A single file name can specify many files using wildcard characters.
The wildcard characters in
make are ‘*’, ‘?’ and
‘[…]’, the same as in the Bourne shell. For example, *.c
specifies a list of all the files (in the working directory) whose names
end in ‘.c’.
If an expression matches multiple files than the results will be sorted.2 However multiple expressions will not be globally sorted. For example, *.c *.h will list all the files whose names end in ‘.c’, sorted, followed by all the files whose names end in ‘.h’, sorted.
The character ‘~’ at the beginning of a file name also has special significance. If alone, or followed by a slash, it represents your home directory. For example ~/bin expands to /home/you/bin. If the ‘~’ is followed by a word, the string represents the home directory of the user named by that word. For example ~john/bin expands to /home/john/bin. On systems which don’t have a home directory for each user (such as MS-DOS or MS-Windows), this functionality can be simulated by setting the environment variable HOME.
Wildcard expansion is performed by
make automatically in
targets and in prerequisites. In recipes, the shell is responsible
for wildcard expansion. In other contexts, wildcard expansion happens
only if you request it explicitly with the
The special significance of a wildcard character can be turned off by preceding it with a backslash. Thus, foo\*bar would refer to a specific file whose name consists of ‘foo’, an asterisk, and ‘bar’.
|• Wildcard Examples||Several examples.|
|• Wildcard Pitfall||Problems to avoid.|
|• Wildcard Function||How to cause wildcard expansion where it does not normally take place.|
Some older versions of GNU
make did not sort the
results of wildcard expansion.