ftp is awaiting commands from the user,
a prompt is displayed.
The default string is ‘ftp>’, but it can been
changed with a command line option, perhaps to enhance
uniqueness while recording a session.
Be aware that correct execution of many commands depends upon
a proper behavior of the remote server.
The following commands are recognized by
Command names can be abbreviated to the shortest unique
string with identical beginning.
! [command [args]]
Invoke an interactive shell on the local machine. If there are arguments, the first is taken to be a command to execute directly, with the rest of the arguments as its arguments.
$ macro-name [args]
Execute the macro macro-name that was defined with the macdef command. Arguments are passed to the macro unglobbed.
Supply a supplemental password required by a remote system for access to resources, once a login has been successfully completed. If no argument is included, the user will be prompted for an account password in non-echoing input mode.
append local-file [remote-file]
Append a local file to a file on the remote machine. If
remote-file is left unspecified, the local file name is used in
naming the remote file after being altered by any
nmap setting. File transfer uses the current settings for
type, format, mode, and structure.
Set the file transfer type to network ASCII. This is the default type, except when two unices are communicating.
Arrange that a bell be sounded after each file transfer command is completed.
Set the file transfer type to support binary image transfer. This transfer type is selected during initial handshake, should the client on a Unix system recognize that the server is also running on a Unix system.
Terminate the FTP session with the remote server and exit
ftp. An end of file will also terminate the session and
Toggle the remote computer’s use of letter case mapping during
case is ‘on’,
a file name at the remote site whose every letter appear
in upper case, will be renamed in such a way that all letters
are changed to lower case for a local copy of the same file.
The default setting is ‘off’,
Change the working directory on the remote machine to remote-directory.
Change the remote machine’s working directory to the parent of the current working directory.
chmod mode file-name
Change the access permission of the file file-name on the remote system to mode.
Terminate the FTP session with the present remote server, and return to the command interpreter. Any defined macros are erased.
Toggle carriage return stripping during ASCII type file retrieval.
Records are denoted by a carriage return/linefeed sequence during
ASCII type file transfer. When
cr is ‘on’ (the default),
carriage returns are stripped from this sequence to conform with the
UNIX single linefeed record delimiter. Records on non-UNIX remote
systems may contain single linefeeds; when an ASCII type transfer is
made, these linefeeds may be distinguished from a record delimiter
cr is ‘off’.
Delete the file remote-file on the remote machine.
Toggle debugging mode. If an optional debug-value is specified
it is used to set the debugging level. When debugging is on,
ftp prints each command sent to the remote machine, preceded
by the string ‘-->’.
dir [remote-directory] [local-file]
Print a listing of the contents in the directory
remote-directory, and, optionally, place the output in
local-file. If interactive prompting is set,
prompt the user to verify that the last argument is the intended
local file to receive output. If no directory is specified,
the current working directory on the remote machine is used. If no
local file is specified, or if local-file is a dash ‘-’,
then output is displayed on the terminal.
Toggle the use of EPSV/EPRT for IPv4 addressing. Default is off.
Set the file transfer form to format. The only supported format is ‘non-print’.
get remote-file [local-file]
recv remote-file [local-file]
Retrieve the remote-file and store it on the local machine.
If a local file name is not specified, the local copy is given the
same name as is stated for the remote original, subject to alteration
by the current
The current settings for
structure are effective during file transfer.
Toggle file name expansion for
mput. If globbing is turned off with
glob, the file
name arguments are taken literally and are not expanded. Globbing for
mput is done as in
mget, each remote file name is expanded separately on the
remote machine and the lists are not merged. Expansion of a directory
name is likely to be different from expansion of the name of an
ordinary file: the exact result depends on the remote operating
system and on the FTP server, and can be previewed by
issuing ‘mls remote-files -’.
mput are not meant to transfer entire
directory subtrees of files. That can be achieved by transferring
an already created
cpio archive of the
subtree, then making certain that
ftp uses binary mode.
In the absence of an argument, toggle the state of hash-sign (‘#’) printing after each transferred data block. The optional argument selects the size of data blocks, and unconditionally activates printing. The default size is 1024 bytes. For convenience, the size can be written with postfix multipliers ’k’, ’K’, ’m’, ’M’, and ’g’, ’G’, to specify kilobytes, Megabytes, and Gigabytes, respectively.
Print an informative message about the meaning of command. If no
argument is given,
ftp prints a list of the known commands.
Set the inactivity timer on the remote server to seconds seconds. If seconds is omitted, the current inactivity timer is printed.
Select IPv4 as the only addressing scheme.
Select IPv6 as the only addressing scheme.
Allow IPv4 as well as IPv6 addressing.
Change the working directory on the local machine. If no directory is specified, the user’s home directory is used.
Print the name of the current working directory on the local machine.
ls [remote-directory] [local-file]
Print a listing of the contents of a directory on the remote machine.
The listing includes any system-dependent information that the server
chooses to include; for example, most UNIX systems will produce output
like the command
ls -l does.
nlist for a simple file listing.
If remote-directory is left unspecified, the current working
directory is used. With interactive prompting set,
ftp will prompt the user to verify that the
last argument is indeed the intended local file for storing output.
Should no local file be specified, or if local-file is a
dash ‘-’, then output is sent to the terminal.
Define a macro called macro-name, with subsequent lines as the macro definition. A null line (consecutive newline characters in a file, or carriage returns at a terminal) terminates macro input mode. There is a limit of 16 macros and a total of 4096 characters shared by all defined macros. Only the first eight characters in macro-name are significant when determining which macro to execute. Macros remain defined until a close command is executed.
The macro processor interprets ‘$’ and ‘\’ as special characters. A ‘$’ followed by a number (one or more digits) is replaced by the corresponding argument on the macro’s invocation command line. A ‘$’ followed by the letter ‘i’ tells the macro processor that the macro is to perform a loop. On the first pass, ‘$i’ is replaced by the first argument on the macro’s invocation command line, while on the second pass it is replaced by the second argument, and so forth. Iteration proceeds until all arguments have been consumed.
A backslash ‘\’ followed by any character is replaced by that character. Use the backslash ‘\’ to prevent special treatment of the dollar sign ‘$’, as was just explained.
Delete all remote-files on the remote machine.
mdir remote-files local-file
dir, except multiple remote files may be specified. If
interactive prompting is on,
ftp will prompt the user to
verify that the last argument is indeed the intended local file for
storing any output from
Expand the remote-files on the remote machine and execute
get for each file name thus produced.
Resulting file names will then be processed according to
Files are transferred to the local working directory,
which can be changed with
lcd directory; new local directories
can be created with
! mkdir directory.
Make a directory on the remote machine.
mls remote-files local-file
nlist, except multiple remote files may be specified, and
the local-file must be specified. If interactive prompting is
ftp will prompt the user to verify that the last
argument is the intended local file for storing output.
A dash ‘-’ is accepted as last argument without check!
Set the file transfer mode to mode-name. The default mode is ‘stream’, and it is also the only implemented mode.
Show the last modification time of the file on the remote machine.
Consider the arguments to be local names and expand any wild card.
put for each file in the resulting list.
The remote file names are then computed by use of
Get the file only if the modification time of the remote file is more
recent than the file on the current system. If the file does not
exist on the current system, the remote file is considered newer.
In other respects, this command is identical to
nlist [remote-directory] [local-file]
Print a list of the files in a directory on the remote machine. If
remote-directory is left unspecified, the current working
directory is used. If interactive prompting is on,
prompt the user to verify that the last argument is the intended
local file for storing output. If no local file is specified,
or if local-file is ‘-’, the output is sent to the
nmap [inpattern outpattern]
Set or unset the file name mapping mechanism. If no arguments are
specified, the file name mapping mechanism is unset.
Name mapping is applied during
put commands issued without a specified remote target filename.
It as also applied to local file names during
get commands issued without
local target file name. This command is useful when
connecting to a non-UNIX remote computer with different file naming
conventions or practices.
The mapping follows the pattern set by inpattern and
outpattern. The template inpattern is used on incoming
filenames (which may have already been processed according to the
Variable templating is accomplished
by including the sequences ‘$1’, ‘$2’, …, ‘$9’ in
inpattern. Use ‘\’ to prevent this special treatment of
the character ‘$’. All other characters are treated literally,
and must be matched in a file name for inpattern
to bind substrings to variables.
For example, take a pattern ‘$1.$2’ and a file name mydata.data. Then ‘$1’ would have the value ‘mydata’, and ‘$2’ would be ‘data’.
outpattern determines the final file name. The sequences ‘$1’ to ‘$9’ are replaced by any values bound to them by inpattern. A special sequence ‘$0’ always contains the original filename. In addition, a bracketted sequence ‘[seq1,seq2]’ expands to seq1 if seq1 contains a non-empty string, and expands to seq2 otherwise. For example, the command
nmap $1.$2.$3 [$1,$2].[$2,file]
would yield the output file name myfile.data for input names myfile.data and myfile.data.old, but produces myfile.file from the input myfile, and myfile.myfile from .myfile.
Spaces may be included in outpattern, but are easily removed:
nmap $1 |sed "s/ *$//" > $1
Use a backslash ‘\’ to escape the characters ‘$’, ‘[’, ‘]’, and ‘,’.
ntrans [inchars [outchars]]
Set or unset the filename character translation mechanism. If no
arguments are specified, the filename character translation mechanism
is unset. If arguments are specified, characters in remote filenames
are translated during
mput commands and
issued without a specified remote target filename. If arguments are
specified, characters in local filenames are translated during
mget commands and
get commands issued without a
specified local target filename. This command is useful when
connecting to a non-UNIX remote computer with different file naming
conventions or practices.
Characters in a filename matching a character in inchars are replaced with the corresponding character in outchars. If the character’s position in inchars is longer than the length of outchars, the character is deleted from the file name.
open host [port]
Establish a connection to the specified FTP server
at host. An optional port number may be supplied,
in which case,
ftp will attempt to contact the server
at that specific TCP port. If the
is on (is so by default),
ftp will also attempt to
automatically log the user in to the FTP server.
Toggle passive mode. If passive mode is turned on (default is off),
ftp client will send a
PASV command for all data
connections instead of the usual
PORT command. The
command requests that the remote server open a port for the data
connection and return the address of that port. The remote server
listens on that port and the client connects to it. When using the
PORT command, the client listens on a port and
sends that address to the remote server, who connects back to it.
Passive mode is useful when using
ftp through a gateway
router or host that controls the directionality of traffic. (Note
ftp servers are required to support the
PASV command by RFC 1123, some do not.) If
has been set to on, the client will attempt
PASV for IPv4. As a last resort
LPSV is attempted.
With IPv6 only
LPSV are possible.
Toggle interactive prompting. Interactive prompting occurs during
multiple file transfers to allow the user to selectively retrieve or
store files. If prompting is turned off (default is on), any
mput will transfer all files, and any
mdelete will delete all files.
ftp command on a secondary control connection.
This command allows simultaneous connection to two remote FTP servers
for transferring files between the two servers. The first proxy
command should be
open, to establish the secondary control
connection. Enter the command
proxy ? to see other
commands usable for the secondary connection. The following
commands behave differently when prefaced by
will not define new macros during the auto-login process,
will not erase existing macro definitions,
transfer files from the host on the primary control connection to the
host on the secondary control connection, and
append transfer files from the host on the secondary
control connection to the host on the primary control connection.
Note that the protocol command
PASV must be understood
by the server on the secondary control connection for this kind
of file transfer to succeed.
put local-file [remote-file]
send local-file [remote-file]
Store a local file on the remote machine. If remote-file is
left unspecified, the local file name is used after processing
according to any
nmap settings in naming the
remote file. File transfer uses the current settings for type,
format, mode, and structure.
Print the name of the current working directory on the remote machine.
The arguments specified are sent, verbatim, to the remote FTP server.
reget remote-file [local-file]
reget acts like
get, except that if local-file
exists and is smaller than remote-file, then local-file is
presumed to be a partially transferred copy of remote-file and
the transfer is continued from the apparent point of failure. This
command is useful when transferring very large files over networks
that are prone to dropping connections.
Request help from the remote FTP server. If command-name is specified it is passed to the server as well.
With no arguments, show status of remote machine. If filename is specified, show status of file-name on remote machine.
rename [from] [to]
Rename the file from on the remote machine as to. Name mapping takes effect without to.
Clear reply queue. This command re-synchronizes command/reply sequencing with the remote FTP server. Resynchronization may be necessary following a violation of the FTP protocol by the remote server.
Restart the immediately following
put at the
indicated marker. On UNIX systems,
marker is usually
a byte offset into the file.
Delete a directory on the remote machine.
Toggle the storing of files on the local system with unique filenames.
If a file already exists with a name equal to the inteded local file
name for a
then a string ‘.1’ is appended to the name.
If the resulting name matches another existing file,
‘.2’ is appended to the original name. If this process continues
up to ‘.99’, an error message is printed, and the transfer does
not take place. The generated unique filename will be reported. Note
runique will not affect local files generated from a shell
command. The default value is off.
Toggle the use of
PORT commands. By default,
will attempt to use a
PORT command when establishing a
connection for each data transfer. The use of
can prevent delays when performing multiple file transfers. If the
PORT command fails,
ftp will use the default data
port. When the use of
PORT commands is disabled, no attempt
will be made to use
PORT commands for each data transfer. This
is useful for certain FTP implementations which do ignore
commands but, incorrectly, indicate they’ve been accepted.
The arguments specified are sent, verbatim, to the remote FTP server
Return size of file-name on remote machine.
Show the current status of
Set the file transfer structure to struct-name. By default ‘file’ structure is used, which also is the only supported value.
Toggle storing of files on remote machine under unique file names.
Remote FTP server must support FTP protocol
STOU command for
successful completion. The remote server will report unique name.
Default value is off.
Show the type of operating system running on the remote machine.
Set the file transfer type to that needed to talk to TENEX machines.
Toggle packet tracing (feature is not implemented).
Set the file transfer type to type-name. If no type is specified, the current type is printed. The recognized type names are ‘ascii’, ‘binary’, ‘ebcdic’, ‘image’, and ‘tenex’. The default type is network ASCII.
Set the default umask on the remote server to newmask. If newmask is omitted, the current umask is printed.
user user-name [password] [account]
Identify yourself to the remote FTP server. If the password is not
specified and the server requires it,
ftp will prompt the
user for it (after disabling local echo). If an account field is not
specified, and the FTP server requires it, the user will be prompted
for it. If an account field is specified, an account command will be
relayed to the remote server after the login sequence is completed if
the remote server did not require it for logging in. Unless
ftp is invoked with
auto-login disabled, this process
is done automatically on initial connection to the FTP server.
Toggle verbose mode. In verbose mode, all responses from the FTP server are displayed to the user. In addition, if verbose is on, when a file transfer completes, statistics regarding the efficiency of the transfer are reported. By default, verbose is on.
Command arguments which have embedded spaces may be inclosed within citation characters ‘"’.