C.4.1 General Variables
Here is an alphabetical list of environment variables that have
special meanings in Emacs. Most of these variables are also used by
some other programs. Emacs does not require any of these environment
variables to be set, but it uses their values if they are set.
- Used by the
cd command to search for the directory you specify,
when you specify a relative directory,
- Used by D-Bus when Emacs is compiled with it. Usually, there is no
need to change it. Setting it to a dummy address, like
‘unix:path=/dev/null’, suppresses connections to the D-Bus session
bus as well as autolaunching the D-Bus session bus if not running yet.
- Directory for the architecture-independent files that come with Emacs.
This is used to initialize the variable
- Directory for the documentation string file, which is used to
initialize the Lisp variable
- A colon-separated list of directories1 to search for
Emacs Lisp files. If set, it modifies the usual initial value of the
load-path variable (see Lisp Libraries). An empty element
stands for the default value of
load-path; e.g., using
‘EMACSLOADPATH="/tmp:"’ adds /tmp to the front of
load-path. To specify an empty element in the
middle of the list, use 2 colons in a row, as in
- A colon-separated list of directories to search for executable files.
If set, Emacs uses this in addition to PATH (see below) when
initializing the variable
exec-path (see Shell).
- Your email address; used to initialize the Lisp variable
user-mail-address, which the Emacs mail interface puts into the
‘From’ header of outgoing messages (see Mail Headers).
- Used for shell-mode to override the SHELL environment variable
(see Interactive Shell).
- The name of the file that shell commands are saved in between logins.
This variable defaults to ~/.bash_history if you use Bash, to
~/.sh_history if you use ksh, and to ~/.history
- The location of your files in the directory tree; used for
expansion of file names starting with a tilde (~). On MS-DOS,
it defaults to the directory from which Emacs was started, with
‘/bin’ removed from the end if it was present. On Windows, the
default value of HOME is the Application Data
subdirectory of the user profile directory (normally, this is
C:/Documents and Settings/username/Application Data,
where username is your user name), though for backwards
compatibility C:/ will be used instead if a .emacs file
is found there.
- The name of the machine that Emacs is running on.
- A colon-separated list of directories in which to search for Info files.
- The user's preferred locale. The locale has six categories, specified
by the environment variables LC_COLLATE for sorting,
LC_CTYPE for character encoding, LC_MESSAGES for system
messages, LC_MONETARY for monetary formats, LC_NUMERIC for
numbers, and LC_TIME for dates and times. If one of these
variables is not set, the category defaults to the value of the
LANG environment variable, or to the default ‘C’ locale if
LANG is not set. But if LC_ALL is specified, it overrides
the settings of all the other locale environment variables.
On MS-Windows and macOS, if LANG is not already set in the
environment, Emacs sets it based on the system-wide default. You can
set this in the “Regional Settings” Control Panel on some versions
of MS-Windows, and in the “Language and Region” System Preference on
The value of the LC_CTYPE category is
matched against entries in
locale-preferred-coding-systems, to select a default language
environment and coding system. See Language Environments.
- The user's login name. See also USER.
- The name of your system mail inbox.
- Name of setup file for the mh system. See MH-E.
- Your real-world name. This is used to initialize the variable
user-full-name (see Mail Headers).
- The name of the news server. Used by the mh and Gnus packages.
- The name of the organization to which you belong. Used for setting the
‘Organization:’ header in your posts from the Gnus package.
- A colon-separated list of directories containing executable files.
This is used to initialize the variable
- If set, this should be the default directory when Emacs was started.
- If set, this specifies an initial value for the variable
mail-default-reply-to (see Mail Headers).
- The name of a directory in which news articles are saved by default.
Used by the Gnus package.
- The name of an interpreter used to parse and execute programs run from
- The name of the outgoing mail server. This is used to initialize the
smtpmail-smtp-server (see Mail Sending).
- The type of the terminal that Emacs is using. This variable must be
set unless Emacs is run in batch mode. On MS-DOS, it defaults to
‘internal’, which specifies a built-in terminal emulation that
handles the machine's own display.
- The name of the termcap library file describing how to program the
terminal specified by TERM. This defaults to
- These environment variables are used to initialize the variable
temporary-file-directory, which specifies a directory in which
to put temporary files (see Backup). Emacs tries to use
TMPDIR first. If that is unset, Emacs normally falls back on
/tmp, but on MS-Windows and MS-DOS it instead falls back on
TMP, then TEMP, and finally c:/temp.
- This specifies the default time zone and possibly also daylight
saving time information. See Time Zone Rules. On MS-DOS, if TZ is not set in the
environment when Emacs starts, Emacs defines a default value as
appropriate for the country code returned by DOS. On MS-Windows, Emacs
does not use TZ at all.
- The user's login name. See also LOGNAME. On MS-DOS, this
defaults to ‘root’.
- Used to initialize the
version-control variable (see Backup Names).