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4 | by <a href="http{+s+}://www.stallman.org/">Richard Stallman</a> 
by <a href="https://www.stallman.org/">Richard Stallman</a> 
tehnyt <a href="http://www.stallman.org/"><strong>Richard Stallman</strong></a> 
7 | The AI Lab used a timesharing operating system called <abbr
| title="Incompatible Timesharing System">ITS</abbr> (the Incompatible
| Timesharing System) that the lab's staff [-hackers (1)-]
| {+hackers&#8239;<a href="#ft1">[1]</a>+} had designed and written in
| assembler language for the Digital <abbr title="Programmed Data
| Processor">PDP</abbr>-10, one of the large computers of the era. As a
| member of this community, an AI Lab staff system hacker, my job was to
| improve this system. 
The AI Lab used a timesharing operating system called <abbr title="Incompatible Timesharing System">ITS</abbr> (the Incompatible Timesharing System) that the lab's staff hackers&#8239;<a href="#ft1">[1]</a> had designed and written in assembler language for the Digital <abbr title="Programmed Data Processor">PDP</abbr>-10, one of the large computers of the era. As a member of this community, an AI Lab staff system hacker, my job was to improve this system. 
Keinoälylaboratorio käytti käyttöjärjestelmää jota kutsuttiin <abbr title="Incompatible Timesharing System">ITS</abbr>:ksi (the Incompatible Timesharing System) eli epäyhteensopivaksi ajanjakamisjärjestelmäksi, jonka laboratorion hakkerit (1) olivat suunnitelleet ja kirjoittaneet assemblerilla Digitalin <abbr title="Programmed Data Processor">PDP</abbr>-10:lle, yhdelle sen ajan suurista tietokoneista. Tämän yhteisön jäsenenä, keinoälylaboratorion henkilöstöön kuuluvana hakkerina minun työni oli parannella tätä järjestelmää. 
32 | Later I heard these words, attributed to [-Hillel (1):-] {+Hillel&#8239;<a
| href="#ft2">[2]</a>:+} 
Later I heard these words, attributed to Hillel&#8239;<a href="#ft2">[2]</a>: 
Myöhemmin kuulin nämä sanat Hillel:n sanomana (1): 
67 | The goal of GNU was to give users freedom, not just to be popular. So we
| needed to use distribution terms that would prevent GNU software from
| being turned into proprietary software. The method we use is called
| [-&ldquo;copyleft&rdquo;.(1)-] {+&ldquo;copyleft&rdquo;&#8239;<a
| href="#ft3">[3]</a>.+} 
The goal of GNU was to give users freedom, not just to be popular. So we needed to use distribution terms that would prevent GNU software from being turned into proprietary software. The method we use is called &ldquo;copyleft&rdquo;&#8239;<a href="#ft3">[3]</a>. 
GNU:n tavoite oli antaa käyttäjille vapaus eikä vain olla suosittu. Joten me tarvitsimme lisenssin joka estäisi GNU-ohjelmistoja kadottamasta vapauttaan. Tapa jota me käytämme tunnetaan nimellä "copyleft".(1) 
73 | The specific implementation of copyleft that we use for most GNU software
| is the GNU General Public License, or GNU GPL for short. We have other
| kinds of copyleft that are used in specific circumstances. GNU manuals
| are copylefted also, but use a much simpler kind of copyleft, because the
| complexity of the GNU GPL is not necessary for [-manuals.(2)-]
| {+manuals&#8239;<a href="#ft4">[4]</a>.+} 
The specific implementation of copyleft that we use for most GNU software is the GNU General Public License, or GNU GPL for short. We have other kinds of copyleft that are used in specific circumstances. GNU manuals are copylefted also, but use a much simpler kind of copyleft, because the complexity of the GNU GPL is not necessary for manuals&#8239;<a href="#ft4">[4]</a>. 
Erityinen toteutus copyleftistä, se jota me käytämme suurimmalle osalle GNU-ohjelmia on GNU General Public License (GNU Yleinen Julkinen Lisenssi) tai GNU GPL lyhyesti. Meillä on myös muunlaisia copylefteja joita käytetään erityisissä tilanteissa. GNU-käyttöohjeet ovat myös copyleftin alla mutta käyttävät paljon yksinkertaisempaa copyleftiä, koska GNU GPL:n monimutkaisuus ei ole tarpeellista manuaaleille. (2) 
75 | As interest in using Emacs was growing, other people became involved in
| the GNU project, and we decided that it was time to seek funding once
| again. So in 1985 we created the <a
| href="http{+s+}://www.fsf.org/">Free Software Foundation</a> (FSF), a
| tax-exempt charity for free software development. The [-<abbr
| title="Free Software Foundation">FSF</abbr>-] {+FSF+} also took over the
| Emacs tape distribution business; later it extended this by adding other
| free software (both GNU and non-GNU) to the tape, and by selling free
| manuals as well. 
As interest in using Emacs was growing, other people became involved in the GNU project, and we decided that it was time to seek funding once again. So in 1985 we created the <a href="https://www.fsf.org/">Free Software Foundation</a> (FSF), a tax-exempt charity for free software development. The FSF also took over the Emacs tape distribution business; later it extended this by adding other free software (both GNU and non-GNU) to the tape, and by selling free manuals as well. 
Kiinnostus Emacs:n käyttämisestä kasvoi, muut ihmiset tulivat mukaan GNU-projektiin ja me päätimme että oli aika etsiä rahoitusta taas kerran. Joten vuonna 1985 me loimme <a href="http://www.fsf.org/">Free Software Foundation</a>, veroista vapaan hyväntekeväisyysjärjestön vapaiden ohjelmien kehitykselle. <abbr title="Free Software Foundation">FSF</abbr> otti myös hoitaakseen Emacs-nauhojen levitysbisneksen; myöhemmin se laajensi tätä lisäten muita vapaita ohjelmistoja (myös GNU ja ei-GNU) nauhalle ja myyden myös manuaaleja. 
76 | Most of the FSF's income used to come from sales of copies of free
| software and of other related services (CD-ROMs of source code, CD-ROMs
| with binaries, nicely printed manuals, all with the freedom to
| redistribute and modify), and Deluxe Distributions (distributions for
| which we built the whole collection of software for the customer's choice
| of platform). Today the FSF still <a href="http{+s+}://shop.fsf.org/">
| sells manuals and other gear</a>, but it gets the bulk of its funding from
| members' dues. You can join the FSF at <a
| [-href="http://fsf.org/join">fsf.org</a>.-]
| {+href="https://my.fsf.org/join">fsf.org</a>.+} 
Most of the FSF's income used to come from sales of copies of free software and of other related services (CD-ROMs of source code, CD-ROMs with binaries, nicely printed manuals, all with the freedom to redistribute and modify), and Deluxe Distributions (distributions for which we built the whole collection of software for the customer's choice of platform). Today the FSF still <a href="https://shop.fsf.org/"> sells manuals and other gear</a>, but it gets the bulk of its funding from members' dues. You can join the FSF at <a href="https://my.fsf.org/join">fsf.org</a>. 
Suurin osa FSF:n tuotosta tuli vapaiden ohjelmistojen ja muiden palvelujen (lähdekoodi-CD:t, binääri-CD:t, mukavasti tulostetut käyttöohjeet, kaiken mukana vapaus jakaa ja muokata), ja Deluxe-jakeluiden (ohjelmistojakelut, johon laitoimme täyden ohjelmistokokoelman käyttähän valitsemalle alustalle). Tänään FSF edelleen <a href="http://shop.fsf.org/"> myy käyttöohjeita ja muuta</a>, mutta se saa suurimman osan rahoituksestaan jäsenmaksuista. Voit liittyä FSF:ään osoitteessa <a href="http://fsf.org/join">fsf.org</a>. 
77 | Free Software Foundation employees have written and maintained a number of
| GNU software packages. Two notable ones are the C library and the shell.
| The GNU C library is what every program running on a GNU/Linux system uses
| to communicate with Linux. It was developed by a member of the Free
| Software Foundation staff, Roland McGrath. The shell used on most
| GNU/Linux systems is [-<abbr title="Bourne Again Shell">BASH</abbr>,-]
| {+BASH,+} the Bourne Again [-Shell(1),-] {+SHell&#8239;<a
| href="#ft5">[5]</a>,+} which was developed by FSF employee Brian Fox. 
Free Software Foundation employees have written and maintained a number of GNU software packages. Two notable ones are the C library and the shell. The GNU C library is what every program running on a GNU/Linux system uses to communicate with Linux. It was developed by a member of the Free Software Foundation staff, Roland McGrath. The shell used on most GNU/Linux systems is BASH, the Bourne Again SHell&#8239;<a href="#ft5">[5]</a>, which was developed by FSF employee Brian Fox. 
Free Software Foundation:in alaiset ovat kirjoittaneet ja ylläpitäneet useita GNU-ohjelmistoja. Kaksi huomattavaa ovat C-kirjasto ja kuori (shell) GNU C-kirjasto on se jota jokainen GNU/Linux-järjestelmässä ajettava ohjelma käyttää kommunikointiin Linux:n kanssa. Sen on kehittänyt Free Software Foundationin henkilöstön jäsen Roland McGrath. Kuori jota käytetään useimmissa GNU/Linux-järjestelmissä on <abbr title="Bourne Again Shell">BASH</abbr> , the Bourne Again Shell (1) jonka on kehittänyt FSF:n alainen Brian Fox. 
95 | [-Today (1),-]{+Today&#8239;<a href="#ft6">[6]</a>,+} hardly any Unix
| components are left in the GNU Task List&mdash;those jobs had been done,
| aside from a few inessential ones. But the list is full of projects that
| some might call [-&ldquo;applications&rdquo;.-]
| {+&ldquo;applications.&rdquo;+} Any program that appeals to more than a
| narrow class of users would be a useful thing to add to an operating
| system. 
Today&#8239;<a href="#ft6">[6]</a>, hardly any Unix components are left in the GNU Task List&mdash;those jobs had been done, aside from a few inessential ones. But the list is full of projects that some might call &ldquo;applications.&rdquo; Any program that appeals to more than a narrow class of users would be a useful thing to add to an operating system. 
Tänään (1), tuskin yhtäkään Unix-komponenttia on jäljellä GNU:n tehtävälistassa, koska nämä työt on jo tehty lukuunottamatta muutamia epäolennaisia. Mutta lista on täynnä projekteja joita jotkut saattaisivat kutsua “sovelluksiksi”. Mutta ohjelma joka on käyttökelpoinen muille kuin pienelle osalle käyttäjistä olisi hyödyllistä lisätä käyttöjärjestelmään. 
98 | The GNU C library uses a special kind of copyleft called the GNU
| [-Library-] {+Lesser+} General Public [-License(1),-] {+License&#8239;<a
| href="#ft7">[7]</a>,+} which gives permission to link proprietary
| software with the library. Why make this exception? 
The GNU C library uses a special kind of copyleft called the GNU Lesser General Public License&#8239;<a href="#ft7">[7]</a>, which gives permission to link proprietary software with the library. Why make this exception? 
GNU:n C-kirjasto käyttää erityistä copyleftiä nimeltään GNU Library General Public License (GNU Kirjasto Yleinen Julkinen Lisenssi) joka antaa luvan yhdistää ei-vapaita ohjelmistoja kirjastoon. Miksi tehdä tämä poikkeus? 
132 | Reverse engineering is a big job; will we have programmers with sufficient
| determination to undertake it? Yes&mdash;if we have built up a strong
| feeling that free software is a matter of principle, and nonfree drivers
| are intolerable. And will large numbers of us spend extra money, or even
| a little extra time, so we can use free drivers? Yes, if the determination
| to have freedom is [-widespread.-] {+widespread&#8239;<a
| href="#ft8">[8]</a>.+} 
Reverse engineering is a big job; will we have programmers with sufficient determination to undertake it? Yes&mdash;if we have built up a strong feeling that free software is a matter of principle, and nonfree drivers are intolerable. And will large numbers of us spend extra money, or even a little extra time, so we can use free drivers? Yes, if the determination to have freedom is widespread&#8239;<a href="#ft8">[8]</a>. 
Laitteiston tutkiminen on suuri työ. Tuleeko meillä olemaan ohjelmoijia jotka ovat tarpeeksi päättäväisiä hoitaakseen sen? Kyllä jos olemme saaneet aikaan vahvan tunteen, että vapaassa ohjelmistossa on kyse periaatteesta ja ei-vapaita ajureita ei suvaita. Ja kuluttavatko useat meistä vähän lisää rahaa tai jopa aikaa, että me voimme käyttää vapaita ajureita? Kyllä jos päättäväisyys vapaudesta on levinnyt laajalle. 
141 | In November 1998, the developers of Qt announced a change of license
| which, when carried out, should make Qt free software. There is no way to
| be sure, but I think that this was partly due to the community's firm
| response to the problem that Qt posed when it was nonfree. (The new
| license is inconvenient and inequitable, so it remains desirable to avoid
| using [-Qt.)-] {+Qt&#8239;<a href="#ft9">[9]</a>.)+} 
In November 1998, the developers of Qt announced a change of license which, when carried out, should make Qt free software. There is no way to be sure, but I think that this was partly due to the community's firm response to the problem that Qt posed when it was nonfree. (The new license is inconvenient and inequitable, so it remains desirable to avoid using Qt&#8239;<a href="#ft9">[9]</a>.) 
Marraskuussa 1998 Qt:n kehittäjät ilmoittivat muutoksen lisenssissä joka tulisi tekemään Qt:stä vapaan ohjelman. Ei ole varmaa, mutta minun mielestäni tämä johtui osakseen yhteisön lujaan vastaukseen siitä ongelmasta jonka Qt aiheutti ollessaan ei-vapaa. (Uusi lisenssi on epäoikeudenmukainen ja hankala joten on yhä haluttavaa välttää Qt:n käyttöä). 
144 | The worst threat we face comes from software patents, which can put
| algorithms and features off limits to free software for up to twenty
| years. The LZW compression algorithm patents were applied for in 1983,
| and we still cannot release free software to produce proper compressed
| <abbr title="Graphics Interchange [-Format">GIF</abbr>s. [As of 2009
| they have expired.]-] {+Format">GIF</abbr>&#8239;<a
| href="#ft10">[10]</a>.+} In 1998, a free program to produce <abbr
| title="MPEG-1 Audio Layer 3">MP3</abbr> compressed audio was removed
| from distribution under threat of a patent [-suit. [As of 2017, these
| patents have expired. Look how long we had to wait.]-] {+suit&#8239;<a
| href="#ft11">[11]</a>.+} 
The worst threat we face comes from software patents, which can put algorithms and features off limits to free software for up to twenty years. The LZW compression algorithm patents were applied for in 1983, and we still cannot release free software to produce proper compressed <abbr title="Graphics Interchange Format">GIF</abbr>&#8239;<a href="#ft10">[10]</a>. In 1998, a free program to produce <abbr title="MPEG-1 Audio Layer 3">MP3</abbr> compressed audio was removed from distribution under threat of a patent suit&#8239;<a href="#ft11">[11]</a>. 
Pahimman uhan meille muodostavat ohjelmistopatentit jotka voivat voivat tehdä algoritmien ja ominaisuuksien käyttämisen vapaissa ohjelmissa mahdottomiksi jopa kahdeksikymmeneksi vuodeksi. LZW pakkausalgoritmin patentit haettiin vuonna 1983 ja emme vieläkään voi julkaista vapaita ohjelmia tuottamaan oikein pakattuja <abbr title="Graphics Interchange Format">GIF</abbr>-kuvia. [Patentit ratkesivat vuonna 2009.] Vuonna 1998 vapaa ohjelma <abbr title="MPEG-1 äänikerros 3">MP3</abbr>-pakatun äänen tuottamiseksi poistettiin levityksestä patenttioikeudenkäynnin takia. [Vuonna 2017 nämä patentit ratkesivat. Katsopas kuinka pitkään meidän piti odottaa.] 
171 | [-(1)-]The use of &ldquo;hacker&rdquo; to mean &ldquo;security
| breaker&rdquo; is a confusion on the part of the mass media. We hackers
| refuse to recognize that meaning, and continue using the word to mean
| someone who loves to program, someone who enjoys playful cleverness, or
| the combination of the two. See my article, [-<a
| href="http://stallman.org/articles/on-hacking.html">On Hacking</a>.-]
| {+&ldquo;<a href="https://stallman.org/articles/on-hacking.html">On
| Hacking</a>.&rdquo;+} 
The use of &ldquo;hacker&rdquo; to mean &ldquo;security breaker&rdquo; is a confusion on the part of the mass media. We hackers refuse to recognize that meaning, and continue using the word to mean someone who loves to program, someone who enjoys playful cleverness, or the combination of the two. See my article, &ldquo;<a href="https://stallman.org/articles/on-hacking.html">On Hacking</a>.&rdquo; 
(1) Sanan "hakkeri" käyttö tarkoituksella "turvallisuuden murtaja" on massamedian aiheuttamaa hämmästystä. Me hakkerit kiellämme tuon tarkoituksen tunnustamisen, ja jatkamme sanan käyttöä tarkoittamaan jotakuta joka rakastaa ohjelmointia, jotakuta joka pitää leikkisästä viisaudesta, tai niitten yhdistelmä. Katso artikkelini <a href="http://stallman.org/articles/on-hacking.html">Hakkeroinnista</a>. 
173 | [-(1)-]In 1984 or 1985, Don Hopkins (a very imaginative fellow) mailed me
| a letter. [-On-] {+<a href="/graphics/copyleft-sticker.html">On+} the
| [-envelope-] {+envelope</a>+} he had written several amusing sayings,
| including this one: &ldquo;Copyleft&mdash;all rights reversed.&rdquo; I
| used the word &ldquo;copyleft&rdquo; to name the distribution concept I
| was developing at the time. 
In 1984 or 1985, Don Hopkins (a very imaginative fellow) mailed me a letter. <a href="/graphics/copyleft-sticker.html">On the envelope</a> he had written several amusing sayings, including this one: &ldquo;Copyleft&mdash;all rights reversed.&rdquo; I used the word &ldquo;copyleft&rdquo; to name the distribution concept I was developing at the time. 
(1) Vuonna 1984 tai 1985, Don Hopkins (hyvin mielikuvituskykyinen kaveri) lähetti minulle kirjeen. Kirjeeseen oli kirjoitettu useita huvittavia sanontoja mukaanlukien tämä: “Copyleft—all rights reversed” (“Copyleft- kaikki oikeudet käännetty”). Käytin sanaa “copyleft” nimetäkseni levitysidean jota minä kehitin silloin. 
178 | [-(-]2008 note: this issue extends to the BIOS as well. There is a free
| BIOS, <a [-href="http://www.libreboot.org/">LibreBoot</a>-]
| {+href="https://libreboot.org/">LibreBoot</a>+} (a distribution of
| coreboot); the problem is getting specs for machines so that LibreBoot can
| support them without nonfree [-&ldquo;blobs&rdquo;.)-]
| {+&ldquo;blobs.&rdquo;+} 
2008 note: this issue extends to the BIOS as well. There is a free BIOS, <a href="https://libreboot.org/">LibreBoot</a> (a distribution of coreboot); the problem is getting specs for machines so that LibreBoot can support them without nonfree &ldquo;blobs.&rdquo; 
(2008 huomautus: tämä ongelma laajenee myös BIOS:iin. On olemassa vapaa BIOS, <a href="http://www.libreboot.org/">LibreBoot</a> (corebootin jakelu); ongelma on koneiden teknisten tietojen hankkiminen, jotta libreboot voi tukea niitä ilman epävapaita "blobbeja".)