free-hardware-designs.de.po

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by <a href="https://www.stallman.org/">Richard Stallman</a> 
von <a href="//www.stallman.org/">Richard Stallman</a> 
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<em>Free software</em> is a matter of freedom, not price; broadly speaking, it means that users are free to use the software and to copy and redistribute the software, with or without changes. More precisely, the definition is formulated in terms of <a href="/philosophy/free-sw.html">the four essential freedoms</a>. To emphasize that &ldquo;free&rdquo;refers to freedom, not price, we often use the French or Spanish word &ldquo;libre&rdquo; along with &ldquo;free.&rdquo; 
 
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People first encountering the idea of free software often think it means you can get a copy gratis. Many free programs are available for zero price, since it costs you nothing to download your own copy, but that's not what &ldquo;free&rdquo; means here. (In fact, some spyware programs such as <a href="/philosophy/proprietary/proprietary-surveillance.html">Flash Player and Angry Birds</a> are gratis although they are not free.) Saying &ldquo;libre&rdquo; along with &ldquo;free&rdquo; helps clarify the point. 
 
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The terms &ldquo;open hardware&rdquo; and &ldquo;open source hardware&rdquo; are used by some with the same concrete meaning as &ldquo;free-design hardware,&rdquo; but those terms downplay freedom as an issue. They were derived from the term &ldquo;open source software,&rdquo; which refers more or less to free software but <a href="/philosophy/open-source-misses-the-point.html">without talking about freedom or presenting the issue as a matter of right or wrong</a>. To underline the importance of freedom, we make a point of referring to freedom whenever it is pertinent; since &ldquo;open&rdquo; fails to do that, let's not substitute it for &ldquo;free.&rdquo; 
 
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As of 2015, free software tools are available for <a href="http://www.clifford.at/icestorm/">programming the Lattice iCE40</a>, a common model of FPGA, from input written in a hardware description language (HDL). It is also possible to compile C programs and run them on the Xilinx Spartan 6 LX9 FPGA with <a href="https://github.com/Wolfgang-Spraul/fpgatools">free tools</a>, but those do not support HDL input. We recommend that you reject other FPGA models until they too are supported by free tools. 
 
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Ethically, <a href="/philosophy/free-software-even-more-important.html">software must be free</a>; a nonfree program is an injustice. Should we take the same view for hardware designs? 
 
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Be careful to choose 3D printers that work with exclusively free software; the Free Software Foundation <a href="https://ryf.fsf.org/">endorses such printers</a>. Some 3D printers are made from free hardware designs, but <a href="https://www.cnet.com/news/pulling-back-from-open-source-hardware-makerbot-angers-some-adherents/">Makerbot's hardware designs are nonfree</a>. 
 
30 | Is a nonfree digital <a [-href="#fn1">(*)</a>-]
| {+href="#fn1">[1]</a>+} hardware design an injustice? Must we, for our
| freedom's sake, reject all digital hardware made from nonfree designs, as
| we must reject nonfree software? 
Is a nonfree digital <a href="#fn1">[1]</a> hardware design an injustice? Must we, for our freedom's sake, reject all digital hardware made from nonfree designs, as we must reject nonfree software? 
Ist ein unfreier digitaler<a href="#fn1" id="fn1-ref" class="tnote">(1)</a> Hardwareentwurf ein Ungerecht? Müssen wir, um der Freiheit willen, jede aus unfreien Entwürfen hergestellte digitale Hardware ablehnen, wie wir unfreie Software ablehnen müssen? 
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For drawings of objects, and 3D printer models, copyright doesn't cover making a different drawing of the same purely functional object shape. It also doesn't cover the functional physical objects made from the drawing. As far as copyright is concerned, everyone is free to make them and use them (and that's a freedom we need very much). In the US, copyright does not cover the functional aspects that the design describes, but <a href="https://www.copyright.gov/title17/92chap13.html#1301">does cover decorative aspects</a>. When one object has decorative aspects and functional aspects, you get into tricky ground <a href="#fn2">[2]</a>. 
 
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Keep in mind that copyright law and patent law are totally different. It is a mistake to suppose that they have anything in common. This is why the term &ldquo;<a href="/philosophy/not-ipr.html">intellectual property</a>&rdquo; is pure confusion and should be totally rejected. 
 
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The repository should require all designs to be published as source code, and source code in secret formats usable only by proprietary design programs is not really adequate. For a 3D model, the <a href="https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/STL_%28file_format%29">STL format</a> is not the preferred format for changing the design and thus is not source code, so the repository should not accept it, except perhaps accompanying real source code. 
 
73 | [-*-]As used here, &ldquo;digital hardware&rdquo; includes hardware with
| some analog circuits and components in addition to digital ones. 
As used here, &ldquo;digital hardware&rdquo; includes hardware with some analog circuits and components in addition to digital ones. 
<a href="#fn1-ref" class="fnote">(*)</a> Wie hier verwendet, umfasst „digitale Hardware“ Hardware mit zusätzlich zu digitalen einige analoge Schaltkreise und Komponenten. 
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