These procedures allow querying and setting file system attributes (such as owner, permissions, sizes and types of files); deleting, copying, renaming and linking files; creating and removing directories and querying their contents; syncing the file system and creating special files.
Test accessibility of a file under the real UID and GID of the calling
process. The return is
#t if path exists and the
permissions requested by how are all allowed, or
how is an integer which is one of the following values, or a
logior) of multiple values.
Test for read permission.
Test for write permission.
Test for execute permission.
Test for existence of the file. This is implied by each of the other tests, so there’s no need to combine it with them.
It’s important to note that
access? does not simply indicate
what will happen on attempting to read or write a file. In normal
circumstances it does, but in a set-UID or set-GID program it doesn’t
access? tests the real ID, whereas an open or execute
attempt uses the effective ID.
A program which will never run set-UID/GID can ignore the difference
between real and effective IDs, but for maximum generality, especially
in library functions, it’s best not to use
access? to predict
the result of an open or execute, instead simply attempt that and
catch any exception.
The main use for
access? is to let a set-UID/GID program
determine what the invoking user would have been allowed to do,
without the greater (or perhaps lesser) privileges afforded by the
effective ID. For more on this, see Testing File Access in The GNU C Library Reference Manual.
Return an object containing various information about the file
determined by object. object can be a string containing
a file name or a port or integer file descriptor which is open
on a file (in which case
fstat is used as the underlying
If the optional exception_on_error argument is true, which
is the default, an exception will be raised if the underlying
system call returns an error, for example if the file is not
found or is not readable. Otherwise, an error will cause
stat to return
The object returned by
stat can be passed as a single
parameter to the following procedures, all of which return
The device number containing the file.
The file serial number, which distinguishes this file from all other files on the same device.
The mode of the file. This is an integer which incorporates file type
information and file permission bits. See also
The number of hard links to the file.
The user ID of the file’s owner.
The group ID of the file.
Device ID; this entry is defined only for character or block special
files. On some systems this field is not available at all, in which
The size of a regular file in bytes.
The last access time for the file, in seconds.
The last modification time for the file, in seconds.
The last modification time for the attributes of the file, in seconds.
The fractional part of a file’s access, modification, or attribute modification time, in nanoseconds. Nanosecond timestamps are only available on some operating systems and file systems. If Guile cannot retrieve nanosecond-level timestamps for a file, these fields will be set to 0.
The optimal block size for reading or writing the file, in bytes. On
some systems this field is not available, in which case
stat:blksize returns a sensible suggested block size.
The amount of disk space that the file occupies measured in units of
512 byte blocks. On some systems this field is not available, in
In addition, the following procedures return the information
stat:mode in a more convenient form:
A symbol representing the type of file. Possible values are ‘regular’, ‘directory’, ‘symlink’, ‘block-special’, ‘char-special’, ‘fifo’, ‘socket’, and ‘unknown’.
An integer representing the access permission bits.
stat, but does not follow symbolic links, i.e.,
it will return information about a symbolic link itself, not the
file it points to. path must be a string.
stat, but resolve filename relative to the directory
referred to by the file port dir instead. The optional argument
flags argument can be
AT_SYMLINK_NOFOLLOW, in which case
filename will not be dereferenced even if it is a symbolic link.
Return the value of the symbolic link named by path (a string, or a port if supported by the system), i.e., the file that the link points to.
To read a symbolic link represented by a port, the symbolic link must
have been opened with the
(provided? 'readlink-port) reports whether ports are supported.
Change the ownership and group of the file referred to by object
to the integer values owner and group. object can
be a string containing a file name or, if the platform supports
fchown (see File Owner in The GNU C Library Reference
Manual), a port or integer file descriptor which is open on the file.
The return value is unspecified.
If object is a symbolic link, either the
ownership of the link or the ownership of the referenced file will be
changed depending on the operating system (lchown is
unsupported at present). If owner or group is specified
-1, then that ID is not changed.
chown, but modify the owner and/or group of
the file named name in the directory referred to
by the file port dir instead. The optional argument
flags is a bitmask. If
present, then name will not be dereferenced if it is a
Changes the permissions of the file referred to by object.
object can be a string containing a file name or a port or integer file
descriptor which is open on a file (in which case
fchmod is used
as the underlying system call).
the new permissions as a decimal number, e.g.,
(chmod "foo" #o755).
The return value is unspecified.
utime sets the access and modification times for the
file named by object. If actime or modtime is
not supplied, then the current time is used. actime and
modtime must be integer time values as returned by the
object must be a file name or a port (if supported by the system).
The optional actimens and modtimens are nanoseconds to add actime and modtime. Nanosecond precision is only supported on some combinations of file systems and operating systems.
(utime "foo" (- (current-time) 3600))
will set the access time to one hour in the past and the modification time to the current time.
Last, flags may be either
0 or the
AT_SYMLINK_NOFOLLOW constant, to set the time of
object even if it is a symbolic link.
On GNU/Linux systems, at least when using the Linux kernel 5.10.46,
if object is a port, it may not be a symbolic link,
AT_SYMLINK_NOFOLLOW is set. This is either a bug
in Linux or Guile’s wrappers. The exact cause is unclear.
Deletes (or “unlinks”) the file whose path is specified by str.
unlink, but resolve str relative to the
directory referred to by the file port dir instead.
The optional flags argument can be
in which case
delete-file-at will act like
delete-file. Why doesn’t POSIX have a
for this instead? No idea!
Copy the file specified by oldfile to newfile. The return value is unspecified.
Send count bytes from in to out, both of which must be either open file ports or file descriptors. When offset is omitted, start reading from in’s current position; otherwise, start reading at offset. Return the number of bytes actually sent.
When in is a port, it is often preferable to specify offset, because in’s offset as a port may be different from the offset of its underlying file descriptor.
On systems that support it, such as GNU/Linux, this procedure uses the
sendfile libc function, which usually corresponds to a system
call. This is faster than doing a series of
write system calls. A typical application is to send a file over
In some cases, the
sendfile libc function may return
ENOSYS. In that case, Guile’s
procedure automatically falls back to doing a series of
In other cases, the libc function may send fewer bytes than
count—for instance because out is a slow or limited
device, such as a pipe. When that happens, Guile’s
automatically retries until exactly count bytes were sent or an
Renames the file specified by oldname to newname. The return value is unspecified.
rename-file, but when olddir or newdir is true,
resolve oldname or newname relative to the directory
specified by the file port olddir or newdir instead of the
current working directory.
Creates a new name newpath in the file system for the file named by oldpath. If oldpath is a symbolic link, the link may or may not be followed depending on the system.
Create a symbolic link named newpath with the value (i.e., pointing to) oldpath. The return value is unspecified.
symlink, but resolve newpath relative to
the directory referred to by the file port dir.
Create a new directory named by path. If mode is omitted
then the permissions of the directory are set to
masked with the current umask (see
Otherwise they are set to the value specified with mode
masked with the current umask.
The return value is unspecified.
mkdir, but resolve path relative to the directory
referred to by the file port dir instead.
Remove the existing directory named by path. The directory must be empty for this to succeed. The return value is unspecified.
Open the directory specified by dirname and return a directory stream.
Before using this and the procedures below, make sure to see the higher-level procedures for directory traversal that are available (see File Tree Walk).
Return a boolean indicating whether object is a directory
stream as returned by
Return (as a string) the next directory entry from the directory stream stream. If there is no remaining entry to be read then the end of file object is returned.
Reset the directory port stream so that the next call to
readdir will return the first directory entry.
Close the directory stream stream. The return value is unspecified.
Here is an example showing how to display all the entries in a directory:
(define dir (opendir "/usr/lib")) (do ((entry (readdir dir) (readdir dir))) ((eof-object? entry)) (display entry)(newline)) (closedir dir)
Flush the operating system disk buffers. The return value is unspecified.
Creates a new special file, such as a file corresponding to a device. path specifies the name of the file. type should be one of the following symbols: ‘regular’, ‘directory’, ‘symlink’, ‘block-special’, ‘char-special’, ‘fifo’, or ‘socket’. perms (an integer) specifies the file permissions. dev (an integer) specifies which device the special file refers to. Its exact interpretation depends on the kind of special file being created.
(mknod "/dev/fd0" 'block-special #o660 (+ (* 2 256) 2))
The return value is unspecified.
Return an auto-generated name of a temporary file, a file which doesn’t already exist. The name includes a path, it’s usually in /tmp but that’s system dependent.
Care must be taken when using
tmpnam. In between choosing the
name and creating the file another program might use that name, or an
attacker might even make it a symlink pointing at something important
and causing you to overwrite that.
The safe way is to create the file using
O_EXCL to avoid any overwriting. A loop can try again with
another name if the file exists (error
mkstemp below does that.
Create a new unique file in the file system and return a new buffered port open for reading and writing to the file.
tmpl is a string specifying where the file should be created: it
must end with ‘XXXXXX’. The name of the newly created file will be
the same as tmpl, but with those ‘X’s changed, and can be
determined by calling
port-filename on the returned port.
Note that the newly created file is not deleted automatically by Guile;
probably the caller should arrange to call
delete-file when the
file is no longer needed.
POSIX doesn’t specify the permissions mode of the file. On GNU and most
#o600; an application can use
chmod to relax
that if desired. For example
umask, which is
usual for ordinary file creation,
(let ((port (mkstemp "/tmp/myfile-XXXXXX"))) (chmod port (logand #o666 (lognot (umask)))) ...)
The optional mode argument specifies a mode with which to open the
new file, as a string in the same format that
It defaults to
Return an input/output port to a unique temporary file
named using the path prefix
P_tmpdir defined in
The file is automatically deleted when the port is closed
or the program terminates.
Create a new directory named in accordance with the template string tmpl.
tmpl is a string specifying the directory’s name. The last six characters of tmpl must be ‘XXXXXX’. Upon successful execution, the name of the new directory is returned which has the same form as tmpl but with the ‘XXXXXX’ characters modified to ensure the directory name is unique.
The permissions of the directory created are OS dependent, but, are
An error may be thrown if the template has the wrong format or if the directory cannot be created.
Return the directory name component of the file name
filename. If filename does not contain a directory
. is returned.
Return the base name of the file name filename. The base name is the file name without any directory components. If suffix is provided, and is equal to the end of basename, it is removed also.
(basename "/tmp/test.xml" ".xml") ⇒ "test"
Return the canonical (absolute) path of path.
A canonical path has no
nor any repeated path separators (
/) nor symlinks.
Raises an error if any component of path does not exist.
(canonicalize-path "test.xml") ⇒ "/tmp/test.xml"
#t if the file named filename exists,
Many operating systems, such as GNU, use
/ (forward slash) to
separate the components of a file name; any file name starting with
/ is considered an absolute file name. These conventions
are specified by the POSIX Base Definitions, which refer to conforming
file names as “pathnames”. Some operating systems use a different
convention; in particular, Windows uses
\ (backslash) as the file
name separator, and also has the notion of volume names like
C:\ for absolute file names. The following procedures and
variables provide support for portable file name manipulations.
windows, depending on
what kind of system this Guile is running on.
Return true if character c is a file name separator on the host platform.
Return true if file-name denotes an absolute file name on the host platform.
The preferred file name separator.
Note that on MinGW builds for Windows, both
valid separators. Thus, programs should not assume that
file-name-separator-string is the only file name
separator—e.g., when extracting the components of a file name.