Packages — R (Page 6 of 11)
r-rcpp 0.12.18 — Seamless R and C++ integration
The Rcpp package provides R functions as well as C++ classes which offer a seamless integration of R and C++. Many R data types and objects can be mapped back and forth to C++ equivalents which facilitates both writing of new code as well as easier integration of third-party libraries. Documentation about Rcpp is provided by several vignettes included in this package, via the 'Rcpp Gallery' site at <http://gallery.rcpp.org>, the paper by Eddelbuettel and Francois (2011, JSS), and the book by Eddelbuettel (2013, Springer); see 'citation("Rcpp")' for details on these last two.
r-rcpparmadillo 0.9.100.5.0 — Rcpp integration for the Armadillo linear algebra library
Armadillo is a templated C++ linear algebra library that aims towards a good balance between speed and ease of use. Integer, floating point and complex numbers are supported, as well as a subset of trigonometric and statistics functions. Various matrix decompositions are provided through optional integration with LAPACK and ATLAS libraries. This package includes the header files from the templated Armadillo library.
r-rcppeigen 0.3.3.4.0 — Rcpp integration for the Eigen templated linear algebra library
This package provides an integration of Eigen in R using a C++ template library for linear algebra: matrices, vectors, numerical solvers and related algorithms. It supports dense and sparse matrices on integer, floating point and complex numbers, decompositions of such matrices, and solutions of linear systems.
r-rcppprogress 0.4.1 — Interruptible progress bar for C++ in R packages
This package allows to display a progress bar in the R console for long running computations taking place in C++ code, and support for interrupting those computations even in multithreaded code, typically using OpenMP.
r-rcpproll 0.3.0 — Efficient rolling and windowed operations
This package provides fast and efficient routines for common rolling / windowed operations. Routines for the efficient computation of windowed mean, median, sum, product, minimum, maximum, standard deviation and variance are provided.
r-rcurl 1.95-0.1.2 — General network client interface for R
The package allows one to compose general HTTP requests and provides convenient functions to fetch URIs, GET and POST forms, etc. and process the results returned by the Web server. This provides a great deal of control over the HTTP/FTP/... connection and the form of the request while providing a higher-level interface than is available just using R socket connections. Additionally, the underlying implementation is robust and extensive, supporting FTP/FTPS/TFTP (uploads and downloads), SSL/HTTPS, telnet, dict, ldap, and also supports cookies, redirects, authentication, etc.
r-rdpack 0.9-0 — Update and manipulate Rd documentation objects
This package provides functions for manipulation of R documentation objects, including functions
ereprompt() for updating Rd documentation for functions, methods and classes; it also includes Rd macros for citations and import of references from bibtex files for use in Rd files and roxygen2 comments, as well as many functions for manipulation of references and Rd files.
r-readr 1.1.1 — Read tabular data
This package provides functions to read flat or tabular text files from disk (or a connection).
r-readxl 1.1.0 — Read Excel files
This package lets you import Excel files into R. It supports
.xls via the embedded
libxls C library and
.xlsx via the embedded
RapidXML C++ library.
r-recipes 0.1.3 — Preprocessing tools to create design matrices
Recipes is an extensible framework to create and preprocess design matrices. Recipes consist of one or more data manipulation and analysis "steps". Statistical parameters for the steps can be estimated from an initial data set and then applied to other data sets. The resulting design matrices can then be used as inputs into statistical or machine learning models.
r-refgenome 1.7.3 — Gene and splice site annotation using annotation data from Ensembl and UCSC
This package contains functionality for importing and managing of downloaded genome annotation data from the Ensembl genome browser (European Bioinformatics Institute) and from the UCSC genome browser (University of California, Santa Cruz) and annotation routines for genomic positions and splice site positions.
r-regioner 1.12.0 — Association analysis of genomic regions
This package offers a statistical framework based on customizable permutation tests to assess the association between genomic region sets and other genomic features.
r-registry 0.5 — Infrastructure for R package registries
This package provides a generic infrastructure for creating and using R package registries.
r-rematch 1.0.1 — Match regular expressions with a nicer API
This package provides a small wrapper on
regexpr to extract the matches and captured groups from the match of a regular expression to a character vector.
r-reprex 0.2.0 — Prepare reproducible R code examples for sharing
This package provides a convenience wrapper that uses the
rmarkdown package to render small snippets of code to target formats that include both code and output. The goal is to encourage the sharing of small, reproducible, and runnable examples on code-oriented websites or email.
reprex also extracts clean, runnable R code from various common formats, such as copy/paste from an R session.
r-reshape 0.8.7 — Flexibly reshape data
Flexibly restructure and aggregate data using just two functions:
cast. This package provides them.
r-reshape2 1.4.3 — Flexibly reshape data: a reboot of the "reshape" package
Reshape2 is an R library to flexibly restructure and aggregate data using just two functions: melt and dcast (or acast).
r-reticulate 1.10 — R interface to Python
This package provides an interface from R to Python modules, classes, and functions. When calling into Python, R data types are automatically converted to their equivalent Python types. When values are returned from Python to R they are converted back to R types.
r-rgooglemaps 1.4.2 — Use Google Maps in R
This package serves two purposes: (i) Provide a comfortable R interface to query the Google server for static maps, and (ii) Use the map as a background image to overlay plots within R. This requires proper coordinate scaling.
r-rgraphviz 2.24.0 — Plotting capabilities for R graph objects
This package interfaces R with the graphviz library for plotting R graph objects from the
r-rhdf5 2.24.0 — HDF5 interface to R
This R/Bioconductor package provides an interface between HDF5 and R. HDF5's main features are the ability to store and access very large and/or complex datasets and a wide variety of metadata on mass storage (disk) through a completely portable file format. The rhdf5 package is thus suited for the exchange of large and/or complex datasets between R and other software package, and for letting R applications work on datasets that are larger than the available RAM.
r-rhdf5lib 1.2.1 — HDF5 library as an R package
This package provides C and C++ HDF5 libraries for use in R packages.
r-rhtslib 1.12.1 — High-throughput sequencing library as an R package
This package provides the HTSlib C library for high-throughput nucleotide sequence analysis. The package is primarily useful to developers of other R packages who wish to make use of HTSlib.
r-riboprofiling 1.10.0 — Ribosome profiling data analysis
Starting with a BAM file, this package provides the necessary functions for quality assessment, read start position recalibration, the counting of genomic sequence reads on CDS, 3'UTR, and 5'UTR, and plotting of count data: pairs, log fold-change, codon frequency and coverage assessment, principal component analysis on codon coverage.
r-riboseqr 1.14.0 — Analysis of sequencing data from ribosome profiling experiments
This package provides plotting functions, frameshift detection and parsing of genetic sequencing data from ribosome profiling experiments.
r-rio 0.5.10 — Swiss-army knife for data I/O
This package provides streamlined data import and export infrastructure by making assumptions that the user is probably willing to make:
export determine the data structure from the file extension, reasonable defaults are used for data import and export (e.g.,
stringsAsFactors=FALSE), web-based import is natively supported (including from SSL/HTTPS), compressed files can be read directly without explicit decompression, and fast import packages are used where appropriate. An additional convenience function,
convert, provides a simple method for converting between file types.
r-ripseeker 1.20.0 — Identifying protein-associated transcripts from RIP-seq experiments
This package infers and discriminates RIP peaks from RIP-seq alignments using two-state HMM with negative binomial emission probability. While RIPSeeker is specifically tailored for RIP-seq data analysis, it also provides a suite of bioinformatics tools integrated within this self-contained software package comprehensively addressing issues ranging from post-alignments processing to visualization and annotation.
r-riverplot 0.6 — Sankey or ribbon plots
Sankey plots are a type of diagram that is convenient to illustrate how flow of information, resources etc. separates and joins, much like observing how rivers split and merge. For example, they can be used to compare different clusterings. This package provides an implementation of Sankey plots for R.
r-rjson 0.2.20 — JSON library for R
This package provides functions to convert R objects into JSON objects and vice-versa.
r-rlang 0.2.2 — Functions for base types, core R and Tidyverse features
This package provides a toolbox for working with base types, core R features like the condition system, and core
Tidyverse features like tidy evaluation.
r-rmarkdown 1.10 — Convert R Markdown documents into a variety of formats
This package provides tools to convert R Markdown documents into a variety of formats.
r-rmpi 0.6-7 — R interface to message-passing interface (MPI)
This package provides an interface (wrapper) to MPI APIs. It also provides an interactive R manager and worker environment.
r-rmtstat 0.3 — Distributions, statistics and tests derived from random matrix theory
This package provides functions for working with the Tracy-Widom laws and other distributions related to the eigenvalues of large Wishart matrices.
r-rmysql 0.10.15 — Database interface and MySQL driver for R
This package provides a DBI interface to MySQL / MariaDB. The RMySQL package contains an old implementation based on legacy code from S-PLUS which is being phased out. A modern MySQL client based on Rcpp is available from the RMariaDB package.
r-rngtools 1.3.1 — Utility functions for working with random number generators
This package contains a set of functions for working with Random Number Generators (RNGs). In particular, it defines a generic S4 framework for getting/setting the current RNG, or RNG data that are embedded into objects for reproducibility. Notably, convenient default methods greatly facilitate the way current RNG settings can be changed.
r-robust 0.4-18 — Port of the S+ "Robust Library"
This package is a port of the S+ "Robust Library". It provides methods for robust statistics, notably for robust regression and robust multivariate analysis.
r-robustbase 0.93-2 — Basic robust statistics
This packages allows to analyze data with robust methods such as regression methodology including model selections and multivariate statistics.
r-rocr 1.0-7 — Visualizing the performance of scoring classifiers
ROCR is a flexible tool for creating cutoff-parameterized 2D performance curves by freely combining two from over 25 performance measures (new performance measures can be added using a standard interface). Curves from different cross-validation or bootstrapping runs can be averaged by different methods, and standard deviations, standard errors or box plots can be used to visualize the variability across the runs. The parameterization can be visualized by printing cutoff values at the corresponding curve positions, or by coloring the curve according to cutoff. All components of a performance plot can be quickly adjusted using a flexible parameter dispatching mechanism.
r-rook 1.1-1 — Web server interface for R
This package contains the Rook specification and convenience software for building and running Rook applications. A Rook application is an R reference class object that implements a
call method or an R closure that takes exactly one argument, an environment, and returns a list with three named elements: the
headers, and the
r-rootsolve 1.7 — Tools for the analysis of ordinary differential equations
This package provides routines to find the root of nonlinear functions, and to perform steady-state and equilibrium analysis of ordinary differential equations (ODE). It includes routines that:
generate gradient and jacobian matrices (full and banded),
find roots of non-linear equations by the Newton-Raphson method,
estimate steady-state conditions of a system of (differential) equations in full, banded or sparse form, using the Newton-Raphson method, or by dynamically running,
solve the steady-state conditions for uni- and multicomponent 1-D, 2-D, and 3-D partial differential equations, that have been converted to ordinary differential equations by numerical differencing (using the method-of-lines approach).
r-rots 1.8.0 — Reproducibility-Optimized Test Statistic
This package provides tools for calculating the Reproducibility-Optimized Test Statistic (ROTS) for differential testing in omics data.
r-roxygen2 6.1.0 — In-source documentation system for R
Roxygen2 is a Doxygen-like in-source documentation system for Rd, collation, and NAMESPACE files.
r-rpart 4.1-13 — Recursive partitioning and regression trees
This package provides recursive partitioning functions for classification, regression and survival trees.
r-rprojroot 1.3-2 — Finding files in project subdirectories
This package helps accessing files relative to a project root. It provides helpers for robust, reliable and flexible paths to files below a project root. The root of a project is defined as a directory that matches a certain criterion, e.g., it contains a certain regular file.
r-rrcov 1.4-4 — Scalable robust estimators with high breakdown Point
This package provides an implementation of robust location and scatter estimation and robust multivariate analysis with high breakdown point.
r-rsamtools 1.32.3 — Interface to samtools, bcftools, and tabix
This package provides an interface to the 'samtools', 'bcftools', and 'tabix' utilities for manipulating SAM (Sequence Alignment / Map), FASTA, binary variant call (BCF) and compressed indexed tab-delimited (tabix) files.
r-rsofia 1.1 — Port of sofia-ml to R
This package is a port of sofia-ml to R. Sofia-ml is a suite of fast incremental algorithms for machine learning that can be used for training models for classification or ranking.
r-rsolnp 1.16 — General non-linear optimization
The Rsolnp package implements a general non-linear augmented Lagrange multiplier method solver, a sequential quadratic programming (SQP) based solver).
r-rsqlite 2.1.1 — SQLite interface for R
This package embeds the SQLite database engine in R and provides an interface compliant with the DBI package. The source for the SQLite engine (version 18.104.22.168) is included.
r-rstudioapi 0.7 — Safely access the RStudio API
This package provides functions to access the RStudio API and provide informative error messages when it's not available.
r-rtracklayer 1.40.6 — R interface to genome browsers and their annotation tracks
rtracklayer is an extensible framework for interacting with multiple genome browsers (currently UCSC built-in) and manipulating annotation tracks in various formats (currently GFF, BED, bedGraph, BED15, WIG, BigWig and 2bit built-in). The user may export/import tracks to/from the supported browsers, as well as query and modify the browser state, such as the current viewport.
r-rtsne 0.13 — T-distributed stochastic neighbor embedding
This package provides an R wrapper around the fast T-distributed Stochastic Neighbor Embedding using a Barnes-Hut implementation.
r-runit 0.4.32 — R unit test framework
This package provides R functions implementing a standard unit testing framework, with additional code inspection and report generation tools.
r-rversions 1.0.3 — Query R versions, including 'r-release' and 'r-oldrel'
This package provides functions to query the main R repository to find the versions that
r-oldrel refer to, and also all previous R versions and their release dates.
r-rvest 0.3.2 — Simple web scraping for R
r-rvest helps you scrape information from web pages. It is designed to work with
magrittr to make it easy to express common web scraping tasks, inspired by libraries like
r-s4vectors 0.18.3 — S4 implementation of vectors and lists
The S4Vectors package defines the
List virtual classes and a set of generic functions that extend the semantic of ordinary vectors and lists in R. Package developers can easily implement vector-like or list-like objects as concrete subclasses of
List. In addition, a few low-level concrete subclasses of general interest (e.g.
Hits) are implemented in the S4Vectors package itself.
r-sapa 2.0-2 — Spectral analysis for physical applications
This package provides software for the book Spectral Analysis for Physical Applications, Donald B. Percival and Andrew T. Walden, Cambridge University Press, 1993.
r-scales 1.0.0 — Scale functions for visualization
This package provides graphical scales that map data to aesthetics, and provides methods for automatically determining breaks and labels for axes and legends.
r-scater 1.8.4 — Single-cell analysis toolkit for gene expression data in R
This package provides a collection of tools for doing various analyses of single-cell RNA-seq gene expression data, with a focus on quality control.
r-scatterplot3d 0.3-41 — 3D scatter plot
This package provides an implementation of scatter plots for plotting. a three dimensional point cloud.
r-scran 1.8.4 — Methods for single-cell RNA-Seq data analysis
This package implements a variety of low-level analyses of single-cell RNA-seq data. Methods are provided for normalization of cell-specific biases, assignment of cell cycle phase, and detection of highly variable and significantly correlated genes.
r-sdmtools 1.1-221 — Species distribution modelling tools
This packages provides a set of tools for post processing the outcomes of species distribution modeling exercises. It includes novel methods for comparing models and tracking changes in distributions through time. It further includes methods for visualizing outcomes, selecting thresholds, calculating measures of accuracy and landscape fragmentation statistics, etc.
r-segmented 0.5-3.0 — Regression models with breakpoints estimation
Given a regression model, segmented updates the model by adding one or more segmented (i.e., piecewise-linear) relationships. Several variables with multiple breakpoints are allowed.
r-selectr 0.4-1 — Translate CSS selectors to XPath expressions
r-selectr translates a CSS3 selector into an equivalent XPath expression. This allows you to use CSS selectors when working with the XML package as it can only evaluate XPath expressions. Also provided are convenience functions useful for using CSS selectors on XML nodes. This package is a port of the Python package
r-sendmailr 1.2-1 — Send email using R
This package contains a simple SMTP client which provides a portable solution for sending email, including attachments, from within R.
r-seqgl 1.1.4 — Group lasso for Dnase/ChIP-seq data
SeqGL is a group lasso based algorithm to extract transcription factor sequence signals from ChIP, DNase and ATAC-seq profiles. This package presents a method which uses group lasso to discriminate between bound and non bound genomic regions to accurately identify transcription factors bound at the specific regions.
r-seqinr 3.4-5 — Biological sequences retrieval and analysis
This package provides tools for exploratory data analysis and data visualization of biological sequence (DNA and protein) data. It also includes utilities for sequence data management under the ACNUC system.
r-seqlogo 1.46.0 — Sequence logos for DNA sequence alignments
seqLogo takes the position weight matrix of a DNA sequence motif and plots the corresponding sequence logo as introduced by Schneider and Stephens (1990).
r-seqminer 6.1 — Read nucleotide sequence data (VCF, BCF, and METAL formats)
This package provides tools to integrate nucleotide sequencing data (variant call format, e.g. VCF or BCF) or meta-analysis results in R.
r-seqpattern 1.12.0 — Visualising oligonucleotide patterns and motif occurrences
This package provides tools to visualize oligonucleotide patterns and sequence motif occurrences across a large set of sequences centred at a common reference point and sorted by a user defined feature.
r-seriation 1.2-3 — Infrastructure for ordering objects using seriation
This package provides infrastructure for seriation with an implementation of several seriation/sequencing techniques to reorder matrices, dissimilarity matrices, and dendrograms. It also provides (optimally) reordered heatmaps, color images and clustering visualizations like dissimilarity plots, and visual assessment of cluster tendency plots (VAT and iVAT).
r-servr 0.10 — Simple HTTP server to serve static files or dynamic documents
Servr provides an HTTP server in R to serve static files, or dynamic documents that can be converted to HTML files (e.g., R Markdown) under a given directory.
r-seurat 2.3.4 — Seurat is an R toolkit for single cell genomics
This package is an R package designed for QC, analysis, and exploration of single cell RNA-seq data. It easily enables widely-used analytical techniques, including the identification of highly variable genes, dimensionality reduction; PCA, ICA, t-SNE, standard unsupervised clustering algorithms; density clustering, hierarchical clustering, k-means, and the discovery of differentially expressed genes and markers.
r-sfsmisc 1.1-2 — Utilities from "Seminar fuer Statistik" ETH Zurich
This package provides useful utilities from Seminar fuer Statistik ETH Zurich, including many that are related to graphics.
r-shape 1.4.4 — Functions for plotting graphical shapes
This package provides functions for plotting graphical shapes such as ellipses, circles, cylinders, arrows, ...
r-shiny 1.1.0 — Easy interactive web applications with R
Makes it incredibly easy to build interactive web applications with R. Automatic "reactive" binding between inputs and outputs and extensive prebuilt widgets make it possible to build beautiful, responsive, and powerful applications with minimal effort.
r-shinyace 0.3.1 — Ace editor bindings for Shiny
This package provides Ace editor bindings to enable a rich text editing environment within Shiny.
r-shinydashboard 0.7.0 — Create dashboards with shiny
This package provides an extension to the Shiny web application framework for R, making it easy to create attractive dashboards.
r-shortread 1.38.0 — FASTQ input and manipulation tools
This package implements sampling, iteration, and input of FASTQ files. It includes functions for filtering and trimming reads, and for generating a quality assessment report. Data are represented as
DNAStringSet-derived objects, and easily manipulated for a diversity of purposes. The package also contains legacy support for early single-end, ungapped alignment formats.
r-signal 0.7-6 — Signal processing
This package provides a set of signal processing functions originally written for Matlab and GNU Octave. It includes filter generation utilities, filtering functions, resampling routines, and visualization of filter models. It also includes interpolation functions.
r-singlecellexperiment 1.2.0 — S4 classes for single cell data
This package defines an S4 class for storing data from single-cell experiments. This includes specialized methods to store and retrieve spike-in information, dimensionality reduction coordinates and size factors for each cell, along with the usual metadata for genes and libraries.
r-sjlabelled 1.0.13 — Labelled data utility functions
This package provides a collection of functions dealing with labelled data, like reading and writing data between R and other statistical software packages. This includes easy ways to get, set or change value and variable label attributes, to convert labelled vectors into factors or numeric (and vice versa), or to deal with multiple declared missing values.
r-sjmisc 2.7.4 — Data and variable transformation functions
This package is a collection of miscellaneous utility functions, supporting data transformation tasks like recoding, dichotomizing or grouping variables, setting and replacing missing values. The data transformation functions also support labelled data, and all integrate seamlessly into a tidyverse workflow.
r-slam 0.1-43 — Sparse lightweight arrays and matrices
This package contains data structures and algorithms for sparse arrays and matrices, based on index arrays and simple triplet representations, respectively.
r-sm 2.2-5.5 — Smoothing methods for nonparametric regression and density estimation
This is software accompanying the book 'Applied Smoothing Techniques for Data Analysis---The Kernel Approach with S-Plus Illustrations', Oxford University Press. It provides smoothing methods for nonparametric regression and density estimation
r-smoother 1.1 — Functions relating to the smoothing of numerical data
This package provides a collection of methods for smoothing numerical data, commencing with a port of the Matlab gaussian window smoothing function. In addition, several functions typically used in smoothing of financial data are included.
r-sn 1.5-2 — The skew-normal and skew-t distributions
This packages provides functionalities to build and manipulate probability distributions of the skew-normal family and some related ones, notably the skew-t family, and provides related statistical methods for data fitting and diagnostics, in the univariate and the multivariate case.
r-sna 2.4 — Tools for social network analysis
This package provides a range of tools for social network analysis, including node and graph-level indices, structural distance and covariance methods, structural equivalence detection, network regression, random graph generation, and 2D/3D network visualization.
r-snakecase 0.9.2 — Convert strings into any case
This package provides a consistent, flexible and easy to use tool to parse and convert strings into cases like snake or camel among others.
r-snow 0.4-2 — Support for simple parallel computing in R
The snow package provides support for simple parallel computing on a network of workstations using R. A master R process calls
makeCluster to start a cluster of worker processes; the master process then uses functions such as
clusterApply to execute R code on the worker processes and collect and return the results on the master.
r-snowfall 1.84-6.1 — Easier cluster computing
This package is a usability wrapper around snow for easier development of parallel R programs. This package offers e.g. extended error checks, and additional functions. All functions work in sequential mode, too, if no cluster is present or wished. The package is also designed as connector to the cluster management tool
sfCluster, but can also used without it.
r-snpstats 1.30.0 — Methods for SNP association studies
This package provides classes and statistical methods for large single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) association studies. This extends the earlier snpMatrix package, allowing for uncertainty in genotypes.
r-sourcetools 0.1.7 — Tools for reading, tokenizing and parsing R code
The sourcetools package provides both an R and C++ interface for the tokenization of R code, and helpers for interacting with the tokenized representation of R code.
r-sp 1.3-1 — Classes and methods for spatial data
This package provides classes and methods for spatial data; the classes document where the spatial location information resides, for 2D or 3D data. Utility functions are provided, e.g. for plotting data as maps, spatial selection, as well as methods for retrieving coordinates, for subsetting, print, summary, etc.
r-spams 2.6-2017-03-22 — Toolbox for solving sparse estimation problems
SPAMS (SPArse Modeling Software) is an optimization toolbox for solving various sparse estimation problems. It includes tools for the following problems:
Dictionary learning and matrix factorization (NMF, sparse principle component analysis (PCA), ...)
Solving sparse decomposition problems with LARS, coordinate descent, OMP, SOMP, proximal methods
Solving structured sparse decomposition problems (l1/l2, l1/linf, sparse group lasso, tree-structured regularization, structured sparsity with overlapping groups,...).
r-sparql 1.16 — SPARQL client for R
This package provides an interface to use SPARQL to pose SELECT or UPDATE queries to an end-point.
r-sparsem 1.77 — Sparse linear algebra
This package provides some basic linear algebra functionality for sparse matrices. It includes Cholesky decomposition and backsolving as well as standard R subsetting and Kronecker products.
r-spatial 7.3-11 — Functions for kriging and point pattern analysis
This package provides functions for kriging and point pattern analysis.
r-splus2r 1.2-2 — Supplemental S-PLUS functionality in R
Currently there are many functions in S-PLUS that are missing in R. To facilitate the conversion of S-PLUS packages to R packages, this package provides some missing S-PLUS functionality in R.
r-sqldf 0.4-11 — Manipulate R data frames using SQL
sqldf function is typically passed a single argument which is an SQL select statement where the table names are ordinary R data frame names.
sqldf transparently sets up a database, imports the data frames into that database, performs the SQL statement and returns the result using a heuristic to determine which class to assign to each column of the returned data frame. The
read.csv.sql functions can also be used to read filtered files into R even if the original files are larger than R itself can handle.