The evaluation strategy given in Lambda describes how procedures are interpreted. Interpretation operates directly on expanded Scheme source code, recursively calling the evaluator to obtain the value of nested expressions.
Most procedures are compiled, however. This means that Guile has done some pre-computation on the procedure, to determine what it will need to do each time the procedure runs. Compiled procedures run faster than interpreted procedures.
Loading files is the normal way that compiled procedures come to being. If Guile sees that a file is uncompiled, or that its compiled file is out of date, it will attempt to compile the file when it is loaded, and save the result to disk. Procedures can be compiled at runtime as well. See Read/Load/Eval/Compile, for more information on runtime compilation.
Compiled procedures, also known as programs, respond all procedures that operate on procedures. In addition, there are a few more accessors for low-level details on programs.
Most people won’t need to use the routines described in this section, but it’s good to have them documented. You’ll have to include the appropriate module first, though:
(use-modules (system vm program))
#t if obj is a compiled procedure, or
Returns the object code associated with this program. See Bytecode and Objcode, for more information.
Returns the “object table” associated with this program, as a vector. See VM Programs, for more information.
Returns the module that was current when this program was created. Can
#f if the compiler could determine that this information
Returns the set of free variables that this program captures in its
closure, as a vector. If a closure is code with data, you can get the
program-objcode, and the data via
Some of the values captured are actually in variable “boxes”. See Variables and the VM, for more information.
Users must not modify the returned value unless they think they’re really clever.
Return the metadata thunk of program, or
#f if it has no
When called, a metadata thunk returns a list of the following form:
(bindings sources arities . properties). The format
of each of these elements is discussed below.
Bindings annotations for programs, along with their accessors.
Bindings declare names and liveness extents for block-local variables. The best way to see what these are is to play around with them at a REPL. See VM Concepts, for more information.
Note that bindings information is stored in a program as part of its metadata thunk, so including it in the generated object code does not impose a runtime performance penalty.
Source location annotations for programs, along with their accessors.
Source location information propagates through the compiler and ends
up being serialized to the program’s metadata. This information is
keyed by the offset of the instruction pointer within the object code
of the program. Specifically, it is keyed on the
following an instruction, so that backtraces can find the source
location of a call that is in progress.
Accessors for a representation of the “arity” of a program.
The normal case is that a procedure has one arity. For example,
(lambda (x) x), takes one required argument, and that’s it. One
could access that number of required arguments via
(program-arities (lambda (x) x))). Similarly,
the number of optional arguments, and
arity:rest? returns a true
value if the procedure has a rest arg.
arity:kw returns a list of
(kw . idx) pairs,
if the procedure has keyword arguments. The idx refers to the
idxth local variable; See Variables and the VM, for more
arity:allow-other-keys? returns a true
value if other keys are allowed. See Optional Arguments, for more
So what about
arity:end, then? They
return the range of bytes in the program’s bytecode for which a given
arity is valid. You see, a procedure can actually have more than one
arity. The question, “what is a procedure’s arity” only really makes
sense at certain points in the program, delimited by these
Return an association list describing the arguments that program accepts, or
#f if the information cannot be obtained.
The alist keys that are currently defined are ‘required’, ‘optional’, ‘keyword’, ‘allow-other-keys?’, and ‘rest’. For example:
(program-arguments-alist (lambda* (a b #:optional c #:key (d 1) #:rest e) #t)) ⇒ ((required . (a b)) (optional . (c)) (keyword . ((#:d . 4))) (allow-other-keys? . #f) (rest . d))
Return a representation of the arguments of program as a lambda
#f if this information is not available.
(program-lambda-list (lambda* (a b #:optional c #:key (d 1) #:rest e) #t)) ⇒