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5 Invoking idn2

idn2 translates internationalized domain names to the IDNA2008 encoded format, either for lookup or registration.

If strings are specified on the command line, they are used as input and the computed output is printed to standard output stdout. If no strings are specified on the command line, the program read data, line by line, from the standard input stdin, and print the computed output to standard output. What processing is performed (e.g., lookup or register) is indicated by options. If any errors are encountered, the execution of the applications is aborted.

All strings are expected to be encoded in the preferred charset used by your locale. Use --debug to find out what this charset is. On POSIX systems you may use the LANG environment variable to specify a different locale.

To process a string that starts with -, for example -foo, use -- to signal the end of parameters, as in idn2 -r -- -foo.

5.1 Options

idn2 recognizes these commands:

  -h, --help                Print help and exit
  -V, --version             Print version and exit
  -d, --decode              Decode (punycode) domain name
  -l, --lookup              Lookup domain name (default)
  -r, --register            Register label
  -T, --tr46t               Enable TR46 transitional processing
  -N, --tr46nt              Enable TR46 non-transitional processing
      --no-tr46             Disable TR46 processing
      --usestd3asciirules   Enable STD3 ASCII rules
      --no-alabelroundtrip  Disable A-label roundtrip for lookups
      --debug               Print debugging information
      --quiet               Silent operation

5.2 Environment Variables

On POSIX systems the LANG environment variable can be used to override the system locale for the command being invoked. The system locale may influence what character set is used to decode data (i.e., strings on the command line or data read from the standard input stream), and to encode data to the standard output. If your system is set up correctly, however, the application will use the correct locale and character set automatically. Example usage:

$ LANG=en_US.UTF-8 idn2
...

5.3 Examples

Standard usage, reading input from standard input and disabling license and usage instructions:

jas@latte:~$ idn2 --quiet
räksmörgås.se
xn--rksmrgs-5wao1o.se
...

Reading input from the command line:

jas@latte:~$ idn2 räksmörgås.se blåbærgrød.no
xn--rksmrgs-5wao1o.se
xn--blbrgrd-fxak7p.no
jas@latte:~$

Testing the IDNA2008 Register function:

jas@latte:~$ idn2 --register fußball
xn--fuball-cta
jas@latte:~$

5.4 Troubleshooting

Getting character data encoded right, and making sure Libidn2 use the same encoding, can be difficult. The reason for this is that most systems may encode character data in more than one character encoding, i.e., using UTF-8 together with ISO-8859-1 or ISO-2022-JP. This problem is likely to continue to exist until only one character encoding come out as the evolutionary winner, or (more likely, at least to some extents) forever.

The first step to troubleshooting character encoding problems with Libidn2 is to use the ‘--debug’ parameter to find out which character set encoding ‘idn2’ believe your locale uses.

jas@latte:~$ idn2 --debug --quiet ""
Charset: UTF-8

jas@latte:~$

If it prints ANSI_X3.4-1968 (i.e., US-ASCII), this indicate you have not configured your locale properly. To configure the locale, you can, for example, use ‘LANG=sv_SE.UTF-8; export LANG’ at a /bin/sh prompt, to set up your locale for a Swedish environment using UTF-8 as the encoding.

Sometimes ‘idn2’ appear to be unable to translate from your system locale into UTF-8 (which is used internally), and you will get an error message like this:

idn2: lookup: could not convert string to UTF-8

One explanation is that you didn’t install the ‘iconv’ conversion tools. You can find it as a standalone library in GNU Libiconv (https://www.gnu.org/software/libiconv/). On many GNU/Linux systems, this library is part of the system, but you may have to install additional packages to be able to use it.

Another explanation is that the error is correct and you are feeding ‘idn2’ invalid data. This can happen inadvertently if you are not careful with the character set encoding you use. For example, if your shell run in a ISO-8859-1 environment, and you invoke ‘idn2’ with the ‘LANG’ environment variable as follows, you will feed it ISO-8859-1 characters but force it to believe they are UTF-8. Naturally this will lead to an error, unless the byte sequences happen to be valid UTF-8. Note that even if you don’t get an error, the output may be incorrect in this situation, because ISO-8859-1 and UTF-8 does not in general encode the same characters as the same byte sequences.

jas@latte:~$ idn2 --quiet --debug ""
Charset: ISO-8859-1

jas@latte:~$ LANG=sv_SE.UTF-8 idn2 --debug räksmörgås
Charset: UTF-8
input[0] = 0x72
input[1] = 0xc3
input[2] = 0xa4
input[3] = 0xc3
input[4] = 0xa4
input[5] = 0x6b
input[6] = 0x73
input[7] = 0x6d
input[8] = 0xc3
input[9] = 0xb6
input[10] = 0x72
input[11] = 0x67
input[12] = 0xc3
input[13] = 0xa5
input[14] = 0x73
UCS-4 input[0] = U+0072
UCS-4 input[1] = U+00e4
UCS-4 input[2] = U+00e4
UCS-4 input[3] = U+006b
UCS-4 input[4] = U+0073
UCS-4 input[5] = U+006d
UCS-4 input[6] = U+00f6
UCS-4 input[7] = U+0072
UCS-4 input[8] = U+0067
UCS-4 input[9] = U+00e5
UCS-4 input[10] = U+0073
output[0] = 0x72
output[1] = 0xc3
output[2] = 0xa4
output[3] = 0xc3
output[4] = 0xa4
output[5] = 0x6b
output[6] = 0x73
output[7] = 0x6d
output[8] = 0xc3
output[9] = 0xb6
output[10] = 0x72
output[11] = 0x67
output[12] = 0xc3
output[13] = 0xa5
output[14] = 0x73
UCS-4 output[0] = U+0072
UCS-4 output[1] = U+00e4
UCS-4 output[2] = U+00e4
UCS-4 output[3] = U+006b
UCS-4 output[4] = U+0073
UCS-4 output[5] = U+006d
UCS-4 output[6] = U+00f6
UCS-4 output[7] = U+0072
UCS-4 output[8] = U+0067
UCS-4 output[9] = U+00e5
UCS-4 output[10] = U+0073
xn--rksmrgs-5waap8p
jas@latte:~$

The sense moral here is to forget about ‘LANG’ (instead, configure your system locale properly) unless you know what you are doing, and if you want to use ‘LANG’, do it carefully and after verifying with ‘--debug’ that you get the desired results.


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