\. \\!%PB \\!/showpage{}def \\!/tempdict 200 dict def tempdict begin \\!end % tempdict % \\!PE \\!. ' br \} ' br \} ' br \} ' br \}

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1 SWBIS" "7

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1.1 NAME

swbis Distributed Software Administration

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     swbis \<sw_utility\> [options] [software_selections] [@targets]
     \<sw_utility\> [options] [software_selections] [@targets]

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swbis is a network transparent software administration system for GNU/Linux systems and systems that are UNIX system-like. It implements the Open Group's CAE Spec C701 (XDSA) Distributed Software Administration. This spec closely follows ISO/IEC 15068-2:1999 (now withdrawn) which was identical to IEEE 1387.2:1995. The implementation relies on POSIX functionality as provided by a typical GNU system. It has security enhancement extensions that use GNU Privacy Guard. Although swpackage is a self-contained tar writing utility and swinstall will use generic tar for file loading, several features are based on bit-for-bit sameness with the GNU tar POSIX tar interchange format, hence, GNU tar is a special tool requirement for swbis (although for most uses of the system tar utility, only generic options are specified).

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The selection@target syntax supports multiple selections and targets. The same selection spec applies to all the targets. A single 'Commercial at' '@' separates the two lists. Software selections apply within a single distribution tarball or within a single directory representing installed software. Software selections don't specify a source file. The source file is specified by a separate option for utilites that use the target as a destination, and by the target if the source is the destination.

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1.4.1 Software Selections

Software Selections specify, by a software_spec, objects which to operate. A software_spec consists of a period '.' delimited list of tags followed by a comma and a comma delimited list of version identifiers for revision, qualifier, vendor_tag, architecture, location, denoted by the letters r,q,v,a,l.

The important tags of familiar repute are product.tag and product.revision along with an optional product.vendor_tag. These correspond to RPMTAG_NAME, RPMTAG_VERSION, and RPMTAG_RELEASE attributes. These are specified in a software_selection by example thusly:

        # Note: Quotes are needed to prevent command-line interpretation
        "*"                        # all packages
        r==3.1                     # Any package with revision 3.1
        somepackage                # all packages named 'somepackage'
        somepackage,r">"2          # and revision greater than 2
        somepackage,r">"2,r"<"3    # and revision greater than 2 and less than 3
        somepackage,r">"2,v=hal    # and by vendor 'hal'

Logical alternation or 'OR' is supported by using a second software_spec on the command line. software_specs are separated by whitespace.

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1.4.2 Targets

Targets are hosts or files on a host. The syntax follows the familiar

host:file convention but differs in that an unadorned name is a host not a file. To impose interpretation as a file prefix with a colon ':' or use an absolute path (i.e. prefix with '/').

     Source and Target Specification and Logic
                    /path  # Absolute path
               Swbis Extension:
               Swbis Multi-hop Target Extension:
                    # ':' is the target delimiter
     	       # '_' delimits a port number in the host field
                    # Using ':', a trailing colon is used to
                    # disambiguate between a host and file.
     	       # For Example,
          A more formal description:
                 | HOST_CHARACTER_STRING ':'
                 | HOST_CHARACTER_STRING
                 | ':' PATHNAME_CHARACTER_STRING   # Impl extension
            PATHNAME_CHARACTER_STRING must be an absolute path unless
                            a HOST_CHARACTER_STRING is given.  Allowing
                            a relative path is a feature of the swbis
                     NOTE: A '.' as a target is an implementation
                           extension and means extract in current
                     NOTE: A '-' indicating stdout/stdin is an
                           implementation extension.
                     NOTE: A ':' in the first character indicates a filename.
                           This is an implementation extension.
            HOST_CHARACTER_STRING is an IP or hostname.
            Copy the  distribution /var/tmp/foo.tar.gz at
                   swcopy -s /var/tmp/foo.tar.gz @
     Implementation Extension Syntax (multi ssh-hop) :
         %start   wtarget    # the Implementation Extension Target
                             # Note: a trailing ':' forces interpretation
                             # as a host, not a file.
         wtarget   : wtarget DELIM sshtarget
                   | sshtarget
                   | sshtarget DELIM
         sshtarget : user '@' target # Note: only the last target
                   | target          # may have a PATHNAME, and only a host
                   ;                 * may have a user
         target   : HOST_CHARACTER_STRING
         user     : PORTABLE_CHARACTER_STRING  # The user name
         DELIM    : ':'   # The multi-hop delimiter.

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Unpack a tarball on host1 and host2:

        swcopy -s :somepackage-1.0.tar.gz –extract @ host1 host2

List installed entries matching the software selections:

        swlist somepackage,"r>2" @ host1:/ host2:/
        swlist "kde*" @

List the architectures of the specified hosts:

        swlist -x verbose=3 -a architecture @ localhost host1 host2

Install a package from stdin to a location, l=/unionfs/foo-1.0, and a "exp" qualification:

         swinstall q=exp,l=/unionfs/foo-1.0 @

Remove a package named somepackage

         swremove somepackage @

Make a tarball according to the recipe file myPSF:

         swpackage -s myPSF @- | tar tvf -

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1.6.1 POSIX Commands

Utilities specified by C701 and ISO/IEC 15068-2:1999 include the following:


Create a tarball according to a recipe file.


Copy a distribution from host to host.


Verify a software distribution signature.


Install a software distribution.


List software information.


Remove packages


1.6.2 Swbis Specific Commands

Utilities unique to swbis.


Create the signed meta-data directory, catalog/, of the contents of the current directory and optionally write the entire directory, including the signed catalog as a tar archive.


Archive writing (creation) utility, useful for testing.


Stand-alone parser of POSIX Metadata files, useful for testing.


Archive decoder/checker, Used by swverify.


Archive translator, used by swpackage to translate RPM packages.

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1.7.1 Configuration Files

All of the utilities share the same configuration files: swdefaults and swbisdefaults. The files are sourced on the local management host and ignored (if present) on the remote target host. Below are commands that give information about them. All the utilities support these options and the defaults are separate for each utility, swcopy is shown as an example.

      swcopy –show-options-files  # Show locations of existing files to stdout
      swcopy –show-options     # Show options with a shell assignment syntax
      swcopy –no-defaults –show-options  # Show builtin defaults

The syntax is:

      # Comment
      # Here optionName applies to all utilities
      # the whitespace around the '=' is optional
      optionName = value # Comment
      # In addition a option can be applied to a specific utility
      # overriding the general one and the built-in default
      swutilityName.optionName = value

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1.7.2 Strategy for Compatibility with Existing Hosts

The most important utiltities on which swbis relies is a POSIX shell, the system /bin/sh, and the system tar utility, usually /bin/tar. The POSIX shell need not be /bin/sh.

The POSIX shell must have specific compliance to POSIX described the POSIX sh(1) manual page (IEEE Std 1003.1, 2004 Edition, Section STDIN) regarding its use of stdin when it invokes a command that also uses stdin. GNU Bash, public-domain ksh (pdksh), OpenSolaris /usr/xpg4/bin/sh, ATT ksh (latest version such as 93t+ 2010-03-05) have this feature. Other shells including ash, dash, and /bin/sh on BSD, UNIX(tm), BusyBox systems do not.

Therefore, the most reliable and least intrusive strategy is use the auto-detection option. If a host does not contain bash or a suitable ksh or sh the distributed utility will fail.

     swbis_no_getconf               = true # true or false, false=use getconf
     swbis_shell_command            = detect # {detect|sh|bash|posix|ksh}

Alternatively, simply make /bin/bash a requirement on all hosts and set

     swbis_no_getconf               = true # true or false, false=use getconf
     swbis_shell_command            = bash # {detect|sh|bash|posix|ksh}

NOTE: The shell requirement does not apply to the user's account shell (specified in /etc/passwd), although there are reasons this shell should be a Bourne compatible shell. See Acount Login Shell below

Regarding tar, it is used for file loading (installation) and also during verfication of installed software (as a means to copy and inspect the installed files state). For installation, any tar will work as no non-traditional options are specified.

The configuration options, in swbisdefaults allow some flexibilty here

     swbis_local_pax_write_command  = tar  # {pax|tar|star|gtar}
     swbis_remote_pax_write_command = tar  # {pax|tar|star|gtar}
     swbis_local_pax_read_command   = tar  # {pax|tar|star|gtar}
     swbis_remote_pax_read_command  = tar  # {pax|tar|star|gtar}
     swverify.swbis_local_pax_write_command   = detect # {pax|tar|star|gtar}
     swverify.swbis_remote_pax_write_command  = detect # {pax|tar|star|gtar}
     swlist.swbis_local_pax_write_command   =   detect  # {pax|tar|star|gtar}
     swlist.swbis_remote_pax_write_command  =   detect  # {pax|tar|star|gtar}

This allows keeping and using the system '/bin/tar', and only using GNU tar or pax for verification and listing.

Other important options are:

     swcopy.swbis_allow_rpm       = true  # Enable automatic translation
     swinstall.swbis_allow_rpm    = true  # Enable automatic translation
     swcopy.swbis_no_audit        = true  # Copy as arbitrary data, true or false
     swbis_remote_shell_client    = ssh   # {ssh|rsh}
     swbis_forward_agent          = true  # Set ssh -A for multi-hop (>1) jumps

Here is a incomplete explanation of each option

Extended Option: swbis_local_pax_read_command Extended Option: swbis_remote_pax_read_command

If installing on a system, any tar will work. GNU tar is required when using swign to create a signed archive or directory. If pax is selected as the archive read command (for installing), errors will be returned if the installation is not by a root user (or if not root, if the package contained files with different ownerships than the current user).

     swbis_local_pax_read_command = tar #{pax|tar|gtar}
     swbis_remote_pax_read_command= tar #{pax|tar|gtar}

Extended Option: swbis_local_pax_write_command Extended Option: swbis_remote_pax_write_command

swcopy and swinstall may use the system tar (which may not be GNU tar or pax). swpackage is self-contained and does not use any file system tar-like utility. swign does not read the options files and assumes and requires that tar is GNU tar. swlist and swverify requires either GNU tar or pax and can be set to detect a suitable tar or pax.

     swlist.swbis_local_pax_write_command=detect #{pax|tar|gtar|detect}
     swlist.swbis_remote_pax_write_command=detect #{pax|tar|gtar|detect}
     swverify.swbis_local_pax_write_command=detect #{pax|tar|gtar|detect}
     swverify.swbis_remote_pax_write_command=detect #{pax|tar|gtar|detect}
     swbis_local_pax_write_command = tar #{pax|tar|gtar}
     swbis_remote_pax_write_command= tar #{pax|tar|gtar}

Extended Option: swbis_shell_command

This may be one of detect, bash, ksh, sh, or posix. detect is the best choice. ksh must be public domain ksh or ATT ksh93 (version 2009-05-05 or newer). Older versions of ksh93 do not have the required POSIX feature.

Account Login Shell

The login shell may be any shell, however, if a host will ever be a intermediate host in a multi-hop target, then it should be a Bourne compatible or POSIX conforming shell. This requirement is due to the escapement and processing of shell special characters which are performed by the login shell of the intermediate host account.

Extended Option: swbis_forward_agent

The default value is True. This sets the -A in the ssh client for multi-hop targets. There are security considerations when forwarding the authentication agent.

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The swbis distributed utilties have no special requirements and will operate on any full-size OpenSolaris, BSD or GNU/Linux host. You may immediately and remotely distribute and manage packages on these hosts with nothing more than a login account and a ssh connection. Below are the technical details. The configuration file options to allow this are the built-in defaults, certain values in historic versions of the defaults file, swbisdefaults, may break this functionality.

The swbis distributed utilities require bash, public domain ksh, or Sun's /usr/xpg4/bin/sh to be present on the target host. If the swbis_shell_command extended option is set to 'detect' you don't have to know which one is present, otherwise you may specify one explicitly.

     swbis_shell_command=detect #{posix|sh|bash|ksh|detect}

Tar or pax is used for file loading (installation) and internally for data transfer. You may specify which one.

swlist and swverify require either GNU tar or pax be present on a host. You may set auto detection for this requirement. As of release 1.12 (c.August 2014), all invocations of the system tar utility for archive creation use the '–format=pax' option of GNU tar. A test is made for GNU tar and generic options are used if no suitable version of GNU tar is present allowing generic tar to work.

     swlist.swbis_local_pax_write_command=detect #{pax|tar|gtar|detect}
     swlist.swbis_remote_pax_write_command=detect #{pax|tar|gtar|detect}
     swverify.swbis_local_pax_write_command=detect #{pax|tar|gtar|detect}
     swverify.swbis_remote_pax_write_command=detect #{pax|tar|gtar|detect}
     swinstall.swbis_local_pax_write_command = tar #{pax|tar|gtar}
     swinstall.swbis_remote_pax_write_command= tar #{pax|tar|gtar}
     swinstall.swbis_local_pax_read_command  = tar #{pax|tar|gtar}
     swinstall.swbis_remote_pax_read_command = tar #{pax|tar|gtar}

A POSIX awk is required, and with the ability to specify several thousand bytes of program text as a command argument. GNU awk works, as does the ATT Awk book awk, and the awk on BSD systems. See the INSTALL file for further details regarding a small issue with the OpenSolaris (c.2006) awk.

GNU Privacy Guard, gpg is required for verification and signing. Use of the passphrase agent gpg-agent is supported so as to avoid telling swpackage your passphrase. When swverify uses gpg, a FIFO is constructed and deleted. /dev/null and /dev/zero are required. Verification takes place on the management host. It would not be used on the (remote) target host.

For verifying package tarballs, only swverify and gpg is required. For verifying the unpacked tarball (i.e. as a signed directory) GNU tar, awk, sha1sum, md5sum (or openssl) and various other utilities are required.

When a host is participating in remote connections via ssh/rsh, either as the terminal target host or intermediate host, the login shell for the user must be a Bourne compatible shell, for example /bin/sh. Most traditional Bourne shell's are acceptable as /bin/sh, one notable exception is /bin/ash when operating on the terminal host (due to its read block size). However, /bin/dash, BSD /bin/sh, and Sun's /bin/sh are all acceptable. Note that /bin/sh need not be the system POSIX shell.

As stated above, a POSIX shell is required and the only suitable implementations (as of Sep 2010) are /bin/bash, /bin/ksh (Public Domain or ksh93 v.2009-05-05 or newer), Sun's /usr/xpg4/bin/sh, and MirBSD Korn Shell (/bin/mksh) all assumed to be in these locations.

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1.9.1 Background

The spec describes a format for storing package meta-data in a software distribution and a set of utilities. The meta-data is stored in-band for format level compatibility. The meta-data is separated by placement in a specially named directory, catalog/. The spec goes further and describes how multiple products, for example a distribution archive containing products for multiple architectures, can be placed in a separate control directories within the distribution archive. This is supported along with an extension to allow these directories to be nil collapsing the layout into the familiar form of a free software tarball or run-time distribution directly installable by tar. When the collapsed form is used, the in-band catalog/ directory is next to (in the same directory as) the payload files hence "catalog" becomes a reserved word for package files.

While the swbis system has features comparable with package managers, it has features that are of general purpose usefulness to system administrators and developers. These include host-to-host copying of file system directories, advanced tarball creation methods, backward compatibility with uses of plain tarballs, and the capability to act as a directory content integrity checker, and the ability to translate and install RPM format packages.

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1.9.2 Distributed Software Administration

The XDSA spec describes a syntax for distributed operations, but does not specify any implementation approach to the problem of remote command invocation. The approach taken by swbis is to require nothing that is not already present on all POSIX systems. To that end, swbis uses rsh (or ssh) for remote connections and uses bash (A POSIX shell) for command processing specifically using the 'bash -s' invocation for all operations. Using bash in this manner casts all swbis utilties as programs that dynamically write and deliver shell program code to the remote 'bash -s' through its standard input, which can be a secure ssh channel. This eliminates the requirement that swbis be installed on the remote target host.

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1.9.3 A Directory Content Checker

The swign program creates the catalog/ directory which is, in effect, a GPG signed manifest of the directory. GNU tar is then used to recreate the signed and digest byte streams from the directory contents which are never removed nor altered (except for the creation of catalog/). It is able to do so because swpackage, which generated the original byte streams, matches GNU tar's output bit-for-bit. For example:

        swign  -D /usr/local/bin/checkdigest.sh  -o "" -g ""  -u  "Test User" @.
        swverify –order-catalog -d @.
               # If your file system is Ext2, then –order-catalog
               # is not required.

The checkdigest.sh is a distributor specific shell script that is run by swverify if it is present and part of the signed stream. checkdigest.sh then checks the archive MD5 and SHA1. If this fails, it checks the individual files' MD5 and SHA1 digests. [In current versions of checkdigest, the ownerships and permissions are not checked individually, as swign was originally intended as a source directory/archive signer tool.]

Use as a SCM (e.g. CVS, svn. etc) security tool easily follows by making catalog/ a tracked directory in the SCM. The catalog directory is updated using the swign command.

          export SWPACKAGEPASSFD
          export GNUPGNAME
          GNUPGNAME="Your Name"
          swign –name-version=somepackage-1.1 -s PSF.in –no-remove @.

See the swign manual page for an example PSF.in file.

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1.9.4 Package Security

As implementation extensions, swbis supports creation and verification of tar archives with embedded digital signatures, and cryptographic digests of the archive (payload) and individual files. The design supports multiple signatures (each signing an identical byte stream) and offers full package life-cycle relevance, that is, the signature and the signed bytes are transferred into the installed catalog.

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1.9.5 Extensibility

The distribution form is extensible at the format and layout levels. Additional distributor specific attributes (i.e. keywords) are allowed in the meta-data files, and distributor specific control files are allowed in the meta-data directory file layout. The security files are implemented as control files. This allows adding new stronger cryptograpic digests in the file layout while preserving back compatibility. The format, POSIX tar, is extensible by adoption of the Extended Header Format specified in later POSIX revisions.

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1.9.6 Support for Unprivileged Users

Support for unprivileged users is treated as a requirement. swpackage does not use a central repository and makes no copies of the source files. The utilities support alternate target paths and all activity is confined within the target path. swinstall supports the location attribute which locates the installed files in target path but uses the installed software catalog at the un-located target path. Access to the installed software catalog can be controlled via the catalog directory sticky bit per local administrative policy.

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Swbis is a copyrighted work. Non-copyright holders may use and make copies under the terms of the GNU GPL

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Swbis is a concatenation of the command name prefix 'sw' with the Italian suffix 'bis' meaning again, or one more time.

         Pronunciation: /es dub-u bis/
                       sw - bis
          POSIX packaging - Play it again, One more time

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IEEE Std 1387.2-1995 (ISO/IEC 15068-2:1999), Open Group CAE C701, http://www.opengroup.org/publications/catalog/c701.htm

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      info swbis
      sw(5), swpackage(8), swbisparse(1), swign(1), swverify(8), swcopy(8)
      swbis(1), swconfig(8), swlist(8), swremove(8)

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1.14 FILES

/var/lib/swbis/catalog/ # The installed software catalog catalog/ # The package meta-data directory swdefaults # Options configuration file swbisdefaults # Options configuration file

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swbis(7) Author: Jim Lowe Email: jhlowe at acm.org Version: 1.13 Last Updated: 2008-04-18 Copying: GNU Free Documentation License


1.16 BUGS

Not everything is implemented yet.