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6.2.5 Numerical operations

The reader is referred to section Entry format for a summary of the naming conventions used to specify restrictions on the types of arguments to numerical routines.

The examples used in this section assume that any numerical constant written using an exact notation is indeed represented as an exact number. Some examples also assume that certain numerical constants written using an inexact notation can be represented without loss of accuracy; the inexact constants were chosen so that this is likely to be true in implementations that use flonums to represent inexact numbers.

procedure: number? obj
procedure: complex? obj
procedure: real? obj
procedure: rational? obj
procedure: integer? obj

These numerical type predicates can be applied to any kind of argument, including non-numbers. They return #t if the object is of the named type, and otherwise they return #f. In general, if a type predicate is true of a number then all higher type predicates are also true of that number. Consequently, if a type predicate is false of a number, then all lower type predicates are also false of that number.

If z is an inexact complex number, then ‘(real? z)’ is true if and only if ‘(zero? (imag-part z))’ is true. If x is an inexact real number, then ‘(integer? x)’ is true if and only if ‘(= x (round x))’.

(complex? 3+4i)                        ==>  #t
(complex? 3)                           ==>  #t
(real? 3)                              ==>  #t
(real? -2.5+0.0i)                      ==>  #t
(real? #e1e10)                         ==>  #t
(rational? 6/10)                       ==>  #t
(rational? 6/3)                        ==>  #t
(integer? 3+0i)                        ==>  #t
(integer? 3.0)                         ==>  #t
(integer? 8/4)                         ==>  #t

Note: The behavior of these type predicates on inexact numbers is unreliable, since any inaccuracy may affect the result.

Note: In many implementations the rational? procedure will be the same as real?, and the complex? procedure will be the same as number?, but unusual implementations may be able to represent some irrational numbers exactly or may extend the number system to support some kind of non-complex numbers.

procedure: exact? z
procedure: inexact? z

These numerical predicates provide tests for the exactness of a quantity. For any Scheme number, precisely one of these predicates is true.

procedure: = z1 z2 z3 …,
procedure: < x1 x2 x3 …,
procedure: > x1 x2 x3 …,
procedure: <= x1 x2 x3 …,
procedure: >= x1 x2 x3 …,

These procedures return #t if their arguments are (respectively): equal, monotonically increasing, monotonically decreasing, monotonically nondecreasing, or monotonically nonincreasing.

These predicates are required to be transitive.

Note: The traditional implementations of these predicates in Lisp-like languages are not transitive.

Note: While it is not an error to compare inexact numbers using these predicates, the results may be unreliable because a small inaccuracy may affect the result; this is especially true of = and zero?. When in doubt, consult a numerical analyst.

library procedure: zero? z
library procedure: positive? x
library procedure: negative? x
library procedure: odd? n
library procedure: even? n

These numerical predicates test a number for a particular property, returning #t or #f. See note above.

library procedure: max x1 x2 …,
library procedure: min x1 x2 …,

These procedures return the maximum or minimum of their arguments.

(max 3 4)                              ==>  4    ; exact
(max 3.9 4)                            ==>  4.0  ; inexact

Note: If any argument is inexact, then the result will also be inexact (unless the procedure can prove that the inaccuracy is not large enough to affect the result, which is possible only in unusual implementations). If ‘min’ or ‘max’ is used to compare numbers of mixed exactness, and the numerical value of the result cannot be represented as an inexact number without loss of accuracy, then the procedure may report a violation of an implementation restriction.

procedure: + z1 …,
procedure: * z1 …,

These procedures return the sum or product of their arguments.

(+ 3 4)                                ==>  7
(+ 3)                                  ==>  3
(+)                                    ==>  0
(* 4)                                  ==>  4
(*)                                    ==>  1

procedure: - z1 z2
procedure: - z
optional procedure: - z1 z2 …,
procedure: / z1 z2
procedure: / z
optional procedure: / z1 z2 …,

With two or more arguments, these procedures return the difference or quotient of their arguments, associating to the left. With one argument, however, they return the additive or multiplicative inverse of their argument.

(- 3 4)                                ==>  -1
(- 3 4 5)                              ==>  -6
(- 3)                                  ==>  -3
(/ 3 4 5)                              ==>  3/20
(/ 3)                                  ==>  1/3

library procedure: abs x

Abs’ returns the absolute value of its argument.

(abs -7)                               ==>  7

procedure: quotient n1 n2
procedure: remainder n1 n2
procedure: modulo n1 n2

These procedures implement number-theoretic (integer) division. n2 should be non-zero. All three procedures return integers. If n1/n2 is an integer:

    (quotient n1 n2)                   ==> n1/n2
    (remainder n1 n2)                  ==> 0
    (modulo n1 n2)                     ==> 0

If n1/n2 is not an integer:

    (quotient n1 n2)                   ==> n_q
    (remainder n1 n2)                  ==> n_r
    (modulo n1 n2)                     ==> n_m

where n_q is n1/n2 rounded towards zero, 0 < |n_r| < |n2|, 0 < |n_m| < |n2|, n_r and n_m differ from n1 by a multiple of n2, n_r has the same sign as n1, and n_m has the same sign as n2.

From this we can conclude that for integers n1 and n2 with n2 not equal to 0,

     (= n1 (+ (* n2 (quotient n1 n2))
           (remainder n1 n2)))
                                       ==>  #t

provided all numbers involved in that computation are exact.

(modulo 13 4)                          ==>  1
(remainder 13 4)                       ==>  1

(modulo -13 4)                         ==>  3
(remainder -13 4)                      ==>  -1

(modulo 13 -4)                         ==>  -3
(remainder 13 -4)                      ==>  1

(modulo -13 -4)                        ==>  -1
(remainder -13 -4)                     ==>  -1

(remainder -13 -4.0)                   ==>  -1.0  ; inexact

library procedure: gcd n1 …,
library procedure: lcm n1 …,

These procedures return the greatest common divisor or least common multiple of their arguments. The result is always non-negative.

(gcd 32 -36)                           ==>  4
(gcd)                                  ==>  0
(lcm 32 -36)                           ==>  288
(lcm 32.0 -36)                         ==>  288.0  ; inexact
(lcm)                                  ==>  1

procedure: numerator q
procedure: denominator q

These procedures return the numerator or denominator of their argument; the result is computed as if the argument was represented as a fraction in lowest terms. The denominator is always positive. The denominator of 0 is defined to be 1.

(numerator (/ 6 4))                    ==>  3
(denominator (/ 6 4))                  ==>  2
  (exact->inexact (/ 6 4)))            ==> 2.0

procedure: floor x
procedure: ceiling x
procedure: truncate x
procedure: round x

These procedures return integers. ‘Floor’ returns the largest integer not larger than x. ‘Ceiling’ returns the smallest integer not smaller than x. ‘Truncate’ returns the integer closest to x whose absolute value is not larger than the absolute value of x. ‘Round’ returns the closest integer to x, rounding to even when x is halfway between two integers.

Rationale:Round’ rounds to even for consistency with the default rounding mode specified by the IEEE floating point standard.

Note: If the argument to one of these procedures is inexact, then the result will also be inexact. If an exact value is needed, the result should be passed to the ‘inexact->exact’ procedure.

(floor -4.3)                           ==>  -5.0
(ceiling -4.3)                         ==>  -4.0
(truncate -4.3)                        ==>  -4.0
(round -4.3)                           ==>  -4.0

(floor 3.5)                            ==>  3.0
(ceiling 3.5)                          ==>  4.0
(truncate 3.5)                         ==>  3.0
(round 3.5)                            ==>  4.0  ; inexact

(round 7/2)                            ==>  4    ; exact
(round 7)                              ==>  7

library procedure: rationalize x y

Rationalize’ returns the simplest rational number differing from x by no more than y. A rational number r_1 is simpler than another rational number r_2 if r_1 = p_1/q_1 and r_2 = p_2/q_2 (in lowest terms) and |p_1|<= |p_2| and |q_1| <= |q_2|. Thus 3/5 is simpler than 4/7. Although not all rationals are comparable in this ordering (consider 2/7 and 3/5) any interval contains a rational number that is simpler than every other rational number in that interval (the simpler 2/5 lies between 2/7 and 3/5). Note that 0 = 0/1 is the simplest rational of all.

  (inexact->exact .3) 1/10)            ==> 1/3    ; exact
(rationalize .3 1/10)                  ==> #i1/3  ; inexact

procedure: exp z
procedure: log z
procedure: sin z
procedure: cos z
procedure: tan z
procedure: asin z
procedure: acos z
procedure: atan z
procedure: atan y x

These procedures are part of every implementation that supports general real numbers; they compute the usual transcendental functions. ‘log’ computes the natural logarithm of z (not the base ten logarithm). ‘asin’, ‘acos’, and ‘atan’ compute arcsine (sin^-1), arccosine (cos^-1), and arctangent (tan^-1), respectively. The two-argument variant of ‘atan’ computes (angle (make-rectangular x y)) (see below), even in implementations that don’t support general complex numbers.

In general, the mathematical functions log, arcsine, arccosine, and arctangent are multiply defined. The value of log z is defined to be the one whose imaginary part lies in the range from -pi (exclusive) to pi (inclusive). log 0 is undefined. With log defined this way, the values of sin^-1 z, cos^-1 z, and tan^-1 z are according to the following formulae:

sin^-1 z = -i log (i z + sqrt(1 - z^2))
cos^-1 z = pi / 2 - sin^-1 z
tan^-1 z = (log (1 + i z) - log (1 - i z)) / (2 i)

The above specification follows [CLtL], which in turn cites [Penfield81]; refer to these sources for more detailed discussion of branch cuts, boundary conditions, and implementation of these functions. When it is possible these procedures produce a real result from a real argument.

procedure: sqrt z

Returns the principal square root of z. The result will have either positive real part, or zero real part and non-negative imaginary part.

procedure: expt z1 z2

Returns z1 raised to the power z2. For z_1 ~= 0

z_1^z_2 = e^z_2 log z_1

0^z is 1 if z = 0 and 0 otherwise.

procedure: make-rectangular x1 x2
procedure: make-polar x3 x4
procedure: real-part z
procedure: imag-part z
procedure: magnitude z
procedure: angle z

These procedures are part of every implementation that supports general complex numbers. Suppose x1, x2, x3, and x4 are real numbers and z is a complex number such that

z = x1 + x2i = x3 . e^i x4


(make-rectangular x1 x2)               ==> z
(make-polar x3 x4)                     ==> z
(real-part z)                          ==> x1
(imag-part z)                          ==> x2
(magnitude z)                          ==> |x3|
(angle z)                              ==> x_angle

where -pi < x_angle <= pi with x_angle = x4 + 2pi n for some integer n.

Rationale:Magnitude’ is the same as abs for a real argument, but ‘abs’ must be present in all implementations, whereas ‘magnitude’ need only be present in implementations that support general complex numbers.

procedure: exact->inexact z
procedure: inexact->exact z

Exact->inexact’ returns an inexact representation of z. The value returned is the inexact number that is numerically closest to the argument. If an exact argument has no reasonably close inexact equivalent, then a violation of an implementation restriction may be reported.

Inexact->exact’ returns an exact representation of z. The value returned is the exact number that is numerically closest to the argument. If an inexact argument has no reasonably close exact equivalent, then a violation of an implementation restriction may be reported.

These procedures implement the natural one-to-one correspondence between exact and inexact integers throughout an implementation-dependent range. See section Implementation restrictions.

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