linux-and-gnu.ko.po

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5 | by <a href="http{+s+}://www.stallman.org/">Richard Stallman</a> 
by <a href="https://www.stallman.org/">Richard Stallman</a> 
글: <a href="http://www.stallman.org/">리처드 스톨먼</a> 
6 | Many computer users run a modified version of <a
| href="/philosophy/categories.html#TheGNUsystem">the GNU system</a> every
| day, without realizing it. Through a peculiar turn of events, the version
| of GNU which is widely used today is [-more-] often [-known as
| &ldquo;Linux&rdquo;,-] {+called &ldquo;Linux,&rdquo;+} and many {+of its+}
| users are {+<a href="/gnu/gnu-users-never-heard-of-gnu.html">+} not
| [-aware of-] {+aware</a> that it is basically+} the [-extent of its
| connection with-] {+GNU system, developed by+} the <a
| href="/gnu/gnu-history.html">GNU Project</a>. 
Many computer users run a modified version of <a href="/philosophy/categories.html#TheGNUsystem">the GNU system</a> every day, without realizing it. Through a peculiar turn of events, the version of GNU which is widely used today is often called &ldquo;Linux,&rdquo; and many of its users are <a href="/gnu/gnu-users-never-heard-of-gnu.html"> not aware</a> that it is basically the GNU system, developed by the <a href="/gnu/gnu-history.html">GNU Project</a>. 
일반적으로 “리눅스”라고 알려져 있는 현재의 <a href="/philosophy/categories.html#TheGNUsystem">GNU 시스템</a>은 몇 차례의 괄목할만한 변화를 통해서 성장했으며 많은 컴퓨터 사용자들에 의해서 일상처럼 사용되고 있음에도 불구하고 그 자체에 대한 명확한 인식이나 리눅스와 <a href="/gnu/gnu-history.html">GNU 프로젝트</a>와의 관계에 대해서 잘 알고 있는 사람은 많지 않은 것 같습니다. 
7  
For more information see also the <a href="/gnu/gnu-linux-faq.html">GNU/Linux FAQ</a>, and <a href="/gnu/why-gnu-linux.html">Why GNU/Linux?</a> 
 
11 | What they found was no accident&mdash;it was the {+not-quite-complete+}
| GNU system. The available <a href="/philosophy/free-sw.html">free
| software</a> added up to a complete system because the GNU Project had
| been working since 1984 to make one. {+In the+} <a
| [-href="/gnu/manifesto.html">The-] {+href="/gnu/manifesto.html">+} GNU
| Manifesto</a> [-had-] {+we+} set forth the goal of developing a free
| Unix-like system, called GNU. {+The <a
| href="/gnu/initial-announcement.html"> Initial Announcement</a> of the
| GNU Project also outlines some of the original plans for the GNU system.+}
| By the time Linux was [-written, the system-] {+started, GNU+} was almost
| finished. 
What they found was no accident&mdash;it was the not-quite-complete GNU system. The available <a href="/philosophy/free-sw.html">free software</a> added up to a complete system because the GNU Project had been working since 1984 to make one. In the <a href="/gnu/manifesto.html"> GNU Manifesto</a> we set forth the goal of developing a free Unix-like system, called GNU. The <a href="/gnu/initial-announcement.html"> Initial Announcement</a> of the GNU Project also outlines some of the original plans for the GNU system. By the time Linux was started, GNU was almost finished. 
그러나 그들이 완성체에 가까운 GNU 시스템을 발견한 것은 결코 우연이 아니었습니다. 이는 GNU 프로젝트가 완벽한 운영체제를 만들기 위해서 가능한 모든 종류의<a href="/philosophy/free-sw.html">자유 소프트웨어</a>들을 1984년부터 규합해 왔던 결과였으며, <a href="/gnu/manifesto.html">GNU 선언문</a>을 발표함으로써 시작한 우리의 과업을 그후 10년 이상동안 꾸준히 수행해 온 결과였기 때문입니다. 
15 | Many people have made major contributions to the free software in the
| system, and they all deserve [-credit.-] {+credit for their software.+}
| But the reason it is [-<em>a-] {+<em>an integrated+} system</em>&mdash;and
| not just a collection of useful programs&mdash;is because the GNU Project
| set out to make it one. We made a list of the programs needed to make a
| <em>complete</em> free system, and we systematically found, wrote, or
| found people to write everything on the list. We wrote essential but
| [-unexciting major components, such as the assembler and linker,-]
| {+unexciting&#8239;<a class="ftn" href="#unexciting">[1]</a>
| components+} because you can't have a system without them. [-A complete-]
| {+Some of our+} system [-needs more than just programming tools; the
| Bourne Again SHell, the PostScript interpreter <a
| href="/software/ghostscript/ghostscript.html">Ghostscript</a>, and-]
| {+components,+} the [-<a href="/software/libc/libc.html">GNU C
| library</a>-] {+programming tools, became popular on their own among
| programmers, but we wrote many components that+} are [-just as
| important.-] {+not tools&#8239;<a class="ftn"
| href="#nottools">[2]</a>. We even developed a chess game, GNU Chess,
| because a complete system needs games too.+} 
Many people have made major contributions to the free software in the system, and they all deserve credit for their software. But the reason it is <em>an integrated system</em>&mdash;and not just a collection of useful programs&mdash;is because the GNU Project set out to make it one. We made a list of the programs needed to make a <em>complete</em> free system, and we systematically found, wrote, or found people to write everything on the list. We wrote essential but unexciting&#8239;<a class="ftn" href="#unexciting">[1]</a> components because you can't have a system without them. Some of our system components, the programming tools, became popular on their own among programmers, but we wrote many components that are not tools&#8239;<a class="ftn" href="#nottools">[2]</a>. We even developed a chess game, GNU Chess, because a complete system needs games too. 
많은 사람들이 운영체제의 주요 부분들을 작성함으로써 많은 기여를 했고, 그 프로그램들은 모두 전체 시스템을 대표할 이름으로 사용될 만한 충분한 자격이 있습니다. 그러나 GNU 프로젝트는 단순히 유용한 프로그램들의 집합이 아닌 통합된 시스템으로서의 운영체제 전체를 의미하기 때문에그 이름이 특정 프로그램으로부터 차용되어서는 안되는 것입니다. 우리는 자유 운영체제를 구성하기 위해서 필요한 기본 요소들을 직접 작성하기도 했습니다. 핵심적이지만 그 개발이 지루한 작업일 수밖에 없는 어셈블러와 디버거, <a href="/software/libc/libc.html">C 라이브러리</a>들을 만들었는데 이러한 프로그램들은 운영체제를 완성하기 위해서 반드시 필요한 부분들입니다.또한 프로그래밍 도구 이외에 포스트스크립트 인터프리터인 <a href="/software/ghostscript/ghostscript.html">고스트스크립트</a>와 본셸(Bourne Again SHell) 등도 만들었습니다. 
17 | Fortunately, [-you don't-] {+we didn't+} have to wait for [-it,-] {+the
| Hurd,+} because [-Linux is working now. When Linus-] {+of Linux. Once+}
| Torvalds [-wrote Linux, he filled-] {+freed Linux in 1992, it fit into+}
| the last major [-gap.-] {+gap in the GNU system.+} People could then <a
| [-href="http://ftp.funet.fi/pub/linux/historical/kernel/old-versions/RELNOTES-0.01">put-]
| {+href="https://ftp.funet.fi/pub/linux/historical/kernel/old-versions/RELNOTES-0.01">
| combine+} Linux [-together-] with the GNU system</a> to make a complete
| free [-system: a Linux-based-] {+system&mdash;a version of the+} GNU
| system [-(or-] {+which also contained Linux. The+} GNU/Linux system,
| [-for short).-] {+in other words.+} 
Fortunately, we didn't have to wait for the Hurd, because of Linux. Once Torvalds freed Linux in 1992, it fit into the last major gap in the GNU system. People could then <a href="https://ftp.funet.fi/pub/linux/historical/kernel/old-versions/RELNOTES-0.01"> combine Linux with the GNU system</a> to make a complete free system&mdash;a version of the GNU system which also contained Linux. The GNU/Linux system, in other words. 
다행스럽게도 우리는 리누스 토발즈가 개발한 커널인 리눅스의 개발이 완료되었다는 사실을 알게 되었고, 곧이어 자유 소프트웨어인 리눅스 커널이 <a href="http://ftp.funet.fi/pub/linux/historical/kernel/old-versions/RELNOTES-0.01">GNU 시스템에 합류함으로써 마침내</a> 완성된형태의 운영체제를 만들 수 있게 되었습니다. 
18 | [-Putting-]{+Making+} them {+work well+} together [-sounds simple, but
| it-] was not a trivial job. [-The <a
| href="/software/libc/libc.html">GNU C library</a> (called glibc for
| short)-] {+Some GNU components&#8239;<a class="ftn"
| href="#somecomponents">[3]</a>+} needed substantial [-changes.-]
| {+change to work with Linux.+} Integrating a complete system as a
| distribution that would work &ldquo;out of the box&rdquo; was a big job,
| too. It required addressing the issue of how to install and boot the
| system&mdash;a problem we had not tackled, because we hadn't yet reached
| that point. [-The-] {+Thus, the+} people who developed the various
| system distributions [-made-] {+did+} a [-substantial contribution.-]
| {+lot of essential work. But it was work that, in the nature of things,
| was surely going to be done by someone.+} 
Making them work well together was not a trivial job. Some GNU components&#8239;<a class="ftn" href="#somecomponents">[3]</a> needed substantial change to work with Linux. Integrating a complete system as a distribution that would work &ldquo;out of the box&rdquo; was a big job, too. It required addressing the issue of how to install and boot the system&mdash;a problem we had not tackled, because we hadn't yet reached that point. Thus, the people who developed the various system distributions did a lot of essential work. But it was work that, in the nature of things, was surely going to be done by someone. 
그러나 이들을 결합시킨다는 것은 말처럼 간단한 작업이 아니었습니다. 설치와 함께 즉시 사용할 수 있는 배포본으로서의 시스템을 구축하는 것은 무척이나 방대한 작업이었기 때문입니다. 완성된전체 시스템을 구성하는 것이 처음이었기 때문에 <a href="/software/libc/libc.html">GNU C 라이브러리</a>를 리눅스 커널에 맞게 재작성해야 했으며, 이전에 다룰 수 없었던 설치와 부팅시에 고려되어야 할 CPU의 번지 지정에 대한 기계어 차원의 문제들이 해결되어야 했습니다. 다양한 배포본의 구성을 위해서 노력했던 많은 사람들의 수고 덕분에, 결국 리눅스와 이에 맞게 수정된 GNU 시스템은 완성된 운영체제로서의 모습을 갖출 수 있게 되었습니다. 
19 | The GNU Project supports GNU/Linux systems as well as <em>the</em> GNU
| [-system&mdash;even with funds. We-] {+system. The <a
| href="https://fsf.org/">FSF</a>+} funded the rewriting of the
| Linux-related extensions to the GNU C library, so that now they are well
| integrated, and the newest GNU/Linux systems use the current library
| release with no changes. [-We-] {+The FSF+} also funded an early stage
| of the development of Debian GNU/Linux. 
The GNU Project supports GNU/Linux systems as well as <em>the</em> GNU system. The <a href="https://fsf.org/">FSF</a> funded the rewriting of the Linux-related extensions to the GNU C library, so that now they are well integrated, and the newest GNU/Linux systems use the current library release with no changes. The FSF also funded an early stage of the development of Debian GNU/Linux. 
GNU 프로젝트는 최초에 계획했던 커널인 GNU Hurd의 개발에 중점을 두고 있지만 리눅스 커널에 기반한 GNU 시스템의 개발도 지원하고 있으며 여기에는 재정적인 지원 또한 포함되어 있습니다. GNU C 라이브러리에 맞게 리눅스를 재개발하는 작업을 통해서 이제 리눅스에 기반한 GNU 시스템에서도 GNU C 라이브러리를 리눅스에 맞게 수정할 필요 없이 그대로 사용할 수 있습니다.우리는 또다른 리눅스 커널 기반의 GNU 시스템인 데비안 GNU/Linux의 개발 초기 단계에서 이를 지원하기 위한 기금을 이안 멀독(Ian Murdock)에게 제공하기도 했습니다. 
20  
Today there are many different variants of the GNU/Linux system (often called &ldquo;distros&rdquo;). Most of them include nonfree programs&mdash;their developers follow the <a href="/philosophy/open-source-misses-the-point.html">&ldquo;open source&rdquo; philosophy</a> associated with Linux rather than the <a href="/philosophy/free-software-even-more-important.html">&ldquo;free software&rdquo; philosophy</a> of GNU. But there are also <a href="/distros/distros.html">completely free GNU/Linux distros</a>. The FSF supports computer facilities for a few of them. 
 
21  
Making a free GNU/Linux distribution is not just a matter of eliminating various nonfree programs. Nowadays, the usual version of Linux contains nonfree programs too. These programs are intended to be loaded into I/O devices when the system starts, and they are included, as long series of numbers, in the &ldquo;source code&rdquo; of Linux. Thus, maintaining free GNU/Linux distributions now entails maintaining a <a href="https://directory.fsf.org/project/linux"> free version of Linux</a> too. 
 
23  
If you want to make a link on &ldquo;GNU/Linux&rdquo; for further reference, this page and <a href="/gnu/thegnuproject.html"> https://www.gnu.org/gnu/thegnuproject.html</a> are good choices. If you mention Linux, the kernel, and want to add a link for further reference, <a href="https://foldoc.org/linux">https://foldoc.org/linux</a> is a good URL to use. 
 
25 | Aside from GNU, one other project has independently produced a free
| Unix-like operating system. This system is known as BSD, and it was
| developed at UC Berkeley. [-The BSD developers were inspired to make
| their work free software by the example of-] {+It was nonfree in+} the
| [-GNU Project, and occasionally encouraged by GNU activists,-] {+80s,+}
| but [-their actual work had little overlap with GNU. BSD systems today
| use some GNU software, just as-] {+became free in+} the [-GNU system and
| its variants use some BSD software; but taken as wholes, they are two
| different systems which evolved separately.-] {+early 90s.+} A free
| operating system that exists [-today-] {+today&#8239;<a class="ftn"
| href="#newersystems">[4]</a>+} is almost certainly either a variant of
| the GNU system, or a kind of BSD system. 
Aside from GNU, one other project has independently produced a free Unix-like operating system. This system is known as BSD, and it was developed at UC Berkeley. It was nonfree in the 80s, but became free in the early 90s. A free operating system that exists today&#8239;<a class="ftn" href="#newersystems">[4]</a> is almost certainly either a variant of the GNU system, or a kind of BSD system. 
유닉스 형태의 자유 운영체제를 개발하기 위한 또하나의 프로젝트로 UC 버클리 대학의 BSD가 있습니다. BSD의 개발자들은 GNU 프로젝트와 그 개발자들에게 많은 영향을 받았지만, 실제적인 작업에 있어서는 GNU 시스템과 중복되는 부분이 없다고 볼 수 있습니다. 물론, 두 시스템 모두 서로의 프로그램을 조금씩 차용하고 있기는 하지만 전체적으로 볼 때 이들은 독립적으로 발전하고 있다고 할 수 있기 때문에 오늘날의 자유 운영체제는 크게 GNU 시스템과 BSD 시스템 두개의 영역으로 구분할 수 있습니다. 
26  
People sometimes ask whether BSD too is a version of GNU, like GNU/Linux. The BSD developers were inspired to make their code free software by the example of the GNU Project, and explicit appeals from GNU activists helped persuade them, but the code had little overlap with GNU. BSD systems today use some GNU programs, just as the GNU system and its variants use some BSD programs; however, taken as wholes, they are two different systems that evolved separately. The BSD developers did not write a kernel and add it to the GNU system, and a name like GNU/BSD would not fit the situation&#8239;<a class="ftn" href="#gnubsd">[5]</a>. 
 
28  
These unexciting but essential components include the GNU assembler (GAS) and the linker (GLD), both are now part of the <a href="/software/binutils/">GNU Binutils</a> package, <a href="/software/tar/">GNU tar</a>, and many more. 
 
29  
For instance, The Bourne Again SHell (BASH), the PostScript interpreter <a href="/software/ghostscript/ghostscript.html">Ghostscript</a>, and the <a href="/software/libc/libc.html">GNU C library</a> are not programming tools. Neither are GNUCash, GNOME, and GNU Chess. 
 
30  
For instance, the <a href="/software/libc/libc.html">GNU C library</a>.