impose them as conditions of use of the program. In this way, the restrictions will not affect activities and people outside the jurisdictions of these governments. Thus, free software licenses must not require obedience to any nontrivial export regulations as a condition of exercising any of the essential freedoms. 
Alguns cops <a id="exportcontrol">les regulacions de control d'exportació</a> del govern i les sancions comercials podrien restringir la vostra llibertat per a distribuir còpies dels programes internacionalment. Els desenvolupadors de programari no tenen el poder per eliminar o saltar-se aquestes restriccions, però el que sí poden i han de fer es refusar d'imposar-les com a condicions d'ús del programa. D'aquesta manera, les restriccions no afectaran les activitats ni la gent fora de les jurisdiccions d'aquests governs. 
88 | Another group [-has started using-] {+uses+} the term &ldquo;open
| source&rdquo; to mean something close (but not identical) to &ldquo;free
| [-software&rdquo;.-] {+software.&rdquo;+} We prefer the term &ldquo;free
| software&rdquo; because, once you have heard {+that+} it refers to freedom
| rather than price, it calls to mind freedom. The word &ldquo;open&rdquo;
| [-<a href="/philosophy/open-source-misses-the-point.html">-] never
| refers to [-freedom</a>.-] {+freedom.+} 
Another group uses the term &ldquo;open source&rdquo; to mean something close (but not identical) to &ldquo;free software.&rdquo; We prefer the term &ldquo;free software&rdquo; because, once you have heard that it refers to freedom rather than price, it calls to mind freedom. The word &ldquo;open&rdquo; never refers to freedom. 
Un altre grup ha comen&ccedil;at a fer servir el terme <cite>open source</cite> (codi obert) per a voler dir quelcom semblant (però no idèntic) a <cite>free software</cite> (programari lliure). Nosaltres preferim el terme «programari lliure» perquè, un cop heu escoltat que es refereix a llibertat més que a preu, invita a pensar en la llibertat. La paraula «obert» <a href="/philosophy/open-source-misses-the-point.html">mai fa referència a la llibertat</a>. 
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<a href="/philosophy/free-doc.html">Software manuals must be free</a>, for the same reasons that software must be free, and because the manuals are in effect part of the software. 
 
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The same arguments also make sense for other kinds of works of practical use&mdash;that is to say, works that embody useful knowledge, such as educational works and reference works. <a href="https://wikipedia.org">Wikipedia</a> is the best-known example. 
 
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Any kind of work <em>can</em> be free, and the definition of free software has been extended to a definition of <a href="http://freedomdefined.org/"> free cultural works</a> applicable to any kind of works. 
 
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<a href="//web.cvs.savannah.gnu.org/viewvc/www/philosophy/free-sw.html?root=www&amp;r1=1.168&amp;r2=1.169">Version 1.169</a>: Explain more clearly why the four freedoms must apply to commercial activity. Explain why the four freedoms imply the freedom not to run the program and the freedom to delete it, so there is no need to state those as separate requirements. 
 
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<a href="//web.cvs.savannah.gnu.org/viewvc/www/philosophy/free-sw.html?root=www&amp;r1=1.164&amp;r2=1.165">Version 1.165</a>: Clarify that arbitrary annoyances in the code do not negate freedom 0, and that freedoms 1 and 3 enable users to remove them. 
 
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<a href="//web.cvs.savannah.gnu.org/viewvc/www/philosophy/free-sw.html?root=www&amp;r1=1.152&amp;r2=1.153">Version 1.153</a>: Clarify that freedom to run the program means nothing stops you from making it run. 
 
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<a href="//web.cvs.savannah.gnu.org/viewvc/www/philosophy/free-sw.html?root=www&amp;r1=1.140&amp;r2=1.141">Version 1.141</a>: Clarify which code needs to be free. 
 
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<a href="//web.cvs.savannah.gnu.org/viewvc/www/philosophy/free-sw.html?root=www&amp;r1=1.134&amp;r2=1.135">Version 1.135</a>: Say each time that freedom 0 is the freedom to run the program as you wish. 
 
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<a href="//web.cvs.savannah.gnu.org/viewvc/www/philosophy/free-sw.html?root=www&amp;r1=1.133&amp;r2=1.134">Version 1.134</a>: Freedom 0 is not a matter of the program's functionality. 
 
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<a href="//web.cvs.savannah.gnu.org/viewvc/www/philosophy/free-sw.html?root=www&amp;r1=1.130&amp;r2=1.131">Version 1.131</a>: A free license may not require compliance with a nonfree license of another program. 
 
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<a href="//web.cvs.savannah.gnu.org/viewvc/www/philosophy/free-sw.html?root=www&amp;r1=1.128&amp;r2=1.129">Version 1.129</a>: State explicitly that choice of law and choice of forum specifications are allowed. (This was always our policy.) 
 
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<a href="//web.cvs.savannah.gnu.org/viewvc/www/philosophy/free-sw.html?root=www&amp;r1=1.121&amp;r2=1.122">Version 1.122</a>: An export control requirement is a real problem if the requirement is nontrivial; otherwise it is only a potential problem. 
 
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<a href="//web.cvs.savannah.gnu.org/viewvc/www/philosophy/free-sw.html?root=www&amp;r1=1.117&amp;r2=1.118">Version 1.118</a>: Clarification: the issue is limits on your right to modify, not on what modifications you have made. And modifications are not limited to &ldquo;improvements&rdquo; 
 
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<a href="//web.cvs.savannah.gnu.org/viewvc/www/philosophy/free-sw.html?root=www&amp;r1=1.110&amp;r2=1.111">Version 1.111</a>: Clarify 1.77 by saying that only retroactive <em>restrictions</em> are unacceptable. The copyright holders can always grant additional <em>permission</em> for use of the work by releasing the work in another way in parallel. 
 
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<a href="//web.cvs.savannah.gnu.org/viewvc/www/philosophy/free-sw.html?root=www&amp;r1=1.104&amp;r2=1.105">Version 1.105</a>: Reflect, in the brief statement of freedom 1, the point (already stated in version 1.80) that it includes really using your modified version for your computing. 
 
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<a href="//web.cvs.savannah.gnu.org/viewvc/www/philosophy/free-sw.html?root=www&amp;r1=1.91&amp;r2=1.92">Version 1.92</a>: Clarify that obfuscated code does not qualify as source code. 
 
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<a href="//web.cvs.savannah.gnu.org/viewvc/www/philosophy/free-sw.html?root=www&amp;r1=1.89&amp;r2=1.90">Version 1.90</a>: Clarify that freedom 3 means the right to distribute copies of your own modified or improved version, not a right to participate in someone else's development project. 
 
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<a href="//web.cvs.savannah.gnu.org/viewvc/www/philosophy/free-sw.html?root=www&amp;r1=1.88&amp;r2=1.89">Version 1.89</a>: Freedom 3 includes the right to release modified versions as free software. 
 
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<a href="//web.cvs.savannah.gnu.org/viewvc/www/philosophy/free-sw.html?root=www&amp;r1=1.79&amp;r2=1.80">Version 1.80</a>: Freedom 1 must be practical, not just theoretical; i.e., no tivoization. 
 
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<a href="//web.cvs.savannah.gnu.org/viewvc/www/philosophy/free-sw.html?root=www&amp;r1=1.76&amp;r2=1.77">Version 1.77</a>: Clarify that all retroactive changes to the license are unacceptable, even if it's not described as a complete replacement. 
 
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<a href="//web.cvs.savannah.gnu.org/viewvc/www/philosophy/free-sw.html?root=www&amp;r1=1.73&amp;r2=1.74">Version 1.74</a>: Four clarifications of points not explicit enough, or stated in some places but not reflected everywhere: 
 
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<a href="//web.cvs.savannah.gnu.org/viewvc/www/philosophy/free-sw.html?root=www&amp;r1=1.56&amp;r2=1.57">Version 1.57</a>: Add &ldquo;Beyond Software&rdquo; section. 
 
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<a href="//web.cvs.savannah.gnu.org/viewvc/www/philosophy/free-sw.html?root=www&amp;r1=1.45&amp;r2=1.46">Version 1.46</a>: Clarify whose purpose is significant in the freedom to run the program for any purpose. 
 
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<a href="//web.cvs.savannah.gnu.org/viewvc/www/philosophy/free-sw.html?root=www&amp;r1=1.40&amp;r2=1.41">Version 1.41</a>: Clarify wording about contract-based licenses. 
 
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<a href="//web.cvs.savannah.gnu.org/viewvc/www/philosophy/free-sw.html?root=www&amp;r1=1.39&amp;r2=1.40">Version 1.40</a>: Explain that a free license must allow to you use other available free software to create your modifications. 
 
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<a href="//web.cvs.savannah.gnu.org/viewvc/www/philosophy/free-sw.html?root=www&amp;r1=1.38&amp;r2=1.39">Version 1.39</a>: Note that it is acceptable for a license to require you to provide source for versions of the software you put into public use. 
 
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<a href="//web.cvs.savannah.gnu.org/viewvc/www/philosophy/free-sw.html?root=www&amp;r1=1.30&amp;r2=1.31">Version 1.31</a>: Note that it is acceptable for a license to require you to identify yourself as the author of modifications. Other minor clarifications throughout the text. 
 
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<a href="//web.cvs.savannah.gnu.org/viewvc/www/philosophy/free-sw.html?root=www&amp;r1=1.22&amp;r2=1.23">Version 1.23</a>: Address potential problems related to contract-based licenses. 
 
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<a href="//web.cvs.savannah.gnu.org/viewvc/www/philosophy/free-sw.html?root=www&amp;r1=1.15&amp;r2=1.16">Version 1.16</a>: Explain why distribution of binaries is important. 
 
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<a href="//web.cvs.savannah.gnu.org/viewvc/www/philosophy/free-sw.html?root=www&amp;r1=1.10&amp;r2=1.11">Version 1.11</a>: Note that a free license may require you to send a copy of versions you distribute to previous developers on request. 
 
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There are gaps in the version numbers shown above because there are other changes in this page that do not affect the definition or its interpretations. For instance, the list does not include changes in asides, formatting, spelling, punctuation, or other parts of the page. You can review the complete list of changes to the page through the <a href="//web.cvs.savannah.gnu.org/viewvc/www/philosophy/free-sw.html?root=www&amp;view=log">cvsweb interface</a>. 
 
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Please send general FSF &amp; GNU inquiries to <a href="mailto:gnu@gnu.org">&lt;gnu@gnu.org&gt;</a>. There are also <a href="/contact/">other ways to contact</a> the FSF. Broken links and other corrections or suggestions can be sent to <a href="mailto:webmasters@gnu.org">&lt;webmasters@gnu.org&gt;</a>. 
Envieu les vostres preguntes sobre la FSF i GNU a <a href="mailto:gnu@gnu.org">&lt;gnu@gnu.org&gt;</a>. També hi ha <a href="/contact/contact.html">altres formes de contactar</a> amb la FSF. Envieu els enllaços trencats i altres correccions o suggeriments a <a href="mailto:webmasters@gnu.org">&lt;webmasters@gnu.org&gt;</a>. 
131 || No change detected. The change might only be in amounts of spaces. 
Please see the <a href="/server/standards/README.translations.html">Translations README</a> for information on coordinating and contributing translations of this article. 
Vegeu la <a href="/server/standards/README.translations.html">Guia de traducció</a> per informar-vos sobre la coordinació i publicació de les traduccions d'aquest article. <br />Contacteu amb l'<a href="/server/standards/translations/ca/">Equip de traducció</a> per col·laborar en la traducció al català del web de GNU.