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7 | The AI Lab used a timesharing operating system called <abbr
| title="Incompatible Timesharing System">ITS</abbr> (the Incompatible
| Timesharing System) that the lab's staff [-hackers (1)-]
| {+hackers&#8239;<a href="#ft1">[1]</a>+} had designed and written in
| assembler language for the Digital <abbr title="Programmed Data
| Processor">PDP</abbr>-10, one of the large computers of the era. As a
| member of this community, an AI Lab staff system hacker, my job was to
| improve this system. 
The AI Lab used a timesharing operating system called <abbr title="Incompatible Timesharing System">ITS</abbr> (the Incompatible Timesharing System) that the lab's staff hackers&#8239;<a href="#ft1">[1]</a> had designed and written in assembler language for the Digital <abbr title="Programmed Data Processor">PDP</abbr>-10, one of the large computers of the era. As a member of this community, an AI Lab staff system hacker, my job was to improve this system. 
Het Laboratorium voor Kunstmatige Intelligentie (KI lab.) gebruikte een timesharing besturingssysteem met de naam <abbr title="Incompatible Timesharing System">ITS</abbr> (het &lsquo;Incompatibele Timesharing Systeem&rsquo;) dat hackers (1) onder het laboratoriumpersoneel hadden ontworpen en geschreven in assembleer taal voor de <abbr title="Programmed Data Processor">PDP</abbr>-10 van Digital, &eacute;&eacute;n van de grote computers uit die tijd. Als lid van deze gemeenschap, een hacker van het KI lab., was het mijn taak dit systeem te verbeteren. 
32 | Later I heard these words, attributed to [-Hillel (1):-] {+Hillel&#8239;<a
| href="#ft2">[2]</a>:+} 
Later I heard these words, attributed to Hillel&#8239;<a href="#ft2">[2]</a>: 
Later hoorde ik deze woorden, toegeschreven aan Hillel (1): 
67 | The goal of GNU was to give users freedom, not just to be popular. So we
| needed to use distribution terms that would prevent GNU software from
| being turned into proprietary software. The method we use is called
| [-&ldquo;copyleft&rdquo;.(1)-] {+&ldquo;copyleft&rdquo;&#8239;<a
| href="#ft3">[3]</a>.+} 
The goal of GNU was to give users freedom, not just to be popular. So we needed to use distribution terms that would prevent GNU software from being turned into proprietary software. The method we use is called &ldquo;copyleft&rdquo;&#8239;<a href="#ft3">[3]</a>. 
Het doel van GNU was om gebruikers vrijheid te geven, niet om slechts populair te zijn. We hadden dus distributievoorwaarden nodig die zouden voorkomen dat GNU software in private software zou veranderen. De methode die we gebruiken heet &ldquo;auteursplicht&rdquo;(1) (of op zijn Engels: &ldquo;copyleft&rdquo;) 
73 | The specific implementation of copyleft that we use for most GNU software
| is the GNU General Public License, or GNU GPL for short. We have other
| kinds of copyleft that are used in specific circumstances. GNU manuals
| are copylefted also, but use a much simpler kind of copyleft, because the
| complexity of the GNU GPL is not necessary for [-manuals.(2)-]
| {+manuals&#8239;<a href="#ft4">[4]</a>.+} 
The specific implementation of copyleft that we use for most GNU software is the GNU General Public License, or GNU GPL for short. We have other kinds of copyleft that are used in specific circumstances. GNU manuals are copylefted also, but use a much simpler kind of copyleft, because the complexity of the GNU GPL is not necessary for manuals&#8239;<a href="#ft4">[4]</a>. 
De specifieke implementatie van auteursplicht die we voor de meeste GNU-software gebruiken is de GNU General Public License (&ldquo;GNU Algemene Publieke Licentie&rdquo;, nvdv). We hebben andere soorten auteursplicht die worden gebruikt in speciale omstandigheden. GNU handleidingen worden ook auteursplichtig, maar gebruiken een veel eenvoudiger vorm, omdat de gecompliceerdheid van de GNU GPL onnodig is voor handleidingen.(2) 
75 | As interest in using Emacs was growing, other people became involved in
| the GNU project, and we decided that it was time to seek funding once
| again. So in 1985 we created the <a
| href="http{+s+}://www.fsf.org/">Free Software Foundation</a> (FSF), a
| tax-exempt charity for free software development. The [-<abbr
| title="Free Software Foundation">FSF</abbr>-] {+FSF+} also took over the
| Emacs tape distribution business; later it extended this by adding other
| free software (both GNU and non-GNU) to the tape, and by selling free
| manuals as well. 
As interest in using Emacs was growing, other people became involved in the GNU project, and we decided that it was time to seek funding once again. So in 1985 we created the <a href="https://www.fsf.org/">Free Software Foundation</a> (FSF), a tax-exempt charity for free software development. The FSF also took over the Emacs tape distribution business; later it extended this by adding other free software (both GNU and non-GNU) to the tape, and by selling free manuals as well. 
Toen de interesse in Emacs groeide gingen meer mensen zich bezig houden met het GNU project, en we besloten dat het tijd werd om weer fondsen te werven. Dus we richten de <a href="http://www.fsf.org/">Free Software Foundation</a> op in 1985, een goed doel, belastingaftrekbaar, voor vrije software ontwikkeling. De <abbr title="Free Software Foundation">FSF</abbr> nam ook de Emacs tape distributie activiteit over; later groeide dit door andere vrije software (GNU en niet-GNU) toe te voegen aan de tape, en met de verkoop van vrije handleidingen. 
76 | Most of the FSF's income used to come from sales of copies of free
| software and of other related services (CD-ROMs of source code, CD-ROMs
| with binaries, nicely printed manuals, all with the freedom to
| redistribute and modify), and Deluxe Distributions (distributions for
| which we built the whole collection of software for the customer's choice
| of platform). Today the FSF still <a href="http{+s+}://shop.fsf.org/">
| sells manuals and other gear</a>, but it gets the bulk of its funding from
| members' dues. You can join the FSF at <a
| [-href="http://fsf.org/join">fsf.org</a>.-]
| {+href="https://my.fsf.org/join">fsf.org</a>.+} 
Most of the FSF's income used to come from sales of copies of free software and of other related services (CD-ROMs of source code, CD-ROMs with binaries, nicely printed manuals, all with the freedom to redistribute and modify), and Deluxe Distributions (distributions for which we built the whole collection of software for the customer's choice of platform). Today the FSF still <a href="https://shop.fsf.org/"> sells manuals and other gear</a>, but it gets the bulk of its funding from members' dues. You can join the FSF at <a href="https://my.fsf.org/join">fsf.org</a>. 
De FSF accepteert donaties, maar het grootste deel van de inkomsten kwam altijd uit de verkoop&mdash;kopie&euml;n van vrije software, en aanverwante diensten. Vandaag de dag verkoopt het CD-ROMs met broncode, CD-ROMs met binaire bestanden, mooi gedrukte handleidingen (allemaal met de vrijheden om verder te distribueren en aan te passen), en Luxe Distributies (waar we de hele softwarecollectie op maat maken voor het door u gekozen platform). De FSF verkoopt nog steeds <a href="http://shop.fsf.org/">handleidingen en aanverwante artikelen</a>, maar het meeste komt van bijdragen uit de lidmaatschap. Je kunt lid worden van de FSF bij <a href="http://fsf.org/join">fsf.org</a>. 
77 | Free Software Foundation employees have written and maintained a number of
| GNU software packages. Two notable ones are the C library and the shell.
| The GNU C library is what every program running on a GNU/Linux system uses
| to communicate with Linux. It was developed by a member of the Free
| Software Foundation staff, Roland McGrath. The shell used on most
| GNU/Linux systems is [-<abbr title="Bourne Again Shell">BASH</abbr>,-]
| {+BASH,+} the Bourne Again [-Shell(1),-] {+SHell&#8239;<a
| href="#ft5">[5]</a>,+} which was developed by FSF employee Brian Fox. 
Free Software Foundation employees have written and maintained a number of GNU software packages. Two notable ones are the C library and the shell. The GNU C library is what every program running on a GNU/Linux system uses to communicate with Linux. It was developed by a member of the Free Software Foundation staff, Roland McGrath. The shell used on most GNU/Linux systems is BASH, the Bourne Again SHell&#8239;<a href="#ft5">[5]</a>, which was developed by FSF employee Brian Fox. 
Free Software Foundation werknemers hebben een aantal GNU-software pakketten geschreven en onderhouden. Twee opmerkelijke zijn de C bibliotheek en de shell. De GNU C-bibliotheek is wat ieder programma dat draait op een GNU/Linux systeem gebruikt om met Linux te communiceren. Het werd ontwikkeld door een staflid van de Free Software Foundation, Roland McGrath. De shell die wordt gebruikt op de meeste GNU/Linux-systemen is <abbr title="Bourne Again Shell">BASH</abbr>, de Bourne Again Shell(1), die werd ontwikkeld door FSF werknemer Brian Fox. 
95 | [-Today (1),-]{+Today&#8239;<a href="#ft6">[6]</a>,+} hardly any Unix
| components are left in the GNU Task List&mdash;those jobs had been done,
| aside from a few inessential ones. But the list is full of projects that
| some might call [-&ldquo;applications&rdquo;.-]
| {+&ldquo;applications.&rdquo;+} Any program that appeals to more than a
| narrow class of users would be a useful thing to add to an operating
| system. 
Today&#8239;<a href="#ft6">[6]</a>, hardly any Unix components are left in the GNU Task List&mdash;those jobs had been done, aside from a few inessential ones. But the list is full of projects that some might call &ldquo;applications.&rdquo; Any program that appeals to more than a narrow class of users would be a useful thing to add to an operating system. 
Vandaag de dag (1) zijn er vrijwel geen Unix componenten over op de GNU-takenlijst&mdash;dat werk is gedaan, op een paar minder belangrijke dingen na. Maar de lijst staat vol met projecten die door sommigen &ldquo;toepassingen&rdquo; genoemd zouden worden. Elk programma dat aantrekkelijk is voor meer dan een hele speciale klasse gebruikers zou een goede toevoeging aan een besturingssysteem zijn. 
98 | The GNU C library uses a special kind of copyleft called the GNU
| [-Library-] {+Lesser+} General Public [-License(1),-] {+License&#8239;<a
| href="#ft7">[7]</a>,+} which gives permission to link proprietary
| software with the library. Why make this exception? 
The GNU C library uses a special kind of copyleft called the GNU Lesser General Public License&#8239;<a href="#ft7">[7]</a>, which gives permission to link proprietary software with the library. Why make this exception? 
De GNU C-bibliotheek gebruikt een speciaal soort auteursplicht met de naam de GNU Library General Public License(1) (GNU LGPL&mdash;GNU Bibliotheek Algemene Publieke Licentie), die toestaat dat private software de bibliotheek mag gebruiken. Waarom deze uitzondering? 
132 | Reverse engineering is a big job; will we have programmers with sufficient
| determination to undertake it? Yes&mdash;if we have built up a strong
| feeling that free software is a matter of principle, and nonfree drivers
| are intolerable. And will large numbers of us spend extra money, or even
| a little extra time, so we can use free drivers? Yes, if the determination
| to have freedom is [-widespread.-] {+widespread&#8239;<a
| href="#ft8">[8]</a>.+} 
Reverse engineering is a big job; will we have programmers with sufficient determination to undertake it? Yes&mdash;if we have built up a strong feeling that free software is a matter of principle, and nonfree drivers are intolerable. And will large numbers of us spend extra money, or even a little extra time, so we can use free drivers? Yes, if the determination to have freedom is widespread&#8239;<a href="#ft8">[8]</a>. 
Het ontrafelen van software is een zware taak; hebben we hier programmeurs met voldoende doorzettingsvermogen voor? Ja&mdash;als we ons sterk maken voor vrije software als principe, en onvrije stuurprogramma's niet tolereren. En zullen velen van ons extra geld uitgeven, of zelfs een beetje meer tijd, zodat we vrije stuurprogramma's kunnen gebruiken? Zeker als de vastberadenheid voor vrijheid breed wordt gedragen. 
141 | In November 1998, the developers of Qt announced a change of license
| which, when carried out, should make Qt free software. There is no way to
| be sure, but I think that this was partly due to the community's firm
| response to the problem that Qt posed when it was nonfree. (The new
| license is inconvenient and inequitable, so it remains desirable to avoid
| using [-Qt.)-] {+Qt&#8239;<a href="#ft9">[9]</a>.)+} 
In November 1998, the developers of Qt announced a change of license which, when carried out, should make Qt free software. There is no way to be sure, but I think that this was partly due to the community's firm response to the problem that Qt posed when it was nonfree. (The new license is inconvenient and inequitable, so it remains desirable to avoid using Qt&#8239;<a href="#ft9">[9]</a>.) 
In november 1998 kondigden de Qt-ontwikkelaars aan dat ze hun licentie gingen veranderen, zodat - als ze dit echt gingen doen - Qt vrije software zou worden. We weten het niet zeker, maar ik denk dat dit gedeeltelijk een reactie was op het krachtige weerwoord van de gemeenschap op het Qt probleem, toen het nog onvrij was. (De nieuwe licentie is onhandig en ongelijkwaardig, het blijft dus aan te raden om Qt niet te gebruiken.) 
144 | The worst threat we face comes from software patents, which can put
| algorithms and features off limits to free software for up to twenty
| years. The LZW compression algorithm patents were applied for in 1983,
| and we still cannot release free software to produce proper compressed
| <abbr title="Graphics Interchange [-Format">GIF</abbr>s. [As of 2009
| they have expired.]-] {+Format">GIF</abbr>&#8239;<a
| href="#ft10">[10]</a>.+} In 1998, a free program to produce <abbr
| title="MPEG-1 Audio Layer 3">MP3</abbr> compressed audio was removed
| from distribution under threat of a patent [-suit. [As of 2017, these
| patents have expired. Look how long we had to wait.]-] {+suit&#8239;<a
| href="#ft11">[11]</a>.+} 
The worst threat we face comes from software patents, which can put algorithms and features off limits to free software for up to twenty years. The LZW compression algorithm patents were applied for in 1983, and we still cannot release free software to produce proper compressed <abbr title="Graphics Interchange Format">GIF</abbr>&#8239;<a href="#ft10">[10]</a>. In 1998, a free program to produce <abbr title="MPEG-1 Audio Layer 3">MP3</abbr> compressed audio was removed from distribution under threat of a patent suit&#8239;<a href="#ft11">[11]</a>. 
De grootste dreiging komt van softwarepatenten, die kunnen algoritmes en mogelijkheden voor maximaal twintig jaar verboden gebied verklaren. Het LZW-compressie-algoritme-patent werd aangevraagd in 1983, en we kunnen nog altijd geen vrije software produceren die correct gecomprimeerde <abbr title="Graphics Interchange Format">GIF</abbr>s maakt [Sinds 2009 zijn ze verlopen]. In 1998 kon een vrij programma dat <abbr title="MPEG-1 Audio Layer 3">MP3</abbr> audiobestanden comprimeerde niet meer worden uitgebracht, onder dreiging van een patent-rechtszaak. [Sinds 2017 zijn deze patenten verlopen, <strong>zo</strong> lang moesten we wachten.] 
171 | [-(1)-]The use of &ldquo;hacker&rdquo; to mean &ldquo;security
| breaker&rdquo; is a confusion on the part of the mass media. We hackers
| refuse to recognize that meaning, and continue using the word to mean
| someone who loves to program, someone who enjoys playful cleverness, or
| the combination of the two. See my article, [-<a
| href="http://stallman.org/articles/on-hacking.html">On Hacking</a>.-]
| {+&ldquo;<a href="https://stallman.org/articles/on-hacking.html">On
| Hacking</a>.&rdquo;+} 
The use of &ldquo;hacker&rdquo; to mean &ldquo;security breaker&rdquo; is a confusion on the part of the mass media. We hackers refuse to recognize that meaning, and continue using the word to mean someone who loves to program, someone who enjoys playful cleverness, or the combination of the two. See my article, &ldquo;<a href="https://stallman.org/articles/on-hacking.html">On Hacking</a>.&rdquo; 
(1) Het gebruik van het woord &ldquo;hacker&rdquo; in de betekenis van &ldquo;digitale inbreker&rdquo; is een fout van de media. Wij hackers weigeren deze betekenis te accepteren, en gaan door met de originele betekenis “Iemand die van programmeren houdt en/of er plezier in heeft er goed in te zijn”. Zie ook mijn artikel: <a href="http://stallman.org/articles/on-hacking.html">On Hacking</a>. 
173 | [-(1)-]In 1984 or 1985, Don Hopkins (a very imaginative fellow) mailed me
| a letter. [-On-] {+<a href="/graphics/copyleft-sticker.html">On+} the
| [-envelope-] {+envelope</a>+} he had written several amusing sayings,
| including this one: &ldquo;Copyleft&mdash;all rights reversed.&rdquo; I
| used the word &ldquo;copyleft&rdquo; to name the distribution concept I
| was developing at the time. 
In 1984 or 1985, Don Hopkins (a very imaginative fellow) mailed me a letter. <a href="/graphics/copyleft-sticker.html">On the envelope</a> he had written several amusing sayings, including this one: &ldquo;Copyleft&mdash;all rights reversed.&rdquo; I used the word &ldquo;copyleft&rdquo; to name the distribution concept I was developing at the time. 
(1) In 1984 of 1985 stuurde Don Hopkins (een erg fantasievolle kerel) me een brief. Op de enveloppe had hij wat grappige gezegden geschreven, waaronder deze: &ldquo;Copyleft&mdash;all rights reversed.&rdquo; (&ldquo;Auteursplicht&mdash;alle rechten omgedraaid&rdquo;, nvdv). Ik gebruikte het woord &ldquo;auteursplicht&rdquo; als werknaam voor het distributieconcept dat ik op dat moment aan het ontwikkelen was. 
178 | [-(-]2008 note: this issue extends to the BIOS as well. There is a free
| BIOS, <a [-href="http://www.libreboot.org/">LibreBoot</a>-]
| {+href="https://libreboot.org/">LibreBoot</a>+} (a distribution of
| coreboot); the problem is getting specs for machines so that LibreBoot can
| support them without nonfree [-&ldquo;blobs&rdquo;.)-]
| {+&ldquo;blobs.&rdquo;+} 
2008 note: this issue extends to the BIOS as well. There is a free BIOS, <a href="https://libreboot.org/">LibreBoot</a> (a distribution of coreboot); the problem is getting specs for machines so that LibreBoot can support them without nonfree &ldquo;blobs.&rdquo; 
(2008 voetnoot: dit speelt ook in de BIOS. Er is een vrije BIOS, <a href="http://www.libreboot.org/">LibreBoot</a> (een distributie van coreboot); het probleem is het verkrijgen van specificaties van machines zodat LibreBoot die kan ondersteunen zonder niet-vrije &ldquo;blobs&rdquo;.) 
185 || No change detected. The change might only be in amounts of spaces. 
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