|| Rho, rho, rho of X|
Always equals 1
Rho is dimension, rho rho rank.
APL is fun!
Richard M. Stallman, 1969
is a free interpreter for the programming language APL.
The APL interpreter is an (almost) complete implementation of
ISO standard 13751
Programming Language APL, Extended.
The APL interpreter has implemented:
- nested arrays and related functions
- complex numbers, and
- a shared variable interface
In addition, GNU APL
can be scripted. For example,
this HTML page
is the output of a CGI script written in APL.
GNU APL was written and is being maintained by Jürgen Sauermann.
Downloading and Installing GNU APL
GNU APL should be available on every
(in directory apl
) and at
Normal Installation of GNU APL
The normal (and fully supported) way to install GNU APL is this:
- Visit one of the GNU mirrors and download the tar file apl-1.3.tar.gz in directory apl.
- Unpack the tar file: tar xzf apl-1.3.tar.gz
- Change to the newly created directory: cd apl-1.3
- Read (and follow) the instructions in files INSTALL and README-*
GNU APL for WINDOWs
GNU APL compiles under CYGWIN, (see
provided that the necessary libraries are installed. HTML∆A 32-bit apl.exe
that may run under CYGWIN lives in the download area. Use at your own risk and
for further information.
Subversion (SVN) repository for GNU APL
You can also check out the latest version of GNU APL from its subversion
repository on Savannah:
svn co http://svn.savannah.gnu.org/svn/apl/trunk
Here is more information
about using Subversion with GNU APL.
RPMs for GNU APL
For RPM based GNU/Linux distributions we have created source and binary RPMs.
Look for files apl-1.3-0.i386.rpm
(binary RPM for i386) or
(source RPM). If you encounter a problem with these
RPMs, then please report it, but with a solution, since the maintainer of
GNU APL may use a GNU/Linux distribution with a different package manager.
Debian packages for GNU APL
For Debian based GNU/Linux distributions we have created source and binary
packages for Debian. Look for files apl-1.3-1_i386.deb
package for i386) or apl-1.3-1.debian.tar.gz
(Debian source package).
If you encounter a problem with these packages, then please report it,
but with a solution, since the maintainer of GNU APL may use a GNU/Linux
distribution with a different package manager.
GNU APL Binary
If you just want to quickly give GNU APL a try, and if you are very lucky
(which includes having shared libraries libreadline.so.5 and liblapack.so.3gf
installed on your machine) then you may be able to start the compiled
GNU APL binary apl
in the directory apl
installing the entire packet . The binary MAY run on a 32-bit i686 Ubuntu.
Chances are, however, that it does NOT work, Please DO NOT report any
problems if the binary does not run on your machine. Instead use the standard
installation method above.
The program APnnn
(a support program for shared variables)
is not provided in binary form, so you should start the apl
command line option --noSV. Note as well that the binary apl
be updated with every GNU APL release. Therefore it will contain errors that
have been corrected already.
GNU APL is made up of more than 60,000 lines of C++ code. In a code of that
size, programming mistakes are inevitable. Even though mistakes are hardly
avoidable, they can be corrected
once they are found. In order to
improve the quality of GNU APL, we would like to encourage you to report
errors that you find in GNU APL to
Your email should include a small example of how to reproduce the fault.
We have an info manual
for GNU APL.
We are also looking for free
documentation on APL in general
(volunteers welcome) that can be published here. A "Quick start" document
for APL is planned but the work has not started yet.
The C++ source files for GNU APL are Doxygen documented. You can generate
this documentation by running make DOXY
in the top level directory
of the GNU APL package.
GNU APL Community
There is a growing group of people that are using GNU APL and that have made
their own developments related to APL available to the public.
We have created a
GNU APL Community Web page
that collects links to those developments to avoid that they get lost.
Return to GNU's home page
Please send FSF & GNU inquiries & questions to
There are also
other ways to contact
Please send comments on these web pages to
send other questions to
Copyright (C) 2014 Free Software Foundation, Inc.,
51 Franklin Street, Fifth Floor, Boston, MA 02110, USA
Verbatim copying and distribution of this entire article is
permitted in any medium, provided this notice is preserved.