GNU's Bulletin, vol. 1 no. 17, June, 1994

Table of Contents

The GNU's Bulletin is the semi-annual newsletter of the Free Software Foundation, bringing you news about the GNU Project.

Free Software Foundation, Inc.                Telephone: +1--617--876--3296
675 Massachusetts Avenue                      Fax: +1--617--492--9057
Cambridge, MA   02139-3309                    Fax (in Japan):
USA                                               0031--13--2473 (KDD)
Electronic mail:            0066--3382--0158 (IDC)

GNU's Who

Michael Bushnell continues to work on the Hurd, while also maintaining tar. Roland McGrath maintains make and the GNU C library, and is now working on the Hurd. Jan Brittenson is working on the Hurd network server. Karl Heuer has come on board to maintain and enhance GNU Emacs. Omar Richardson-Sutherland is coordinating the GNU Dictionary Project (see section Announcing the Dictionary Project).

Noah Friedman is our system ambiguator, release coordinator, and maintains a few programs in his copious spare time. Carl Hoffman is our fundraiser and conference organizer.

Robert J. Chassell is again our Treasurer, replacing Lisa `Opus' Goldstein, who is on her way to China (`finally!', she says). Lisa Bloch is our new Executive Director, taking over from Lisa Goldstein. Britton Bradley and Larissa Carlson assist Lisa Bloch with many tasks in the Business Office. Charles Hannum works on typesetting and many other jobs.

Jim Blandy has left to adapt GNU Emacs for use by the University of Illinois' Ribosome Database Project; he is also working on free, Scheme-based drawing software. Melissa Weisshaus and Tom Lord have also left the FSF. All still volunteer part-time.

Richard Stallman continues as a volunteer who does countless tasks, such as Emacs maintenance. Volunteer Len Tower remains our online JOAT (jack-of-all-trades), handling mailing lists and gnUSENET, information requests, etc.

Administrivia and Copyright

Written and Edited by: Melissa Weisshaus, Noah S. Friedman, Robert J. Chassell, and Leonard H. Tower Jr.

Illustrations by: Etienne Suvasa and Jamal Hannah

Japanese Edition by: Mieko Hikichi and Nobuyuki Hikichi

ISSN (International Standard Serial Number): 1075-7813

The GNU's Bulletin is published at the end of January and June of each year. Please note that there is no postal mailing list. To get a copy, send your name and address with your request to the address on page 1. Enclosing a business sized self-addressed stamped envelope ($0.52) and/or a donation of a few dollars is appreciated but not required. If you're from outside the USA, sending a mailing label and enough International Reply Coupons for a package of about 100 grams is appreciated but not required. (Including a few extra International Reply Coupons for copying costs is also appreciated.)

Copyright (C) 1994 Free Software Foundation, Inc.

This page is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NoDerivs 3.0 United States License.

We don't have a patent on irony and satire; those tools are available for you to use in your own work.

- Guerrilla Girls, a New York City performance group

What Is the FSF?

The Free Software Foundation is dedicated to eliminating restrictions on people's right to use, copy, modify, and redistribute computer programs. We promote the development and use of free software in all areas using computers. Specifically, we are putting together a complete, integrated software system named "GNU" ("GNU's Not Unix", pronounced "guh-new") that will be upwardly compatible with Unix. Most parts of this system are already being used and distributed.

The word "free" in our name refers to freedom, not price. You may or may not pay money to get GNU software, but regardless you have two specific freedoms once you get it: first, the freedom to copy a program and give it away to your friends and co-workers; and second, the freedom to change a program as you wish, by having full access to source code. You can study the source and learn how such programs are written. You may then be able to port it, improve it, and share your changes with others. If you redistribute GNU software you may charge a distribution fee or give it away, so long as you include the source code and the GPL; see section What Is Copyleft?, for details.

Other organizations distribute whatever free software happens to be available. By contrast, the Free Software Foundation concentrates on the development of new free software, working towards a GNU system complete enough to eliminate the need to purchase a proprietary system.

Besides developing GNU, the FSF distributes GNU software and manuals for a distribution fee and accepts gifts (tax-deductible in the U.S.) to support GNU development. Most of the FSF's funds come from this distribution service.

The Board of the Foundation is: Richard M. Stallman, President;
Robert J. Chassell, Secretary/Treasurer; Gerald J. Sussman, Harold Abelson, and Leonard H. Tower Jr., Directors.

What Is Copyleft?

The simplest way to make a program free is to put it in the public domain, uncopyrighted. But this permits proprietary modifications, denying others the freedom to use and redistribute improvements; it is contrary to the intent of increasing the total amount of free software. To prevent this, copyleft uses copyrights in a novel manner. Typically copyrights take away freedoms; copyleft preserves them. It is a legal instrument that requires those who pass on a program to include the rights to use, modify, and redistribute the code; the code and rights become legally inseparable.

The copyleft used by the GNU Project is made from the combination of a regular copyright notice and the GNU General Public License (GPL). The GPL is a copying license which basically says that you have the aforementioned freedoms. An alternate form, the GNU Library General Public License (LGPL), applies to a few GNU libraries. This license permits linking the libraries into proprietary executables under certain conditions. The appropriate license is included in all GNU source code distributions and many manuals. Printed copies are available upon request.

We strongly encourage you to copyleft your programs and documentation, and we have made it as simple as possible for you to do so. The details on how to apply either license appear at the end of each license.

What Is GNU?

GNU is to be a complete integrated computational environment: everything you need to work with a computer, either as a programmer or as a person in an office or home. The core is an operating system, which consists of a central program called a kernel that runs the other programs on the computer, and a large number of ancillary programs for handling files, etc. The FSF is developing an advanced kernel called the Hurd (see section What Is the Hurd?).

A complete system has tools for programmers, such as compilers and debuggers. It also has editors, sketchpads, calendars, calculators, spreadsheets, databases, electronic mail readers, and Internet navigators. The FSF already distributes most of the programs used in an operating system, all the tools regularly used by programmers, and much more.

Already, you can set yourself up as an entrepreneur to sell your services teaching, installing, improving, and modifying this software for others. Already, you can set yourself up as a programmer or writer who works on a 80386 or 80486 based computer and use only software that is freely redistributable. Already, all the tools you need as a programmer for editing, compiling, and debugging are free; all the tools you need as a writer for editing, revising, and typesetting a book are free; many tools you need for calculations or mathematics are free; and many games and other applications are free. Tools for electronic communications are free.

Not only are these tools useful to you, they are useful institutionally. Since distribution is free, you can pass on copies to other people in your company or organization without hindrance. No paperwork. As a teacher, you can give programs to your students without fearing that you are breaking the law. As a student, you can copy programs for your friends, and do good by doing so. If you are poor, you can copy and use the same software used by the rich; and if you are rich, you can contribute your improvements to the common heritage. If you are ignorant, you can learn. If you know a great deal, you can help others.

What Is the Hurd?

The Hurd will be the foundation of the whole GNU system. It is built on top of the Mach 3.0 kernel, a free message-passing kernel developed by CMU. Mach's virtual memory management and message-passing facilities are extensively used by the Hurd. The GNU C Library will provide the Unix system call interface, and will call the Hurd for needed services it can't provide itself.

One goal of the Hurd is to establish a framework for shared development and maintenance. The Hurd is like GNU Emacs in that it will allow a broad range of users to create and share useful projects without knowing much about the internal workings of the system--projects that might never have been attempted without freely available source, a well-designed interface, and a multiserver-based design.

Currently there are free ports of the Mach kernel to the 386 PC, the DEC PMAX workstation, the Luna 88k, and several other machines, with more in progress, including the Amiga and DEC Alpha-3000 machines. Contact CMU c/o, if you want to help with one of these or start your own. Porting the GNU Hurd and GNU C Library is easy (easier than porting GNU Emacs, certainly easier than porting GCC) once a Mach port to a particular platform exists.

Important progress has been made recently; see section GNUs Flashes.

There are significant projects relating to the Hurd for which we need volunteers. Experienced system programmers who are interested should send mail to Porting the Mach kernel or the GNU C Library to new systems is another way to help development of the Hurd.

Free Software Redistributors Donate

by Richard Stallman

Austin Code Works, a redistributor of free software, has agreed to support free software development by giving the FSF 20% of the selling price for the GNU software packages they produce and sell.

The Sun Users Group Deutschland has agreed to add a donation to the FSF to the price of their next CD-ROM of GNU software. Potential purchasers will know precisely how much is for the FSF and how much is for SUGD.

In the long run, the success of free software depends on how much new free software people develop. Free software distribution offers an opportunity to raise funds for such development in an ethical way. These two redistributors have made use of the opportunity. Many others let it go to waste.

You can help promote free software development by convincing for-a-fee redistributors to contribute--either by doing development themselves, or by donating to development organizations (the FSF and others).

The way to convince distributors to contribute is to demand and expect this of them. This means choosing among distributors partly by how much they give to free software development. Then you can show distributors they must compete to be the one who gives the most.

To make this work, you must insist on numbers that you can compare, such as, "We will give ten dollars to the Foobar project for each disk sold." A vague commitment, such as "A portion of the profits are donated", doesn't give you a basis for comparison. Even a precise fraction "of the profits from this disk" is not very meaningful, since creative accounting and unrelated business decisions can greatly alter what fraction of the sales price counts as profit.

Also, press developers for firm information about what kind of development they do or support. Some kinds make much more long-term difference than others. For example, maintaining a separate version of a GNU program contributes very little; maintaining a program on behalf of the GNU project contributes much. Easy new ports contribute little, since someone else would surely do them; difficult ports such as adding a new CPU to the GNU compiler contribute more; major new features and programs contribute the most.

By establishing the idea that supporting further development is "the proper thing to do" when distributing free software for a fee, we can assure a steady flow of resources for making more free software.

Help from Free Software Companies

When choosing a free software business, ask those you are considering how much they do to assist free software development, e.g., by contributing money to free software development or by writing free software improvements themselves for general use. By basing your decision partially on this factor, you can help encourage those who profit from free software to contribute to its growth.

These free software support companies regularly donate a part of their income to the Free Software Foundation to support the development of new GNU programs. Listing them here is our way of thanking them. Also see section Cygnus Matches Donations!.

   Contributed Software GbR
   Graefestr. 76
   D-10967 Berlin

   Telephone: (+49-30) 694-69-07
   Fax:       (+49-30) 694-68-09
   BBS & no-charge free software archive:
      Dialins: (+49-30) 693-40-51 (eight USR DS's)
               (+49-30) 694-60-55 (five ZyXELs)
      Telnet: []
   WWW: `'
   Hundred Acre Consulting
   5301 Longley Lane, Suite D-144
   Reno, NV   89511

   Telephone: 702-829-9700
   Fax:       702-829-9926
   WWW: `'

Free Software Support

The Free Software Foundation does not provide any technical support. Although we create software, we leave it to others to earn a living providing support. We see programmers as providing a service, much as doctors and lawyers now do; both medical and legal knowledge are freely redistributable entities for which the practitioners charge a distribution and service fee.

The GNU Service Directory is a list of people who offer support and other consulting services. It is in the file `etc/SERVICE' in the GNU Emacs distribution, `SERVICE' in the GCC distribution and `/pub/gnu/GNUinfo/SERVICE' on GNU's FTP host Contact us if you would like a copy or wish to be listed in it. Those companies who share their income with the FSF are listed in section Help from Free Software Companies.

If you find a deficiency in any GNU software, we want to know. We have many Internet mailing lists for bug reports, announcements and questions. They are also gatewayed into USENET news as the gnu.* newsgroups. You can request a list of the mailing lists from either address on the top menu.

When we receive a bug report, we usually try to fix the problem. While our bug fixes may seem like individual assistance, they are not. Our task is so large that we must focus on that which helps the community as a whole; we do not have the resources to help individuals. We may send you a patch for a bug so that you can help us test the fix and ensure its quality. If your bug report does not evoke a solution from us, you may still get one from another user who reads our bug report mailing lists. Otherwise, use the Service Directory.

Please do not ask us to help you install software or figure out how to use it--but do tell us how an installation script does not work or where documentation is unclear.

If you have no Internet access, you can get mail and USENET news via UUCP. Contact a local UUCP site, or a commercial UUCP site such as:

   UUNET Communications Services
   3110 Fairview Park Drive -- Suite 570
   Falls Church, VA   22042

   Telephone: +1-800-4UUNET4
   Fax:       +1-703-204-8001

A list of commercial UUCP and Internet service providers is posted periodically to USENET in the newsgroup news.announce.newusers with `Subject: How to become a USENET site'. You can also get it via anonymous FTP from in the file `How_to_become_a_USENET_site', in the directory `/pub/usenet-by-group/news.announce.newusers'.

When choosing a service provider, ask those you are considering how much they do to assist free software development, e.g., by contributing money to free software development or by writing free software improvements themselves for general use. By basing your decision partially on this factor, you can help encourage those who profit from free software to contribute to its growth.

What Is the LPF?

The League for Programming Freedom (LPF) aims to protect the freedom to write software. This freedom is threatened by "look-and-feel" interface copyright lawsuits and by software patents. The LPF does not endorse free software or the FSF.

The League's members include programmers, entrepreneurs, students, professors, and even software companies.

From the League membership form:

The League for Programming Freedom is a grass-roots organization of professors, students, business people, programmers, and users dedicated to bringing back the freedom to write programs. The League is not opposed to the legal system that Congress intended--copyright on individual programs. Our aim is to reverse the recent changes made by judges in response to special interests.

Membership dues in the League are $42 per year for programmers, managers and professionals; $10.50 for students; $21 for others.

To join, please send a check and the following information:

The League is not connected with the Free Software Foundation and is not itself a free software organization. The FSF supports the LPF because, like any software developer smaller than IBM, it is endangered by software patents. You are in danger too! It would be easy to ignore the problem until you or your employer is sued, but it is more prudent to organize before that happens.

If you haven't made up your mind yet, write to LPF for more information:

   League for Programming Freedom
   1 Kendall Square - #143
   P.O. Box 9171
   Cambridge, MA   02139

   Telephone: +1-617-243-4091

GNU and Other Free Software in Japan

Mieko ( and Nobuyuki Hikichi ( continue to volunteer for the GNU Project in Japan. They translate each issue of this Bulletin into Japanese and distribute it widely, along with their translation of the GNU General Public License Version 2. This translation of the GPL is authorized by the FSF and is available by anonymous FTP from in /pub/gnu/local-fix/GPL2-j. They are working on a formal translation of the GNU Library General Public License. They also solicit donations and offer GNU software consulting.

nepoch (the Japanese versions of Epoch) and MULE are available and widely used in Japan. MULE (the MULtilingual Enhancement of GNU Emacs) can handle many character sets at once. Eventually its features will be merged into the FSF's version of Emacs. The FSF does not distribute nepoch, but MULE is available on the section May 1994 Source Code CD-ROM. You can also FTP it from in /JAPAN/mule or in /pub/mule. See section GNU Software, for more information about MULE.

The Village Center, Inc. prints a Japanese translation of the GNU Emacs Lisp Reference Manual and uploads the Texinfo source to various bulletin boards. They have also published a copylefted book, Nobuyuki's and Mieko's Think GNU. This appears to be the first non-FSF copylefted publication in Japan. Part of the profits are donated to the FSF. Their address is:

   Village Center, Inc.
   3-2 Kanda Jinbo-cho, Chiyoda-ku
   Tokyo 101,   Japan

   Telephone: 03-3221-3520

Addison-Wesley Publishers Japan Ltd. has printed a Japanese translation of the GNU Make Manual and GAWK Manual. Their address is:

   Addison-Wesley Publishers Japan Ltd.
   Nichibou Bldg. 2F
   1-2-2 Sarugaku-cho, Chiyoda-ku
   Tokyo 101,   Japan

   Telephone: 03-3291-4581

GNU manuals (in English), T-shirts and CD-ROMs are available from both:

   Shosen Book Tower
   1-11-6 Kanda Sakuma-cho, Chiyoda-ku
   Tokyo 101,   Japan

   Telephone:  03-5296-0051

   Shosen Grande
   1-3 Kanda Jinbo-cho, Chiyoda-ku
   Tokyo 101,   Japan

   Telephone: 03-3295-0011

The Institute for New Generation Computer Technology, ICOT, has released the "ICOT Free Software (IFS)" distribution. The famous Fifth Generation Computing System project produced this distribution, which includes over 80 systems for symbol processing, knowledge processing, problem solving, inference, and natural language processing. Many of them are based on parallel logic programming. For details, contact

There is a mailing list in Japan to discuss both hardware and software which is under the GNU General Public License. This list provides information about making your own computer system. The main language used on the list is Japanese. If you are interested in getting information or having discussions in English, contact or

Many groups in Japan now distribute GNU software. They include JUG, a PC user group; ASCII, a periodical and book publisher; the Fujitsu FM Towns users group; and SRA's special GNU support group, called Wingnut, who also purchased the first Deluxe package in Japan. (Since then, there have been several other purchases of the Deluxe package in Japan.)

Anonymous UUCP is available until the end of December, 1994. After that it will be canceled due to a lack of disk space, time and the ease with which GNU software can be obtained via FTP and on CD-ROM and other media. Since the service was started 5 years ago, over 300 tapes have been made, and over 600 hosts have made more than 20,000 calls to the UUCP server to get GNU and other free software. For more information, contact

It is easy to place an order directly with the FSF from Japan, thus funding new code. To get an FSF Order Form written in Japanese, ask There are also two toll-free Fax numbers for use in Japan (see the top menu). We encourage you to buy software on tapes or CDs: for example, every 150 tape orders allows FSF to hire a programmer for a year to write more free software.

Announcing the Dictionary Project

The FSF has a copy of the Century Dictionary, an unabridged dictionary now in the public domain, and we are planning to put it online. We tried OCR, but it wasn't reliable enough. So we're looking for volunteers to type it in--20 pages per volunteer. We estimate that takes around 45 hours if you type reasonably fast, including proofreading.

If you'd like to volunteer, please send mail to We'll send you 20 xeroxed pages plus the description of the online dictionary format. (Be very careful to follow the format.)

This project provides a way for people without programming skills or money to contribute to the GNU Project.

GNUs Flashes

Forthcoming GNUs

Information about the current status of released GNU programs can be found in section GNU Software. Here is some news of future plans.

Freely Available Texts

Freely redistributable information isn't just software. Here are a few groups providing various books, historical documents, and more. Please let either address on the top menu know of additional entries. You can FTP a more complete list in file `/pub/gnu/FreelyAvailableTexts' from

GNU Documentation

GNU is dedicated to having quality, easy-to-use online and printed documentation. GNU manuals are intended to explain the underlying concepts, describe how to use all the features of each program, and give examples of command use. GNU manuals are distributed as Texinfo source files, which yield both typeset hardcopy via the TeX document formatting system, and online hypertext-like display via the menu-driven Info system. Source for these manuals comes with our software, and they are available in hardcopy; see the see section Free Software Foundation Order Form.

Most GNU manuals are bound as soft cover books with lay-flat bindings. This allows you to open them so they lie flat on a table without creasing the binding. Each book has an inner cloth spine and an outer cardboard cover that will not break or crease as an ordinary paperback will. Currently, the Emacs, GDB, Emacs Lisp Reference, GAWK, Make, Flex, Bison, and Texinfo manuals have this binding. The other GNU manuals are also bound so they lie flat when opened, using a GBC binding. All of our manuals are 7in by 9.25in except the Calc manual, which is 8.5in by 11in.

The edition number of the manual and version number of the program listed after each manual's name were current at the time this Bulletin was published.

The Emacs Manual (9th Edition for Version 19) describes editing with GNU Emacs. It explains advanced features, including outline mode and regular expression search, how to use special modes for programming in languages like C++ and TeX, how to use the tags utility, how to compile and correct code, how to make your own keybindings, and other elementary customizations.

Debugging with GDB (Edition 4.09 for Version 4.9) tells how to use the GNU Debugger, run your program under debugger control, examine and alter data, modify a program's flow of control, and use GDB through GNU Emacs.

The GNU Emacs Lisp Reference Manual (Edition 2.3 for Version 19.23) covers this programming language in depth, including data types, control structures, functions, macros, syntax tables, searching/matching, modes, windows, keymaps, byte compilation, and the operating system interface.

The GAWK Manual (Edition 0.16 for Version 2.16) tells how to use the GNU implementation of awk. It is written for those who have never used awk and describes the features of this powerful string and record manipulation language.

The Make Manual (Edition 0.43 for Version 3.68) describes GNU make, a program used to rebuild parts of other programs. The manual tells how to write makefiles, which specify how a program is to be compiled and how its files depend on each other. Included are an introductory chapter for novice users and a section about automatically generated dependencies.

The Flex Manual (Edition 1.03 for Version 2.3.7) tells you how to write a lexical scanner definition for the flex program to create a C++ or C-coded scanner that will recognize the patterns described. You need no prior knowledge of scanner generators.

The Bison Manual (December 1993 Edition for Version 1.23) teaches you how to write context-free grammars for the Bison program that convert into C-coded parsers. You need no prior knowledge of parser generators.

Using and Porting GNU CC (October 1993 Edition for Version 2.5) explains how to run, install, and port the GNU C Compiler to new systems. It describes new features and incompatibilities of the compiler, but people not familiar with C will also need a good reference on the C programming language. This manual also covers G++.

The Texinfo Manual (Edition 2.19 for Version 3) explains the markup language used to generate both the online Info documentation and typeset hardcopies. It tells you how to make tables, lists, chapters, nodes, indexes, cross references, how to use Texinfo mode in GNU Emacs, and how to catch mistakes. This second edition describes over 50 new commands.

The Termcap Manual (2nd Edition for Version 1.2), often described as "twice as much as you ever wanted to know about termcap," details the format of the termcap database, the definitions of terminal capabilities, and the process of interrogating a terminal description. This manual is primarily for programmers.

The C Library Reference Manual (June 1993 Edition for Version 1.07) describes most of the facilities of the GNU C library, including both what Unix calls "library functions" and "system calls." We are doing limited copier runs of this manual until it becomes more stable. It is new, and needs corrections and improvements. Please send them to

The Emacs Calc Manual (Edition 2.02 for Version 2.02) includes both a tutorial and a reference manual for Calc. It describes how to do ordinary arithmetic, how to use Calc for algebra, calculus, and other forms of mathematics, and how to extend Calc.

GNU Software

All our software is available via anonymous FTP; see section How to Get GNU Software. In addition we offer software on various media and printed documentation:

We welcome all bug reports sent to the appropriate electronic mailing list (see section Free Software Support).

In the articles describing the contents of each medium, the version number listed after each program name was current when we published this Bulletin. When you order a distribution tape or diskette, some of the programs may be newer, and therefore the version number higher.

Key to cross reference:

Binaries CD-ROM
Djgpp Diskettes
Emacs Diskettes
Emacs Tape
Language Tape
4.4BSD-Lite Tape
Scheme Tape
Source CD-ROM
Selected Utilities Diskettes
Utilities Tape
VMS Compiler Tape
VMS Emacs Tape
Windows Diskette
X11 Optional Tape
X11 Required Tape

Configuring GNU Software:

We are using a uniform scheme for configuring GNU software packages in order to compile them, which uses the autoconf program. All GNU software supports the same alternatives for naming machine and system types. This makes it possible to configure any and all GNU software in the same manner.

The configuration scheme also supports configuring a directory containing several GNU packages with one command. When the GNU system is complete it will be possible to configure and build the entire system at once, eliminating the need to separately configure each individual package.

The configuration scheme can also specify both the host and target system, so you can easily configure and build cross-compilation tools.

GNU software currently available:

(For new features and coming programs, see section Forthcoming GNUs.)

Program/Package Cross Reference

Here is a list of what package each GNU program or library is in. Programs on the two X11 tapes and the 4.4BSD--Lite tapes are not included, due to lack of space in this Bulletin. You can anonymous FTP a full list from in the file `/pub/gnu/ProgramIndex'.


We offer Unix source code on tapes in tar format on these media:

The contents of the reel and various cartridge tapes for Unix systems are the same (except for the RS/6000 Emacs tape, which also has executables for Emacs); only the media are different. For pricing information, see the see section Free Software Foundation Order Form. Source code for the manuals is included, in Texinfo format. See section GNU Documentation.

Some of the files on the tapes may be compressed with gzip to make them fit. Refer to the top-level `README' file at the beginning of each tape for instructions on uncompressing them. uncompress and unpack do not work!

Languages Tape

This tape contains programming tools: compilers, interpreters, and related programs (parsers, conversion programs, debuggers, etc.).

Utilities Tape

This tape consists mostly of smaller utilities and miscellaneous applications.

Emacs Tape

This tape has Common Lisp systems and libraries, GNU Emacs, assorted extensions that work with GNU Emacs, and a few other important utilities.

Scheme Tape

Scheme is a simplified, lexically-scoped dialect of Lisp. It was designed at MIT and other universities to teach students the art of programming, and to research new parallel programming constructs and compilation techniques.

This tape contains MIT Scheme 7.1, which conforms to the "Revised^4 Report On the Algorithmic Language Scheme" (MIT AI Lab Memo 848b), for which TeX source is included. It is written partly in C, but is presently hard to bootstrap. Binaries that can be used to bootstrap Scheme are available for:

If your system is not on this list and you don't enjoy the bootstrap challenge, see the JACAL item in section GNU Software.

X11 Tapes

The two X11 tapes contain Version 11, Release 6 of the MIT X Window System. The first tape contains all of the core software, documentation and some contributed clients. We call this the "required" X tape since it is necessary for running X or running GNU Emacs under X. The second, "optional" tape contains contributed libraries and other toolkits, the Andrew User Interface System, games, and other programs.

The X11 Required tape also contains all fixes and patches released to date. We update this tape as new fixes and patches are released for programs on both tapes. See section Tape & CD-ROM Subscription Service.

We will distribute X11R5 on tape until X11R6 is stable, and on the section November 1993 Source Code CD-ROM, while supplies last.

Berkeley 4.4BSD--Lite Tape

The "4.4BSD--Lite" release is the last from the Computer Systems Research Group at the University of California at Berkeley. It includes most of the BSD software system except for a few proprietary files that still remain in the full 4.4BSD distribution.

VMS Emacs and VMS Compiler Tapes

We offer two VMS tapes. One has just GNU Emacs 18.59 (none of the other software on the section Emacs Tape, is included). The other has GCC 2.3.3, Bison 1.19 (to compile GCC), GAS 1.38 (to assemble GCC's output) and some library and include files (none of the other software on the section Languages Tape, is included). We are not aware of a GDB port for VMS. Both VMS tapes have executables from which you can bootstrap, as the DEC VMS C compiler cannot compile GCC. Please do not ask us to devote effort to VMS support, because it is peripheral to the GNU Project.


We currently offer these CD-ROMs:

Our CD-ROMs are in ISO 9660 format and can be mounted as a read-only file system on most operating systems. If your driver supports it you can mount each CD-ROM with "Rock Ridge" extensions and it will look just like an ordinary Unix file system, rather than one full of truncated and otherwise mangled names that fit the vanilla ISO 9660 specifications.

You can build most of the software without copying the sources off the CD. You only need enough disk space for object files and intermediate build targets.

Pricing of the GNU CD-ROMs

If a business or organization is ultimately paying, the May 1994 Source CD costs $400. It costs $100 if you, an individual, are paying out of your own pocket. The Compiler Tools Binaries CD-ROM costs $240 for a business or organization, and $60 for an individual.

May 1994 Source Code CD-ROM

The Free Software Foundation has produced the fourth edition of its Source Code CD-ROM. It contains the following packages:

The CD-ROM also contains Texinfo source for the GNU Emacs Lisp Reference Manual Edition 2.3 for version 19, and other manuals listed in section GNU Documentation; as well as a snapshot of the Emacs Lisp Archive at Ohio State University. (You can get the libraries in this archive by anonymous FTP from in `/pub/gnu/emacs/elisp-archive'.)

The contents of the MIT Scheme, X11 Optional and VMS tapes are not included. Programs that are only on MS-DOS diskettes and not on the tapes are also not included. See section Tapes, and section MS-DOS Diskettes.

Except for the Ghostview for Windows executable, there are no precompiled programs on this CD. You will need a C compiler. (Programs which need some other interpreter or compiler normally provide the C source for a bootstrapping program.)

November 1993 Source Code CD-ROM

The Free Software Foundation is still distributing the third edition of its Source Code CD-ROM. We are doing so because it contains X11R5, and we feel that people should have a choice between X11R5 and X11R6 until the latter is stable. Because the other software on the third edition is older than that on the fourth edition, we have reduced the price of the third edition. The third edition contains the following packages:

The CD-ROM also contains Texinfo source for the GNU Emacs Lisp Reference Manual Edition 2.02 for version 19, and other manuals listed in section GNU Documentation; as well as a snapshot of the Emacs Lisp Archive at Ohio State University. (You can get the libraries in this archive by anonymous FTP from in `/pub/gnu/emacs/elisp-archive'.)

The contents of the MIT Scheme, X11 Optional and VMS tapes are not included. Programs that are only on MS-DOS diskettes and not on the tapes are also not included. See section Tapes, and section MS-DOS Diskettes.

Except for the MIT Scheme binaries for MS-DOS and the Ghostview for Windows executable, there are no precompiled programs on this CD. You will need a C compiler (programs which need some other interpreter or compiler normally provide the C source for a bootstrapping program).

Compiler Tools Binaries CD-ROM

We are now offering a CD-ROM that contains executables for GNU compiler tools for some systems which lack a compiler. This helps people with 80386 and 80486 machines running MS-D0S, not to mention HP--PA machines running HP-UX 9, and Sparcs running SunOS 4.1 & Solaris 2.

This enables the people who use these systems to compile GNU and other free software without having to buy a proprietary compiler.

We hope to have more systems on each update of this CD-ROM. If you can help build binaries for new systems (especially those that don't come with a C compiler), or have one to suggest, please contact us at the addresses on the top menu.

These packages:

For these platforms:

MS-DOS Diskettes

The FSF distributes, on 3.5inch 1.44MB diskettes, some of the GNU software ported to MS-DOS. The disks have both sources and executables.

DJGPP Diskettes

We offer DJGPP on 21 diskettes. For details, see section GNU Software.

Emacs Diskettes

Demacs is a version of GNU Emacs. Two versions are included on the six diskettes we distribute: one handles 8-bit character sets; the other, based on an early version of MULE, handles 16-bit character sets including Kanji.

We will be replacing Demacs with the MS-DOS port of GNU Emacs 19, as soon as the port is ready. The number of diskettes is not yet known. See section GNU Software, for details about both programs.

Selected Utilities Diskettes

The GNUish MS-DOS Project releases GNU software ported to PC compatibles. We offer these programs on five diskettes. In general, this software will run on 8086 and 80286--based machines; an 80386 is not required. Some of these utilities are necessarily missing features. Included are: cpio, diff, find, flex, gdbm, grep, indent, less, m4, make, ptx, RCS, sed, shar, sort, & Texinfo.

Windows Diskette

We offer GNU Chess and gnuplot for Microsoft Windows on a single diskette.

Tape & CD-ROM Subscription Service

If you do not have net access, our subscription service enables you to stay current with the latest FSF developments. For a one-time cost equivalent to three tapes or CD-ROMs (plus shipping in some cases), we will ship you four new versions of the tape of your choice or the Source Code CD-ROM. The tapes are sent each quarter, the CD-ROMs are sent as they are issued (which is currently twice a year, but we may issue it more frequently in the future.)

Regularly, we will send you a new version of an Emacs, Languages, Utilities, or MIT X Window System (X11R6) Required tape or the Source CD-ROM. The MIT Scheme and MIT X Window System Optional tapes are not changed often enough to warrant quarterly updates. We do not yet know if we will be offering subscriptions to the Compiler Tools Binaries CD-ROM.

Since Emacs 19 is on the Emacs Tape and the Source CD-ROM, a subscription to either is an easy way to keep current with Emacs 19 as it evolves.

A subscription is also an easy way to keep up with the regular bug fixes to the MIT X Window System. We will update the X11R6 Required tape as fixes and patches are issued throughout the year. Each new edition of the section May 1994 Source Code CD-ROM, also has updated sources for the MIT X Window System.

Please note: In two cases, you must pay 4 times the normal shipping required for a single order when you pay for each subscription. If you're in Alaska, Hawaii, or Puerto Rico you must add $20.00 for shipping for each subscription. If you're outside of U.S., Canada, and Puerto Rico, you have to add $120.00 for shipping subscription. See "Unix and VMS Software" & "Shipping Instructions" on the see section Free Software Foundation Order Form.

The Deluxe Distribution

The Free Software Foundation has been repeatedly asked to create a package that provides executables for all of our software. Normally we offer only sources. In addition to providing binaries with the source code, the Deluxe Distribution includes a complete set of our printed manuals and reference cards.

The FSF Deluxe Distribution contains the binaries and sources to hundreds of different programs including GNU Emacs, the GNU C Compiler, the GNU Debugger, the complete MIT X Window System, and all the GNU utilities.

You may choose one of these machines and operating systems: HP 9000 series 300, 700 or 800 (4.3BSD or HP-UX); RS/6000 (AIX); SONY News 68k (4.3BSD or NewsOS 4); Sun-3, Sun-4, or SPARC (SunOS 4 or Solaris). If your machine or system is not listed, or if a specific program has not been ported to that machine, please call the FSF office at the phone number below or send e-mail to to see what we can do.

We supply the software on one of these tape formats in Unix tar format: 1600 or 6250bpi 1/2in reel; Sun DC300XLP 1/4in cartridge, QIC-24; Hewlett-Packard 16-track DC600HC 1/4in cartridge; IBM RS/6000 1/4in cartridge, QIC-150; Exabyte 8mm cartridge; DAT 4mm cartridge. If your computer cannot read any of these, please contact us to see if we can handle your format.

The manuals included are one each of the Bison, Calc, Gawk, GNU C Compiler, GNU C Library, GDB, Flex, GNU Emacs 19 Lisp Reference, Make, Texinfo, and Termcap manuals; six copies of the GNU Emacs 19 manual; and packets of ten reference cards each for GNU Emacs, Calc, GDB, Bison, & Flex. In addition, every Deluxe Distribution includes CD-ROMs (in ISO 9660 format with Rock Ridge extensions) that contain sources of our software & compiler tool binaries for some systems.

The price of the Deluxe Distribution is $5000 (shipping included). It is designed for people who want to have everything compiled for them. These sales provide enormous financial assistance towards helping the FSF develop more free software. To order, please fill out the "Deluxe Distribution" section on the see section Free Software Foundation Order Form. and send it to:

   Free Software Foundation, Inc.
   675 Massachusetts Avenue
   Cambridge, MA   02139--3309

   Telephone: +1-617-876-3296
   Fax:       +1-617-492-9057
   Fax (in Japan):
              0031-13-2473 (KDD)
              0066-3382-0158 (IDC)
   Electronic mail:

How to Get GNU Software

All the software and publications from the Free Software Foundation are distributed with permission to copy and redistribute. The easiest way to get GNU software is to copy it from someone else who has it. You can get GNU software direct from the FSF by ordering diskettes, tapes, or CD-ROMs. Such orders provide most of the funds for the FSF staff to develop more free software, so please support our work by ordering if you can. See the see section Free Software Foundation Order Form.

There are also third party groups who distribute our software; they do not work with us, but can provide our software in other forms. Some are listed in section Free Software for Microcomputers. Please note that the Free Software Foundation is not affiliated with them in any way and is not responsible for either the currency of their versions or the swiftness of their responses.

If you decide to do business with one of these distributors, ask them how much they do to assist free software development, e.g., by contributing money to free software development projects or by writing free software themselves for general use. By basing your decision partially on this factor, you can help encourage those who profit from free software to contribute to its growth.

Our main FTP host is very busy and only allows a limited number of FTP logins. Please use one of these other TCP/IP Internet sites that also provide GNU software via anonymous FTP (program: ftp, user: anonymous, password: your e-mail address, mode: binary). If you have FTP access but can't reach one of the hosts listed below, you can get the software via FTP using the same protocol from GNU's main FTP host, (IP address is For more details, get the file `/pub/gnu/GETTING.GNU.SOFTWARE'.

Those on JANET can look under in `/gnu'.

Those who can UUCP can get UUCP instructions via electronic mail from: (Europe) and (Japan)

For those without Internet access, see section Free Software Support, for information on getting electronic mail and file transfer via UUCP.

Other GPLed Software

This copylefted software is not presently distributed by the FSF. You can FTP a fuller list from host in file `/pub/gnu/GPLedSoftware'. GNU Emacs Lisp Libraries are not listed. FTP from file `/pub/gnu/emacs/elisp-archive/LCD-datafile.Z'. Please let either address on the top menu know of additional entries.

Free Software for Microcomputers

We do not provide support for GNU software on microcomputers because it is peripheral to the GNU Project. However, we are willing to publish information about groups who do support and maintain them. If you are aware of any such efforts, please send the details, including postal addresses, archive sites and mailing lists, to either address on the top menu.

See section MS-DOS Diskettes, and section CD-ROMs, for microcomputer software available from the FSF. Please do not ask us about any other software. We do not maintain any of it and have no additional information.

FSF T-shirt

We have Free Software Foundation T-shirts, with a drawing by Cambridge artist Jamal Hannah. They are available in two colors, Natural and Black. Natural is an off-white, unbleached, undyed, environment-friendly cotton, printed with black ink, and is great for tye-dyeing or displaying as is. Black is printed with white ink and is perfect for late night hacking. All shirts are thick 100% cotton, and are available in sizes M, L, XL and XXL.

The front of the T-shirt has an image of a GNU hacking at a workstation with the text "GNU's Not Unix" above and the text "Free Software Foundation" below. We have added a copy of the GNU General Public License to the T-shirt's back, which used to be blank.

Use the see section Free Software Foundation Order Form, to order your shirt, and consider getting one as a present for your favorite hacker!

...imagine how little used calculus would have been if a court had decided that no one could study, use or do research on it without paying a royalty to Newton's designated heirs.

- The Independent, October 5, 1992

Project GNU Wish List

Wishes for this issue are for:

Thank GNUs

A special thank gnu to Lisa "Opus" Goldstein who ran the FSF Business Office for many years, and has also been the FSF Treasurer. We will miss her as she moves to China.

Thanks to all those mentioned elsewhere in this Bulletin!

Thanks to the Artificial Intelligence Laboratory, Laboratory for Computer Science, and Project Athena at MIT for their invaluable assistance.

Thanks to the many companies and organizations who have bought our Deluxe Distribution package.

Thanks to Len Kagelmacher and Scott Ewing for helping the FSF coordinate all the volunteers in the GNU Project.

Thanks to the Japan Unix Society for their large grant to support Hurd development. For their assistance in Japan, thanks to: Nobuyuki Hikichi, Mieko Hikichi, Ken'ichi Handa, Prof. Masayuki Ida, and Yukitoshi Fujimura. Thanks to Addison-Wesley Publishers Japan Ltd., A.I. Soft, Village Center, Inc., Shosen Book Tower, Shosen Grande, ASCII Corporation and many others in Japan, for their continued donations and support.

Thanks to the Sun Users Group, PCI, and the USENIX Association, for donating booths at their conferences. Thanks to all the volunteers who helped the GNU Project at these and other conferences. Thanks to Wired Magazine and Barry Meikle of the University of Toronto Bookstore for donating ad space in their separate publications. Thanks again to the Open Software Foundation for their continued support, and to Cygnus Support for assisting Project GNU in many ways. Thanks to Warren A. Hunt, Jr. and Computational Logic, Inc. for their donation and support. Thanks to Aalborg University for donating a part-time programmer.

Thanks go out to all those who have either lent or donated machines, including Doug Lewan for a Sun workstation; an anonymous donor for a 4mm DAT cartridge drive; IBM Corp. for an Exabyte tape drive and an RS/6000; Hewlett-Packard for two 80486, six 68030 and four Spectrum computers; Brewster Kahle of Thinking Machines Corp. for a Sun-4/110; CMU's Mach Project for a Sun-3/60; Intel Corp. for their 386 machine; NeXT for their workstation; the MIT Media Laboratory for a Hewlett-Packard 68020; SONY Corp. and Software Research Associates, Inc., both of Tokyo, for three SONY News workstations; the MIT Laboratory of Computer Science for the DEC MicroVAX; the Open Software Foundation for two Compaq 386s; Delta Microsystems for an Exabyte tape drive; an anonymous donor for 5 IBM RT/PCs; Liant Software Corp. for 5 VT100s; Jerry Peek for a 386 machine; NCD Corporation for an X terminal; Interleaf, Inc., for the loan of a scanner; and Rocky Bernstein for much IBM RT hardware and manuals.

Thanks to all who have contributed ports & extensions, as well as all who have sent in other source code, documentation, & good bug reports.

Thanks to all those who sent money and offered other kinds of help.

Thanks also to all those who support us by ordering manuals, distribution tapes, diskettes, and CD-ROMs.

The creation of this bulletin is our way of thanking all who have expressed interest in what we are doing.

Donations Translate Into Free Software

If you appreciate Emacs, GNU CC, Ghostscript, and other free software, you may wish to help us make sure there is more in the future--remember, donations translate into more free software!

Your donation to us is tax-deductible in the United States. We gladly accept any currency, although the U.S. dollar is the most convenient.

If your employer has a matching gifts program for charitable donations, please arrange to have your donation matched by your employer (or, in some cases, by Cygnus Support (see section Cygnus Matches Donations!). If you do not know, please ask your personnel department. Also try and get the FSF listed on the list of organizations for your company's matching gifts program.

   $500     $250     $100     $50     other $________

   Other currency:________

Circle the amount you are donating, cut out this form, and send it with your donation to:

   Free Software Foundation
   675 Massachusetts Avenue
   Cambridge, MA   02139-3309

You can charge a donation to any of Visa, Mastercard, JCB, Diner's Club, or Carte Blanche. Charges may also be faxed to +1-617-492-9057; in Japan fax to: 0031-13-2473 (KDD) or 0066-3382-0158 (IDC).

Card type: __________________  Expiration Date: _____________

Account Number: _____________________________________________

Your Signature: _____________________________________________

Cygnus Matches Donations!

To encourage cash donations to the Free Software Foundation, Cygnus Support will continue to contribute corporate funds to FSF to accompany gifts by its employees, and by its customers and their employees.

Donations payable to the Free Software Foundation should be sent by eligible persons to Cygnus Support, which will add its gifts and forward the total to the FSF each quarter. The FSF will provide the contributor with a receipt to recognize the contribution (which is tax-deductible on U.S. tax returns). For more information, please contact Cygnus at

   Cygnus Support
   1937 Landings Drive
   Mountain View, CA   94043

   Telephone: 415-903-1400
   Fax:       415-903-0122
   WWW: `'

Free Software Foundation Order Form

All items are distributed with permission to copy and to redistribute.
Texinfo source for each manual and source for each reference card is on the
appropriate tape, diskette, or CD-ROM; the prices for these magnetic media
do not include printed documentation.  All items are provided on an "as is"
basis, with no warranty of any kind.  Please allow six weeks for delivery
(though it won't usually take that long).


Unix and VMS Software

The following tapes in the formats indicated (see section Tapes, for contents):

        Please circle the dollar amount for each tape you order.

                Reel to   Sun (1)   HP        IBM (2)   Exabyte  DAT
                reel                          RS/6000
                Unix tar  Unix tar  Unix tar  Unix tar  Unix tar Unix tar
                9-track   QIC-24    16-track  QIC-150
                1600 bpi  DC300XLP  DC600HC   DC600A
                1/2" reel 1/4" c.t. 1/4" c.t. 1/4" c.t. 8mm c.t. 4mm c.t.

    (c.t. = cartridge tape)

Emacs           $200      $210      $230      $215 (3)  $205     $225
Languages       $200      $210      $230      $215      $205     $225
Utilities       $200      $210      $230      $215      $205     $225
4.4BSD-Lite     $200      $210      $230      $215      $205     $225
Scheme          $200      $210      $230      $215      $205     $225
X11r5-Required  $200      $210      $230      $215      $205     $225
X11r5-Optional  $200      $210      $230      $215      $205     $225
X11r6-Required  $200      $210      $230      $215      $205     $225
X11r6-Optional  $200      $210      $230      $215      $205     $225

         (1) Sun tapes can be read on some other Unix systems.
         (2) IBM RS/6000 tapes can be read on some other Unix systems.
         (3) The IBM Emacs tape also has binaries for GNU Emacs.

Subscriptions, 4 updates for one year (see section Tape & CD-ROM Subscription Service):

Emacs           $600      $630      $690      $645      $615     $675
Languages       $600      $630      $690      $645      $615     $675
Utilities       $600      $630      $690      $645      $615     $675
X11r6-Required  $600      $630      $690      $645      $615     $675

      Subtotal $ ______  Please put total of the above circled amounts here.

The following, on 1600 bpi reel-to-reel 9 track 1/2" tapes, in VMS BACKUP
format (aka interchange format) (see section VMS Emacs and VMS Compiler Tapes):

____ @ $195  = $ ______   VMS Emacs, GNU Emacs source & executables only.

____ @ $195  = $ ______   VMS Compiler, GCC, GAS, and Bison source and
                          executables only.

FSF Deluxe Distribution (see section The Deluxe Distribution):

____ @ $5000 = $ ______   The Deluxe Distribution, with manuals, etc.

Machine: _____________________________________________________________________

Operating system: ____________________________________________________________

Media type: __________________________________________________________________

CD-ROM, in ISO 9660 format (see section Compiler Tools Binaries CD-ROM):

____ @ $240  = $ ______   GNU Compiler Tools Binaries CD-ROM for
                          corporations and other organizations.
____ @  $60  = $ ______   GNU Compiler Tools Binaries CD-ROM for individuals.

Source Code CD-ROM, in ISO 9660 format (see section May 1994 Source Code CD-ROM):

  *** NEW !!! ***

____ @ $400  = $ ______   GNU Source Code CD-ROM, May 1994 edition with X11r6,
                          for corporations and other organizations.  NEW !!!
____ @ $100  = $ ______   GNU Source Code CD-ROM, May 1994 edition with X11r6,
                          for individuals.  NEW !!!

Source Code CD-ROM, in ISO 9660 format (see section November 1993 Source Code CD-ROM):

  *** PRICE REDUCED !!! ***

____ @ $260  = $ ______   GNU Source Code CD-ROM, November 1993 edition with
                          X11r5, for corporations & other organizations.
                                        PRICE REDUCED !!!
____ @  $65  = $ ______   GNU Source Code CD-ROM, November 1993 edition with
                          X11r5, for individuals.    PRICE REDUCED !!!

Subscriptions, next 4 updates, of the Source Code CD-ROM, in ISO 9660 format
(see section Tape & CD-ROM Subscription Service):

____ @ $1200 = $ ______   Subscription to the GNU Source Code CD-ROM for
                          corporations and other organizations.
____ @ $300  = $ ______   Subscription to the GNU Source Code CD-ROM for

MS-DOS Software

The following sources and executables for MS-DOS, on 3.5" 1.44MB diskettes
(see section MS-DOS Diskettes):

  *** BEING UPDATED !!! ***
____ @ $ 90  = $ ______   Emacs diskettes, GNU Emacs, for 80386 and up.
                          BEING UPDATED !!!
____ @ $ 80  = $ ______   DJGPP diskettes, GCC version 2, for 80386 and up
                          (also on the "Compiler Tools Binaries CD-ROM").
____ @ $ 85  = $ ______   Selected Utilities diskettes, 8086 and up.

____ @ $ 40  = $ ______   Windows diskette, GNU Chess and gnuplot for
                          Microsoft Windows.


The following manuals (see section GNU Documentation):

____ @ $ 25  = $ ______   GNU Emacs version 19 manual, unit price for 1 to 5
                          copies, about 418 pages, new 9th edition with a
                          reference card.
____ @ $ 17  = $ ______   GNU Emacs version 19 manuals, unit price for 6 or
  *** UPDATED !!! ***
____ @ $ 50  = $ ______   GNU Emacs Lisp Reference version 19 manual, about
                          756 pages in 2 volumes.  UPDATED for Emacs 19.23!!
____ @ $200  = $ ______   A box of 5 GNU Emacs Lisp Reference version 19
                          manuals.        UPDATED for Emacs 19.23!!
  *** UPDATED !!! ***
____ @ $ 50  = $ ______   Using and Porting GNU CC version 2.5, about 428
                          pages.                UPDATED !!!
____ @ $ 50  = $ ______   GNU C Library Reference Manual, about 670 pages.

____ @ $ 50  = $ ______   GNU Emacs Calc manual, about 596 pages, with a
                          reference card.
____ @ $ 20  = $ ______   Debugging with GDB, about 182 pages, with a reference
  *** UPDATED !!! ***
____ @ $ 20  = $ ______   Texinfo manual, about 248 pages.  UPDATED !!!

____ @ $ 20  = $ ______   Gawk manual, about 188 pages.

____ @ $ 20  = $ ______   Make manual, about 158 pages.

____ @ $ 20  = $ ______   Bison manual, about 98 pages, with a reference card.

____ @ $ 20  = $ ______   Flex manual, about 124 pages, with a reference card.

____ @ $ 15  = $ ______   Termcap manual, 68 pages.

Older Manuals

____ @ $ 25  = $ ______   GNU Emacs version 18 manual, unit price for 1 to 5
                          copies, about 410 pages, with a reference card.
____ @ $ 17  = $ ______   GNU Emacs version 18 manuals, unit price for 6 or
____ @ $ 50  = $ ______   GNU Emacs Lisp Reference version 18 manual, about
                          614 pages in 2 volumes.
____ @ $200  = $ ______   A box of 5 GNU Emacs Lisp Reference version 18

Reference Cards

The following reference cards, unit price, without the manuals:

____ @ $  2  = $ ______   GNU Emacs version 18 reference card.

____ @ $  2  = $ ______   GNU Emacs version 19 reference card.

____ @ $  2  = $ ______   GNU Emacs Calc reference card.

____ @ $  2  = $ ______   GDB reference card.

____ @ $  2  = $ ______   Bison reference card.

____ @ $  2  = $ ______   Flex reference card.

The following reference cards, in packets of ten:

____ @ $ 10  = $ ______   GNU Emacs version 18 reference cards.

____ @ $ 10  = $ ______   GNU Emacs version 19 reference cards.

____ @ $ 10  = $ ______   GNU Emacs Calc reference cards.

____ @ $ 10  = $ ______   GDB reference cards.

____ @ $ 10  = $ ______   Bison reference cards.

____ @ $ 10  = $ ______   Flex reference cards.


GNU/FSF T-shirts, thick 100% cotton (see section FSF T-shirt):

The back of the t-shirt, which used to be blank, now has a copy of the GNU
General Public License on it.

____ @ $ 15  = $ ______   Size M     ____ natural  ____ black.

____ @ $ 15  = $ ______   Size L     ____ natural  ____ black.

____ @ $ 15  = $ ______   Size XL    ____ natural  ____ black.

____ @ $ 15  = $ ______   Size XXL   ____ natural  ____ black.

      Subtotal $ ______

Tax and Shipping Costs

             + $ ______   In  Massachusetts:  add 5% sales tax, or give tax
                          exempt number.
             + $ ______   In Alaska, Hawaii, or Puerto Rico for shipping:
                          for GNU Emacs Lisp Reference and GNU Emacs Calc
                          manuals, add $5 each, or $20 per box.  For all other
                          items, add $5 base charge, then $1 per item except
                          reference cards; i.e.,
                          shipping for all other items = $5 + $1 * n.
                          Add $20 for each tape or CD-ROM subscription.
             + $ ______   Outside of U.S., Canada, and Puerto Rico for
                          shipping:  Add $20 base charge, and then add $10
                          more for *each* item (except reference cards) in the
                          order; i.e.,
                          shipping for all other items = $20 + $10 * n.
                          Add $120 for each tape or CD-ROM subscription.
             + $ ______   Optional (tax-deductible in the U.S.) donation.

         TOTAL $ ______   We pay for shipping via UPS ground transportation in
                          the contiguous 48 states and Canada.

Shipping Information

Name: ________________________________________________________________________

Mail Stop/Dept. Name: ________________________________________________________

Organization: ________________________________________________________________

Street Address: ______________________________________________________________

City/State/Province: _________________________________________________________

Zip Code/Postal Code/Country: ________________________________________________

Telephone number in case of a problem with your order.
For international orders, please include a FAX number. _______________________

Orders filled only upon receipt of check, money order or credit card order in
U.S. dollars.  Unpaid orders will be returned to the sender.  We do not have
the staff to handle the billing of unpaid orders.  Please help keep our lives
simple by including your payment with your order.

For orders from outside the U.S.:

Orders must be paid in U.S. dollars.  You are responsible for paying all
duties, tariffs, and taxes.  If you refuse to pay the charges, the shipper
will return or abandon the order.

Please make checks payable to the "Free Software Foundation".

For Credit Card Orders:

The Free Software Foundation takes these credit cards: Visa, Mastercard, JCB,
Diner's Club, and Carte Blanche.  Please note that we are charged about 5% of
an order's total amount in credit card processing fees.  Please consider
paying by check instead, or adding on a 5% donation to make up the difference.
To place a credit card order, please give us this information:

Card type: ___________________________________________________________________

Account Number: ______________________________________________________________

Expiration Date: _____________________________________________________________

Your Signature: ______________________________________________________________

For wire transfers orders:  Call or write us for details.

                         Please mail orders to: Free Software Foundation
                                                675 Massachusetts Avenue
Version: June 1994 Info Bull                    Cambridge, MA  02139  USA
                                                FAX: +1-617-492-9057
                                                FAX numbers in Japan:
PRICES AND CONTENTS MAY CHANGE                          0031-13-2473 (KDD)
WITHOUT NOTICE AFTER January 31, 1995.                  0066-3382-0158 (IDC)

Address Page

Free Software Foundation, Inc                          |       |
Electronic Mail:                   | stamp |
675 Massachusetts Avenue                               |       |
Cambridge, MA  02139-3309                              | here  |
USA                                                    |       |