GNU's Bulletin, vol. 1 no. 19, June, 1995

Table of Contents

The GNU's Bulletin is the semi-annual newsletter of the Free Software Foundation, bringing you news about the GNU Project.

Free Software Foundation, Inc.          Telephone: +1--617--542--5942
51 Franklin St -- Fifth Floor             Fax: (including Japan) +1--617--542--2652
Boston, MA   02110-1301                Free Dial Fax (in Japan):
USA                                                     0031--13--2473 (KDD)
Electronic mail:                  0066--3382--0158 (IDC)

GNU's Who

Miles Bader has joined us to work on the Hurd with Michael Bushnell and Roland McGrath. Roland also maintains make and the GNU C library. Ian Murdock does Debian GNU/Linux releases and other programming tasks. Karl Heuer enhances GNU Emacs.

Daniel Hagerty is our system obfuscator and release coordinator. Melissa Weisshaus is working on special documentation projects. Volunteer Charles Hannum helps with typesetting and many other jobs.

Robert J. Chassell is our Secretary/Treasurer. Lisa Bloch is our Executive Director. Bryttan Bradley manages many of the functions of the FSF Office, and Mike Drain is our Distribution Manager. Gena L. Bean has been working part time on special projects.

Richard Stallman continues as a volunteer who does countless tasks, such as Emacs maintenance. Thanks to volunteer Scott Ewing for helping to coordinate all the volunteers in the GNU Project. Thanks to volunteer Tami Friedman for handling much administrivia here at the FSF. Volunteer Len Tower remains our online JOAT (jack-of-all-trades), handling mailing lists, gnUSENET newsgroups, information requests, etc.

Administrivia and Copyright

Written and Edited by: Melissa Weisshaus, Daniel Hagerty, Robert J. Chassell, and Leonard H. Tower Jr.

Illustrations by: Etienne Suvasa

Japanese Edition by: Mieko Hikichi and Nobuyuki Hikichi

ISSN (International Standard Serial Number): 1075-7813

The GNU's Bulletin is published at the end of January and the end of June each year. Please note that there is no postal mailing list. To get a copy, send your name and address with your request to the address on the top menu. Enclosing $0.78 in US Postage and/or a donation of a few dollars is appreciated but not required. If you're from outside the USA, sending a mailing label and enough International Reply Coupons for a package of about 100 grams is appreciated but not required. (Including a few extra International Reply Coupons for copying costs is also appreciated.)

Copyright (C) 1995 Free Software Foundation, Inc.

This page is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NoDerivs 3.0 United States License.


...imagine how little used calculus would have been if a court had decided that no one could study, use, or do research on it without paying a royalty to Newton's designated heirs.

- The Independent, October 5, 1992


What Is the FSF?

The Free Software Foundation is dedicated to eliminating restrictions on people's right to use, copy, modify, and redistribute computer programs. We do this by promoting the development and use of free software. Specifically, we are putting together a complete, integrated software system named "GNU" (pronounced "guh-new", "GNU's Not Unix") that will be upwardly compatible with Unix. Most parts of this system are already being used and distributed.

The word "free" in our name refers to freedom, not price. You may or may not pay money to get GNU software, but either way you have two specific freedoms once you get it: first, the freedom to copy a program, and distribute it to your friends and co-workers; and second, the freedom to change a program as you wish, by having full access to source code. You can study the source and learn how such programs are written. You may then be able to port it, improve it, and share your changes with others. If you redistribute GNU software you may charge a distribution fee or give it away, so long as you include the source code and the GPL; see section What Is Copyleft?, for details.

Other organizations distribute whatever free software happens to be available. By contrast, the Free Software Foundation concentrates on the development of new free software, working towards a GNU system complete enough to eliminate the need to use a proprietary system.

Besides developing GNU, the FSF distributes GNU software and manuals for a distribution fee, and accepts gifts (tax-deductible in the U.S.) to support GNU development. Most of the FSF's funds come from its distribution service.

The Board of the Foundation is: Richard M. Stallman, President; Robert J. Chassell, Secretary/Treasurer; Gerald J. Sussman, Harold Abelson, and Leonard H. Tower Jr., Directors.

What Is Copyleft?

The simplest way to make a program free is to put it in the public domain, uncopyrighted. But this permits proprietary modified versions, which deny others the freedom to redistribute and modify; such versions undermine the goal of giving freedom to all users. To prevent this, copyleft uses copyrights in a novel manner. Typically, copyrights take away freedoms; copyleft preserves them. It is a legal instrument that requires those who pass on a program to include the rights to use, modify, and redistribute the code; the code and the freedoms become legally inseparable.

The copyleft used by the GNU Project is made from the combination of a regular copyright notice and the GNU General Public License (GPL). The GPL is a copying license which basically says that you have the aforementioned freedoms. An alternate form, the GNU Library General Public License (LGPL), applies to a few GNU libraries. This license permits linking the libraries into proprietary executables under certain conditions. The appropriate license is included in each GNU source code distribution and in many manuals. Printed copies are available upon request.

We strongly encourage you to copyleft your programs and documentation, and we have made it as simple as possible for you to do so. The details on how to apply either form of GNU Public License appear at the end of each license.

What Is the Hurd?

The Hurd will be the foundation of the GNU system. It is a collection of server processes that run on top of Mach, a free message-passing kernel developed at CMU. Mach's virtual memory management facilities are also used by the Hurd. The GNU C Library will provide the Unix system call interface, using the Hurd servers for those services it can't provide itself.

One goal of the Hurd is to establish a framework for shared development and maintenance. The Hurd is like GNU Emacs in that it will allow users to create and share useful projects without knowing much about the internal workings of the system--projects that might never have been attempted without freely available source, a well-designed interface, and a multiple server design.

Currently, there are free ports of the Mach kernel to the 386 PC, the DEC PMAX workstation, and several other machines, with more in progress, including the Amiga, PA-RISC HP 700, & DEC Alpha-3000. Contact us if you want to help with one of these or start your own. Porting the GNU Hurd & GNU C Library is easy (easier than porting GNU Emacs, certainly easier than porting the compiler) once a Mach port to a particular platform exists. Right now we are using the University of Utah's Mach distribution which we hope will be unified with the distribution produced by the Open Software Foundation.

See section GNUs Flashes for a report on recent progress.

We need volunteers for significant projects relating to the Hurd. Experienced system programmers who are interested should please send mail to Porting the Mach kernel or the GNU C Library to new systems is another way to help development of the Hurd.

GNU Utilities Safer!

Barton P. Miller & his colleagues tested the reliability of Unix utility programs in 1990 & 1995. Each time, GNU's utilities came out considerably ahead. They tested seven commercial Unix systems as well as GNU. By subjecting them to a random input stream, they could "crash (with core dump) or hang (infinite loop) over 40% (in the worst case) of the basic utility programs ..." They found that the commercial Unix systems had a failure rate that ranged from 15% -- 43%. In contrast, the failure rate for GNU was only 7%.

For details, see the paper Fuzz Revisited: A Re-examination of the Reliability of Unix Utilities and Services by Barton P. Miller, David Koski, Cjin Pheow Lee, Vivekananda Maganty, Ravi Murthy, Ajitkumar Natarajan, and Jeff Steidl, which is available on the World Wide Web at URL: `'.

Conditions for Using Bison

As of Bison version 1.24, we have changed the distribution terms for yyparse to permit using Bison's output in non-free programs. Formerly, Bison parsers could be used only in programs that were free software.

The other GNU tools, such as the GNU C compiler, have never had such a requirement. They could always be used for non-free software. The reason Bison was different was not due to a special policy decision; it resulted from applying the usual General Public License to all of the Bison source code.

The output of the Bison utility--a parser file--contains a verbatim copy of a sizable piece of Bison: the code for the yyparse function. (The actions from your grammar are inserted into yyparse at one point, but the rest of the function is not changed.) When we applied the GPL terms to the code for yyparse, the effect was to restrict the use of Bison output to free software.

We didn't change the terms because of sympathy for people who want to make software proprietary. Software should be free. But we concluded that limiting Bison's use to free software was doing little to encourage people to make other software free. So we decided to make the practical conditions for using Bison match the practical conditions for using the other GNU tools.

GNUs Flashes

Help from Free Software Companies

When choosing a free software business, ask those you are considering how much they do to assist free software development, e.g., by contributing money to free software development or by writing free software improvements themselves for general use. By basing your decision partially on this factor, you can help encourage those who profit from free software to contribute to its growth.

Wingnut (SRA's special GNU support group) regularly donates a part of its income to the FSF to support the development of new GNU programs. Listing them here is our way of thanking them. Wingnut has made a pledge to donate 10% of their income to the FSF, and has purchased several Deluxe Distribution packages in Japan. Also see section Cygnus Matches Donations!.

   Wingnut Project
   Software Research Associates, Inc.
   1-1-1 Hirakawa-cho, Chiyoda-ku
   Tokyo 102, Japan

   Phone:  (+81-3)3234-2611
   Fax:    (+81-3)3942-5174

Free Software Redistributors Donate

The Sun Users Group Deutschland and ASCII Corporation (Japan) have added donations to the FSF to the price of their next CD-ROM of GNU software. The producers of the SNOW 2.1 CD added the words "Includes $5 donation to the FSF" to the front of their CD. Potential buyers will know precisely how much of the price is for the FSF and how much is for the redistributor.

Austin Code Works, a redistributor of free software, is supporting free software development by giving the FSF 20% of the selling price for the GNU software packages they produce and sell. Walnut Creek CDROM and Info Magic, two more free software redistributors, are also giving us a percentage of their selling price. CQ Publishing made a large donation from the sales of their book about GAWK in Japanese.

In the long run, the success of free software depends on how much new free software people develop. Free software distribution offers an opportunity to raise funds for such development in an ethical way. These redistributors have made use of the opportunity. Many others let it go to waste.

You can help promote free software development by convincing for-a-fee redistributors to contribute--either by doing development themselves or by donating to development organizations (the FSF and others).

The way to convince distributors to contribute is to demand and expect this of them. This means choosing among distributors partly by how much they give to free software development. Then you can show distributors they must compete to be the one who gives the most.

To make this work, you must insist on numbers that you can compare, such as, "We will give ten dollars to the Foobar project for each disk sold." A vague commitment, such as "A portion of the profits is donated," doesn't give you a basis for comparison. Even a precise fraction "of the profits from this disk" is not very meaningful, since creative accounting and unrelated business decisions can greatly alter what fraction of the sales price counts as profit.

Also, press developers for firm information about what kind of development they do or support. Some kinds make much more long-term difference than others. For example, maintaining a separate version of a GNU program contributes very little; maintaining a program on behalf of the GNU Project contributes much. Easy new ports contribute little, since someone else would surely do them; difficult ports such as adding a new CPU to the GNU compiler contribute more; major new features and programs contribute the most.

By establishing the idea that supporting further development is "the proper thing to do" when distributing free software for a fee, we can assure a steady flow of resources for making more free software.

Free Software Support

The Free Software Foundation does not provide technical support. Our mission is developing software, because that is the most time-efficient way to increase what free software can do. We leave it to others to earn a living providing support. We see programmers as providing a service, much as doctors and lawyers now do; both medical and legal knowledge are freely redistributable, but their practitioners charge for service.

The GNU Service Directory is a list of people who offer support and other consulting services. It is in the file `etc/SERVICE' in the GNU Emacs distribution, `SERVICE' in the GCC distribution, and `/pub/gnu/GNUinfo/SERVICE' on a GNU FTP host (listed in section How to Get GNU Software). Contact us to get a copy or to be listed in it. Those service providers who share their income with the FSF are listed in section Help from Free Software Companies.

If you find a deficiency in any GNU software, we want to know. We have many Internet mailing lists for bug reports, announcements, and questions. They are also gatewayed into USENET news as the gnu.* newsgroups. You can request a list of the mailing lists from either address on the top menu.

When we receive a bug report, we usually try to fix the problem. While our bug fixes may seem like individual assistance, they are not; they are part of preparing a new improved version. We may send you a patch for a bug so that you can help us test the fix and ensure its quality. If your bug report does not evoke a solution from us, you may still get one from another user who reads our bug report mailing lists. Otherwise, use the Service Directory.

Please do not ask us to help you install software or learn how to use it--but do tell us how an installation script fails or where documentation is unclear.

If you have no Internet access, you can get mail and USENET news via UUCP. Contact a local UUCP site or a commercial UUCP site such as:

   UUNET Communications Services
   3060 Williams Drive
   Fairfax, VA   22031-4648

   Telephone: +1-800-4UUNET4
   Fax:       +1-703-206-5601

A list of commercial UUCP and Internet service providers is posted periodically to USENET in the newsgroup news.announce.newusers with `Subject: How to become a USENET site'. You can also get it via anonymous FTP from the host in the file `How_to_become_a_USENET_site', in the directory `/pub/usenet-by-group/news.announce.newusers'.

When choosing a service provider, ask those you are considering how much they do to assist free software development, e.g., by contributing money to free software development or by writing free software improvements themselves for general use. By basing your decision partially on this factor, you can encourage those who profit from free software to contribute to its growth.

Postcards Only!

CyberWire Dispatch points out that the United States government is continuing its efforts to ban messages that it cannot read.

Such messages use various methods of encryption. These methods are like a traditional paper envelope in that they prevent an unintended person from reading the message. But they are more effective in that only the intended recipient can `open the envelope', that is, decrypt the message and read it. From the point of view of the United States government, a ban on private encryption would turn letters into postcards.

In a Congressional hearing on 11 May 1995, FBI Director Louis Freeh said, "[W]e're in favor of strong encryption ... We just want to make sure we have a trap door and key ...".

Freeh fears that crooks will use unbreakable methods of encryption for their communications unless they are banned; but if these methods are banned, he expects crooks will obligingly use the readable, government-provided methods.

Those who oppose a ban and favor non-governmental encryption point out that a ban will be ineffective against such crooks. The encryption software already exists and is readily available. The law-abiding will send messages that can be read by the government; smart crooks will not.

As a practical matter, the FBI will have little choice but to focus on the messages of law-abiding people who are carrying out actions that are legal and patriotic, but unpopular. This has happened in the past, and there is no reason not to expect this to happen in the future.

If Freeh's hopes become law, non-governmental encryption will become illegal. In the past, the government has favored its `Clipper chip', but a more likely future plan would be for the government to certify several private companies to provide legal encryption, but only for messages that people in the government (and people who bribe them) can read.

We urge you to write your Senators and Representatives in Congress opposing this attack on Americans' Constitutional right "to be secure in their persons, houses, papers, and effects, against unreasonable search and seizures ...".

Zimmermann Legal Defense Fund Appeal

Phil Zimmermann, who wrote the public-key encryption program known as Pretty Good Privacy ("PGP") and released it on the Internet, is facing prosecution for "exporting" it out of the United States.

There is a law prohibiting the export of encryption software from the US. Zimmermann did not do this, but the U.S. government hopes to establish that posting an encryption program on a BBS or on the Internet constitutes exporting it--in effect, stretching export control into domestic censorship.

If the U.S. wins, that will have a chilling effect on the free flow of information on the global network, as well as on everyone's privacy from government snooping.

Estimates are that Zimmermann's defense will cost over $100,000--and that doesn't even count lawyers' fees. To help pay this, a legal trust fund, the Philip Zimmermann Defense Fund (PZDF), has been established. Donations are accepted in any reliable form, check, money order, or wire transfer, and in any currency, as well as by credit card.

To send a check or money order by mail, make it payable, not to Phil Zimmermann, but to "Philip L. Dubois, Attorney Trust Account." Mail the check or money order to the following address:

   Philip Dubois
   2305 Broadway
   Boulder, CO   80304

   Telephone: +1-303-444-3885

To send a wire transfer, your bank will need the following information:

   Bank: VectraBank
   Routing #: 107004365
   Account #: 0113830
   Account Name: ``Philip L. Dubois, Attorney Trust Account''

Meanwhile, the U.S. wants to prohibit the use of encryption which it cannot break, as a "counterterrorist" measure (see section Postcards Only!). To protect your privacy, write your Senators and Representatives in Congress now.

What Is the LPF?

The League for Programming Freedom (LPF) aims to protect the freedom to write software. This freedom is threatened by "look-and-feel" interface copyright lawsuits and by software patents.

The LPF is a grass-roots organization of professors, students, business people, programmers, users, and even software companies dedicated to bringing back the freedom to write programs. The League is not opposed to the legal system that Congress intended--copyright on individual programs. The LPF aims to reverse the recent changes made by judges in response to special interests.

Membership dues in the League are $42 per year for programmers, managers, and professionals; $10.50 for students; $21 for others.

To join, please send a check and the following information:

The League is not connected with the Free Software Foundation, and is not concerned with the issue of free software. The FSF supports the LPF because, like any software developer smaller than IBM, it is endangered by software patents, and interface copyrights. You are in danger, too! It would be easy to ignore the problem until you or your employer is sued, but it is more prudent to organize before that happens.

If you haven't made up your mind yet, write to LPF for more information:

   League for Programming Freedom
   1 Kendall Square - #143
   P.O. Box 9171
   Cambridge, MA   02139

   Telephone: +1-617-621-7084
   WWW: `'

News from the LPF

by Dean Anderson, President, League for Programming Freedom

Borland won its appeal of the Lotus suit!! Lotus successfully sued Borland for infringing on a copyright of its menu structure and may have stood to gain $100 million dollars in a ruling issued in 1993. This appeal reversed that ruling. Lotus has reportedly decided to file an appeal with the Supreme Court. The LPF is making arrangements to file a revised amicus brief should the Supreme Court decide to hear the case.

This is outstanding news and a great victory for the LPF. The arguments and decision very closely match our position, and the amicus brief arranged by the LPF was partly responsible for the outcome of the case. If the decision stands, it may spell the end of user interface copyrights.

The LPF is also happy to have received a tremendous amount of support on the GIF issue. This issue had the double benefit of expressing disapproval of the Unisys patent, and gaining exposure and publicity for the LPF.

Qualcomm recently settled some protracted patent litigation with Interdigital over CDMA technology. (CDMA is a technology for cellular phones picked up by Sprint, AT&T, etc.) In 1993, Interdigital sued Qualcomm and was countersued. After 10 trial days went by, the parties settled.

Even though Qualcomm felt it was not infringing any patents, it paid Interdigital $5.5 million for a blanket license because continuing with the trial and inevitable appeal would be more expensive, even if they eventually won.

Qualcomm just released its earnings report. It wrote off a one-time charge of $13 million to cover the entire case. By simple subtraction, its litigation costs were $7.5 million. Interdigital's own legal and support costs were reportedly $4.5 million. That leaves $1 million for their shareholders and $12 million in litigation costs for the two companies. This is just another example of the excessive costs of software patents.

Things are beginning to heat up. Keep writing letters! Write the LPF, your representatives, and others. See our Web page at `' for more info on how to help the LPF (suggestions to:

GNU & Other Free Software in Japan

Mieko ( and Nobuyuki Hikichi ( continue to volunteer for the GNU Project in Japan. They translate each issue of this Bulletin into Japanese and distribute it widely, along with their translation of the GNU General Public License Version 2. This translation of the GPL is authorized by the FSF and is available by anonymous FTP from in `/pub/gnu/local-fix/GPL2-j'. They are working on a formal translation of the GNU Library General Public License. They also solicit donations and offer GNU software consulting.

nepoch (the Japanese version of Epoch) & MULE are available & widely used in Japan. MULE (the MULtilingual Enhancement of GNU Emacs) can handle many character sets at once. Its features are being merged into the principal version of Emacs. See section GNU Software, for more details on MULE. The FSF does not distribute nepoch, but MULE is available (see section June 1995 Source Code CD-ROM & the section Emacs Diskettes). You can FTP it from in `/JAPAN/mule', or in `/pub/mule'.

The Village Center, Inc. prints a Japanese translation of the GNU Emacs Lisp Reference Manual and uploads the Texinfo source to various bulletin boards. They have also published a copylefted book, Nobuyuki's and Mieko's Think GNU. This appears to be the first non-FSF copylefted publication in Japan. Part of their profits are donated to the FSF. Their address is:

   Village Center, Inc.
   3-2 Kanda Jinbo-cho, Chiyoda-ku
   Tokyo 101,   Japan

   Telephone: 03-3221-3520

Addison-Wesley Publishers Japan Ltd. has printed a Japanese translation of the GNU Make Manual and the GAWK Manual. Their address is:

   Addison-Wesley Publishers Japan Ltd.
   Nichibou Bldg. 2F
   1-2-2 Sarugaku-cho, Chiyoda-ku
   Tokyo 101,   Japan

   Telephone: 03-3291-4581

The Institute for New Generation Computer Technology, ICOT, has released the "ICOT Free Software (IFS)" distribution. The famous Fifth Generation Computing System project produced IFS, which includes 100 systems for symbol processing, knowledge processing, problem solving, inference, & natural language processing. Many of them are based on parallel logic programming. Nearly half of them run on Unix workstations. The ICOT research center closed in March 1995, but distribution & maintenance of IFS will continue. For details, contact, or refer to `'.

There is a mailing list in Japan to discuss both hardware & software which is under the GNU General Public License, providing information about making your own computer system. The main language of the list is Japanese. If you are interested in getting information or having discussions in English, ask or

Many groups in Japan now distribute GNU software. They include JUG, a PC user group; ASCII, a periodical and book publisher; the Fujitsu FM Towns users group; and SRA's special GNU support group, called Wingnut, who also purchased the first Deluxe package in Japan. (Since then, there have been several other purchases of the Deluxe package in Japan.)

It is easy to place an order directly with the FSF from Japan, thus funding new software. To get an FSF Order Form written in Japanese, ask We encourage you to buy software on tapes or CDs: for example, 140 CD-ROM orders at the corporate rate allows the FSF to hire a programmer for a year to write more free software.

Freely Available Texts

Freely redistributable information isn't just software. We have a list of groups providing various books, historical documents, and more. You can FTP the list in file `/pub/gnu/FreelyAvailableTexts' from from a GNU FTP host (listed in section How to Get GNU Software). Please let either address on the top menu know of additional entries.


Those that give up their freedom in the name of security deserve neither.

- Benjamin Franklin


Help the GNU Translation Project

GNU is going international! The GNU Translation Project will get maintainers, translators, and users all together, so GNU will gradually speak many native languages.

The GNU gettext tool set contains everything maintainers need for internationalizing their packages for messages. It has quite useful tools for helping translators add messages for their native language, once a package has been internationalized.

To achieve the GNU Translation Project, we need many interested people who like their own language and write it well, and who are also able to synergize with other translators speaking the same language. If you'd like to volunteer to work at translating messages, please send mail to your translating team.

These teams exist, as of May 1995: Chinese (zh), Czech (cs), Danish (da), Dutch (nl), Esperanto (eo), Finnish (fi), French (fr), Irish (ga), German (de), Greek (el), Italian (it), Japanese (ja), Indonesian (in), Norwegian (no), Polish (pl), Portuguese (pt), Russian (ru), Spanish (es), Swedish (sv), & Turkish (tr). Each team has its own mailing list, courtesy of Linux International. You may reach your translating team at the address `', replacing xx by the two-letter ISO 639 code for your language. Please note that language codes are not the same as country codes. When you become a member of the translating team for your own language, you may subscribe to its list. To subscribe, send a message with the message body `subscribe' to the appropriate list.

Team members should be interested in working at translations or at solving translational difficulties, rather than merely lurking around. If you want to start a new team, write


The GNU Project continues to build GUILE: GNUs' Ubiquitous Extension Language. We are building a library which programmers can use to make any ordinary C program extensible. We expect to use this library in many GNU programs and hope to see wide use elsewhere.

We are basing GUILE on SCM, a version of Scheme written by Aubrey Jaffer (see the JACAL item in section GNU Software). The interpreter has been repackaged as a C library. GUILE currently includes, with various degrees of completion, a Posix system-call interface, an SCSH-like library, a module system, a Tk interface, and a byte-code interpreter. Projects are underway to build into GUILE support for Emacs Lisp and for a more C-like language.

Since we want to encourage everyone to adopt a common interpreter, the copyright terms for GUILE will permit the use of the library even in proprietary programs. Get snapshots of GUILE from `'.

Forthcoming GNUs

Information about the current status of released GNU programs can be found in section GNU Software. Here is some news of future plans.

GNU Software

All our software is available via FTP; see section How to Get GNU Software. We also offer software on various media and printed documentation:

In these articles describing the contents of each medium, the version number listed after each program name was current when we published this Bulletin. When you order a distribution tape, diskette, or newer CD-ROM, some of the programs may be newer and therefore the version number higher. See the see section Free Software Foundation Order Form, for ordering information.

Some of the contents of our tape and FTP distributions are compressed. We have software on our tapes and FTP sites to uncompress these files. Due to patent troubles with compress, we use another compression program, gzip. (Such prohibitions on software development are fought by the League for Programming Freedom, see section What Is the LPF?, for details.)

GNU make is on several of our tapes because some system vendors supply no make utility at all and some native make programs lack the VPATH feature essential for using the GNU configure system to its full extent. The GNU make sources have a shell script to build make itself on such systems.

We welcome all bug reports and enhancements sent to the appropriate electronic mailing list (see section Free Software Support).

Configuring GNU Software:

We are using a uniform scheme for configuring GNU software packages in order to compile them. It uses the Autoconf program (see item below, in this article). The goal is to have all GNU software support the same alternatives for naming machine and system types.

When the GNU system is complete, it will be possible to configure and build the entire system at once, eliminating the need to separately configure each individual package.

You can also specify both the host and target system to build cross-compilation tools. Most GNU programs now use Autoconf-generated configure scripts.

GNU Software currently available:

For future programs and features, see section Forthcoming GNUs.

Key to cross reference:

Dec. 1994 Binaries CD-ROM
Djgpp Diskettes
MS-DOS Book with CD-ROM
Emacs Diskettes
Languages Tape
4.4BSD-Lite Tape
Lisps/Emacs Tape
Scheme Tape
June 95 Source CD-ROM
Selected Utilities Diskettes
Utilities Tape
VMS Compiler Tape
VMS Emacs Tape
Windows Diskette
X11 Optional Tape
X11 Required Tape

[FSFman] shows that we sell a manual for that package. [FSFrc] shows we sell a reference card for that package. To order them, see the see section Free Software Foundation Order Form. See section GNU Documentation for more information on the manuals. Source code for each manual or reference card is included with each package.

Program/Package Cross Reference

Here is a list of what package each GNU program or library is in. You can anonymously FTP a full list in the file `/pub/gnu/ProgramIndex' from a GNU FTP host (listed in section How to Get GNU Software).

   *  a2p perl
   * a2x xopt
   * ac bsd44
   * accton bsd44
   * acl bsd44
   * acm acm
   * acms acm
   * addftinfo Groff
   * adventure bsd44
   * afm2tfm TeX
   * amd bsd44
   * ansitape bsd44
   * AnswerGarden xopt
   * apply bsd44
   * appres xreq
   * apropos bsd44
   * ar Binutils
   * arithmetic bsd44
   * arp bsd44
   * atc bsd44
   * autoconf Autoconf
   * autoheader Autoconf
   * autoreconf Autoconf
   * autoscan Autoconf
   * autoupdate Autoconf
   * auto_box xopt
   * auto_box xreq

   * b2m Emacs
   * backgammon bsd44
   * bad144 bsd44
   * badsect bsd44
   * banner bsd44
   * basename Shellutils
   * bash BASH
   * battlestar bsd44
   * bc bc
   * bcd bsd44
   * bdes bsd44
   * bdftops Ghostscript
   * beach_ball xopt
   * beach_ball xreq
   * beach_ball2 xopt
   * bibtex TeX
   * biff bsd44
   * bison Bison
   * bitmap xreq
   * boggle bsd44
   * bpltobzr Fontutils
   * bugfiler bsd44
   * build ispell
   * bzrto Fontutils

   * c++ GCC
   * c++filt Binutils
   * c2ph perl
   * ca100 xopt
   * caeser bsd44
   * cal bsd44
   * calendar bsd44
   * canfield bsd44
   * cat Textutils
   * cbars wdiff
   * cc GCC
   * cc1 GCC
   * cc1obj GCC
   * cc1plus GCC
   * cccp GCC
   * cfengine cfengine
   * charspace Fontutils
   * checknr bsd44
   * chess bsd44
   * chflags bsd44
   * chgrp Fileutils
   * ching bsd44
   * chmod Fileutils
   * chown Fileutils
   * chpass bsd44
   * chroot bsd44
   * ci RCS
   * cksum Textutils
   * cktyps g77
   * clisp CLISP
   * clri bsd44
   * cmail xboard
   * cmmf TeX
   * cmodext xopt
   * cmp Diffutils
   * co RCS
   * col bsd44
   * colcrt bsd44
   * colrm bsd44
   * column bsd44
   * comm Textutils
   * compress bsd44
   * comsat bsd44
   * connectd bsd44
   * cp Fileutils
   * cpicker xopt
   * cpio cpio
   * cpp GCC
   * cppstdin perl
   * cribbage bsd44
   * crock xopt
   * csh bsd44
   * csplit Textutils
   * ctags Emacs
   * ctwm xopt
   * cu UUCP
   * cut Textutils
   * cvs CVS
   * cvscheck CVS
   * cvtmail Emacs
   * cxterm xopt

   * d Fileutils
   * date Shellutils
   * dc bc
   * dd Fileutils
   * delatex TeX
   * demangle Binutils
   * descend CVS
   * detex TeX
   * df Fileutils
   * diff Diffutils
   * diff3 Diffutils
   * digest-doc Emacs
   * dipress bsd44
   * dir Fileutils
   * dirname Shellutils
   * dish xopt
   * disklabel bsd44
   * diskpart bsd44
   * dld dld
   * dm bsd44
   * dmesg bsd44
   * doschk doschk
   * dox xopt
   * du Fileutils
   * dump bsd44
   * dump mkisofs
   * dumpfs bsd44
   * dvi2tty TeX
   * dvicopy TeX
   * dvips TeX
   * dvitype TeX

   * ecc ecc
   * echo Shellutils
   * ed ed
   * edit-pr GNATS
   * editres xreq
   * edquota bsd44
   * eeprom bsd44
   * egrep grep
   * emacs Emacs
   * emacsclient Emacs
   * emacsserver Emacs
   * emacstool Emacs
   * emu xopt
   * env Shellutils
   * eqn Groff
   * error bsd44
   * es es
   * esdebug es
   * etags Emacs
   * ex nvi
   * expand Textutils
   * expect DejaGnu
   * expr Shellutils
   * exterm xopt

   * f2c f2c
   * factor bsd44
   * fakemail Emacs
   * false Shellutils
   * fastboot bsd44
   * fax2ps HylaFAX
   * faxalter HylaFAX
   * faxanswer HylaFAX
   * faxcover HylaFAX
   * faxd HylaFAX
   * faxd.recv HylaFAX
   * faxmail HylaFAX
   * faxquit HylaFAX
   * faxrcvd HylaFAX
   * faxrm HylaFAX
   * faxstat HylaFAX
   * fc f2c
   * fdraw xopt
   * ffe g77
   * fgrep grep
   * file bsd44
   * find Findutils
   * find2perl perl
   * finger finger
   * fingerd finger
   * fish bsd44
   * fixfonts Texinfo
   * fixinc.svr4 GCC
   * fixincludes GCC
   * flex flex
   * flex++ flex
   * fmt bsd44
   * fold Textutils
   * font2c Ghostscript
   * fontconvert Fontutils
   * forth Tile Forth
   * forthicon Tile Forth
   * forthtool Tile Forth
   * fortune bsd44
   * fpr bsd44
   * freq ispell
   * freqtbl ispell
   * from bsd44
   * fsck bsd44
   * fsplit bsd44
   * fstat bsd44
   * ftp bsd44
   * ftpd bsd44

   * g++ GCC
   * gas Binutils
   * gawk Gawk
   * gcc GCC
   * gcore bsd44
   * gdb GDB
   * genclass libg++
   * getty bsd44
   * gftodvi TeX
   * gftopk TeX
   * gftype TeX
   * ghostview Ghostview
   * git GIT
   * gitaction GIT
   * gitcmp GIT
   * gitkeys GIT
   * gitmatch GIT
   * gitmount GIT
   * gitps GIT
   * gitredir GIT
   * gitrgrep GIT
   * gitview GIT
   * gitwipe GIT
   * gnats GNATS
   * gnuchess Chess
   * gnuchessc Chess
   * gnuchessn Chess
   * gnuchessr Chess
   * gnuchessx Chess
   * gnupdisp Shogi
   * gnuplot gnuplot
   * gnuplot_x11 gnuplot
   * gnushogi Shogi
   * gnushogir Shogi
   * gnushogix Shogi
   * go GnuGo
   * gpc xopt
   * gpc xreq
   * gperf cperf
   * gperf libg++
   * gprof Binutils
   * graph Graphics
   * grep grep
   * grodvi Groff
   * groff Groff
   * grops Groff
   * grotty Groff
   * groups Shellutils
   * gs Ghostscript
   * gsbj Ghostscript
   * gsdj Ghostscript
   * gslj Ghostscript
   * gslp Ghostscript
   * gsnd Ghostscript
   * gsrenderfont Fontutils
   * gunzip gzip
   * gwm xopt
   * gzexe gzip
   * gzip gzip

   * h2ph perl
   * h2pl perl
   * hack bsd44
   * hangman bsd44
   * head Textutils
   * hello hello
   * hexdump bsd44
   * hexl Emacs
   * hostname Shellutils
   * hp2xx hp2xx
   * hterm xopt

   * i18nOlwmV2 xopt
   * i2mif xopt
   * ico xopt
   * ico xreq
   * id Shellutils
   * ident RCS
   * ifconfig bsd44
   * ifnames Autoconf
   * ImageMagick xopt
   * imageto Fontutils
   * iman xopt
   * imgrotate Fontutils
   * indent indent
   * indxbib Groff
   * inetd bsd44
   * info Texinfo
   * inimf TeX
   * init bsd44
   * initex TeX
   * inn bsd44
   * install Fileutils
   * iostat bsd44
   * isodiag mkisofs
   * isodump mkisofs
   * ispell ispell
   * ixterm xopt
   * ixx xopt

   * join Textutils
   * jot bsd44
   * jove bsd44

   * kdestroy bsd44
   * kdump bsd44
   * kermit bsd44
   * kgames xopt
   * kgmon bsd44
   * kill bsd44
   * kinit bsd44
   * kinput2 xopt
   * klist bsd44
   * kpasswdd bsd44
   * ksrvtgt bsd44
   * kterm xopt
   * ktrace bsd44

   * lam bsd44
   * larn bsd44
   * lasergnu gnuplot
   * last bsd44
   * lastcomm bsd44
   * latex TeX
   * lclock xopt
   * ld Binutils
   * leave bsd44
   * less less
   * lesskey less
   * libbfd.a Binutils
   * libbfd.a GAS
   * libbfd.a GDB
   * libbzr.a Fontutils
   * libc.a C Library
   * libcompat.a bsd44
   * libcurses.a bsd44
   * libcurses.a nvi
   * libdcurses.a ncurses
   * libedit.a bsd44
   * libF77.a f2c
   * libF77.a g77
   * libg++.a libg++
   * libgdbm.a gdbm
   * libgf.a Fontutils
   * libgmp.a gmp
   * libI77.a f2c
   * libI77.a g77
   * libkvm.a bsd44
   * libm.a bsd44
   * libncurses.a ncurses
   * libnihcl.a NIHCL
   * libnihclmi.a NIHCL
   * libnihclvec.a NIHCL
   * libnls.a xreq
   * libobjects.a libobjects
   * liboctave.a Octave
   * liboldX.a xreq
   * libpbm.a Fontutils
   * libPEXt.a xopt
   * libpk.a Fontutils
   * libresolv.a bsd44
   * librpc.a bsd44
   * libtcl.a DejaGnu
   * libtelnet.a bsd44
   * libterm.a bsd44
   * libtermcap.a Termcap
   * libtfm.a Fontutils
   * libutil.a bsd44
   * libWc.a xopt
   * libwidgets.a Fontutils
   * libX.a xreq
   * libXau.a xreq
   * libXaw.a xreq
   * libXcp.a xopt
   * libXcu.a xopt
   * libXdmcp.a xreq
   * libXmp.a xopt
   * libXmu.a xreq
   * libXO.a xopt
   * libXop.a xopt
   * libXp.a xopt
   * libXpex.a xopt
   * libXt.a xopt
   * libXt.a xreq
   * libXwchar.a xopt
   * liby.a bsd44
   * libYgl.a Ygl
   * limn Fontutils
   * listres xopt
   * listres xreq
   * lkbib Groff
   * ln Fileutils
   * locate Findutils
   * lock bsd44
   * logger bsd44
   * login bsd44
   * logname Shellutils
   * logo ucblogo
   * look ispell
   * lookbib Groff
   * lorder bsd44
   * lpr bsd44
   * ls Fileutils

   * m4 m4
   * mail bsd44
   * mail-files Sharutils
   * mailshar Sharutils
   * make Make
   * make-docfile Emacs
   * make-path Emacs
   * makeindex TeX
   * makeinfo Texinfo
   * MakeTeXPK TeX
   * man bsd44
   * man-macros Groff
   * mattrib mtools
   * maze xopt
   * maze xreq
   * mazewar xopt
   * mcd mtools
   * mcopy mtools
   * mdel mtools
   * mdir mtools
   * me-macros Groff
   * merge RCS
   * mesg bsd44
   * mf TeX
   * mformat mtools
   * mft TeX
   * mgdiff xopt
   * mh bsd44
   * mille bsd44
   * mkdep bsd44
   * mkdir Fileutils
   * mkfifo Fileutils
   * mkisofs mkisofs
   * mklocale bsd44
   * mkmanifest mtools
   * mkmf bsd44
   * mkmodules CVS
   * mknod Fileutils
   * mkstr bsd44
   * mlabel mtools
   * mm-macros Groff
   * mmd mtools
   * monop bsd44
   * more bsd44
   * morse bsd44
   * mount bsd44
   * mountd bsd44
   * movemail Emacs
   * mprof bsd44
   * mrd mtools
   * mread mtools
   * mren mtools
   * ms-macros Groff
   * msgs bsd44
   * mst Smalltalk
   * mt cpio
   * mterm xopt
   * mtree bsd44
   * mtype mtools
   * mule MULE
   * muncher xopt
   * mv Fileutils
   * mvdir Fileutils
   * mwrite mtools

   * nethack Nethack
   * netstat bsd44
   * newfs bsd44
   * nfsd bsd44
   * nfsiod bsd44
   * nfsstat bsd44
   * nice Shellutils
   * nl Textutils
   * nlmconv Binutils
   * nm Binutils
   * nohup Shellutils
   * notify HylaFAX
   * nroff Groff
   * number bsd44

   * objc GCC
   * objcopy Binutils
   * objdump Binutils
   * objective-c GCC
   * obst-boot OBST
   * obst-CC OBST
   * obst-cct OBST
   * obst-cgc OBST
   * obst-cmp OBST
   * obst-cnt OBST
   * obst-cpcnt OBST
   * obst-csz OBST
   * obst-dir OBST
   * obst-dmp OBST
   * obst-gen OBST
   * obst-gsh OBST
   * obst-init OBST
   * obst-scp OBST
   * obst-sil OBST
   * obst-stf OBST
   * oclock xreq
   * octave Octave
   * od Textutils
   * oleo Oleo
   * ora-examples xopt

   * p2c p2c
   * pagesize bsd44
   * palette xopt
   * pascal bsd44
   * passwd bsd44
   * paste Textutils
   * patch patch
   * patgen TeX
   * pathalias bsd44
   * pathchk Shellutils
   * pax bsd44
   * pbmplus xopt
   * perl perl
   * pfbtops Groff
   * phantasia bsd44
   * pic Groff
   * pico pine
   * pig bsd44
   * pine pine
   * ping bsd44
   * pixedit xopt
   * pixmap xopt
   * pktogf TeX
   * pktype TeX
   * plaid xopt
   * plot2fig Graphics
   * plot2plot Graphics
   * plot2ps Graphics
   * plot2tek Graphics
   * pltotf TeX
   * pollrcvd HylaFAX
   * pom bsd44
   * pooltype TeX
   * portmap bsd44
   * ppt bsd44
   * pr Textutils
   * pr-addr GNATS
   * pr-edit GNATS
   * primes bsd44
   * printenv Shellutils
   * printf Shellutils
   * protoize GCC
   * ps bsd44
   * ps2ascii Ghostscript
   * ps2epsi Ghostscript
   * ps2fax HylaFAX
   * psbb Groff
   * pstat bsd44
   * psycho xopt
   * ptx ptx
   * pubdic+ xopt
   * puzzle xopt
   * puzzle xreq
   * pwd Shellutils
   * pyramid xopt

   * query-pr GNATS
   * quiz bsd44
   * quot bsd44
   * quota bsd44
   * quotacheck bsd44
   * quotaon bsd44

   * rain bsd44
   * random bsd44
   * ranlib Binutils
   * rbootd bsd44
   * rc rc
   * rcp bsd44
   * rcs RCS
   * rcs-to-cvs CVS
   * rcs2log Emacs
   * rcsdiff RCS
   * rcsfreeze RCS
   * rcsmerge RCS
   * rdist bsd44
   * reboot bsd44
   * recode recode
   * recvstats HylaFAX
   * red ed
   * refer Groff
   * remsync Sharutils
   * renice bsd44
   * repquota bsd44
   * restore bsd44
   * rev bsd44
   * rexecd bsd44
   * rlog RCS
   * rlogin bsd44
   * rlogind bsd44
   * rm Fileutils
   * rmail bsd44
   * rmdir Fileutils
   * rmt cpio
   * rmt tar
   * robots bsd44
   * rogue bsd44
   * route bsd44
   * routed bsd44
   * rr xopt
   * rs bsd44
   * rsh bsd44
   * rshd bsd44
   * runtest DejaGnu
   * runtest.exp DejaGnu
   * ruptime bsd44
   * rwho bsd44
   * rwhod bsd44

   * s2p perl
   * sail bsd44
   * saoimage saoimage
   * savecore bsd44
   * sc bsd44
   * sccs bsd44
   * sccs2rcs CVS
   * scdisp xopt
   * screen screen
   * script bsd44
   * scsiformat bsd44
   * sctext xopt
   * sdiff Diffutils
   * sed sed
   * send-pr GNATS
   * sendfax HylaFAX
   * sendmail bsd44
   * sgi2fax HylaFAX
   * sh bsd44
   * shar Sharutils
   * shinbun xopt
   * shogi Shogi
   * showfont xopt
   * showmount bsd44
   * shutdown bsd44
   * size Binutils
   * sj3 xopt
   * sjxa xopt
   * slattach bsd44
   * sleep Shellutils
   * sliplogin bsd44
   * snake bsd44
   * snftobdf xopt
   * soelim Groff
   * sort Textutils
   * sos2obst OBST
   * spider xopt
   * split Textutils
   * startslip bsd44
   * stf OBST
   * strings Binutils
   * strip Binutils
   * stty Shellutils
   * su Shellutils
   * sum Textutils
   * superopt Superopt
   * swapon bsd44
   * sync bsd44
   * sysctl bsd44
   * syslogd bsd44
   * systat bsd44

   * tac Textutils
   * tail Textutils
   * taintperl perl
   * talk bsd44
   * talkd bsd44
   * tangle TeX
   * tar tar
   * tbl Groff
   * tcl DejaGnu
   * tclsh DejaGnu
   * tcopy bsd44
   * tcp Emacs
   * tee Shellutils
   * tek2plot Graphics
   * telnet bsd44
   * telnetd bsd44
   * test Shellutils
   * test-g++ DejaGnu
   * test-tool DejaGnu
   * tetris bsd44
   * tex TeX
   * tex3patch Texinfo
   * texi2dvi Texinfo
   * texindex Texinfo
   * texspell TeX
   * textfmt HylaFAX
   * tfmtodit Groff
   * tftopl TeX
   * tftp bsd44
   * tftpd bsd44
   * tgrind TeX
   * time time
   * timed bsd44
   * timer Emacs
   * timex xopt
   * tip bsd44
   * tkpostage xopt
   * tn3270 bsd44
   * touch Fileutils
   * tput tput
   * tr Textutils
   * traceroute bsd44
   * transcript HylaFAX
   * transfig xopt
   * trek bsd44
   * trn3 bsd44
   * troff Groff
   * trpt bsd44
   * trsp bsd44
   * true Shellutils
   * tset bsd44
   * tsort bsd44
   * tty Shellutils
   * tunefs bsd44
   * tvtwm xopt
   * twm xreq

   * ul bsd44
   * umount bsd44
   * uname Shellutils
   * uncompress gzip
   * unexpand Textutils
   * unifdef bsd44
   * unify wdiff
   * uniq Textutils
   * unprotoize GCC
   * unshar Sharutils
   * unvis bsd44
   * update bsd44
   * updatedb Findutils
   * users Shellutils
   * uuchk UUCP
   * uucico UUCP
   * uuconv UUCP
   * uucp UUCP
   * uucpd bsd44
   * uudecode Sharutils
   * uudir UUCP
   * uuencode Sharutils
   * uulog UUCP
   * uuname UUCP
   * uupick UUCP
   * uurate UUCP
   * uusched UUCP
   * uustat UUCP
   * uuto UUCP
   * uux UUCP
   * uuxqt UUCP

   * v Fileutils
   * vacation bsd44
   * vandal xopt
   * vcdiff Emacs
   * vdir Fileutils
   * vftovp TeX
   * vgrind bsd44
   * vi nvi
   * viewres xopt
   * viewres xreq
   * vine xopt
   * vipw bsd44
   * virmf TeX
   * virtex TeX
   * vis bsd44
   * vmstat bsd44
   * vptovf TeX

   * w bsd44
   * wakeup Emacs
   * wall bsd44
   * wargames bsd44
   * wc Textutils
   * wdiff wdiff
   * weave TeX
   * what bsd44
   * whatis bsd44
   * whereis bsd44
   * who Shellutils
   * whoami Shellutils
   * whois bsd44
   * window bsd44
   * winterp xopt
   * wish DejaGnu
   * worm bsd44
   * worms bsd44
   * write bsd44
   * wump bsd44

   * x11perf xreq
   * x2p perl
   * xalarm xopt
   * xancur xopt
   * xargs Findutils
   * xauth xreq
   * xbfe Fontutils
   * xbiff xopt
   * xbiff xreq
   * xboard xboard
   * xboing xopt
   * xbuffy3 xopt
   * xcalc xopt
   * xcalc xreq
   * xcalendar xopt
   * xcdplayer xopt
   * xcell xopt
   * xclipboard xreq
   * xclock xreq
   * xcmdmenu xopt
   * xcms xopt
   * xcmsdb xreq
   * xcmstest xreq
   * xco xopt
   * xcolorize xopt
   * xcolors xopt
   * xconsole xreq
   * xcrtca xopt
   * xdaliclock xopt
   * xdiary xopt
   * xditview Groff
   * xditview xopt
   * xditview xreq
   * xdm xreq
   * xdpyinfo xreq
   * xdu xopt
   * xdvi TeX
   * xdvi xopt
   * xdvorak xopt
   * xearth xopt
   * xed xopt
   * xedit xopt
   * xedit xreq
   * xev xopt
   * xev xreq
   * xexit xopt
   * xeyes xopt
   * xeyes xreq
   * xfd xreq
   * xfed xopt
   * xfedor xopt
   * xfeoak xopt
   * xferstats HylaFAX
   * xfig xopt
   * xfontsel xopt
   * xfontsel xreq
   * xforecast xopt
   * xgas xopt
   * xgas xreq
   * xgc xopt
   * xgc xreq
   * xhearts xopt
   * xhelp xopt
   * xhost xreq
   * xinit xreq
   * xkeycaps xopt
   * xkill xreq
   * xlax xopt
   * xlayout xopt
   * xlbiff xopt
   * xless xopt
   * xload xopt
   * xload xreq
   * xlogin xopt
   * xlogo xreq
   * xlsatoms xreq
   * xlsclients xreq
   * xlsfonts xreq
   * xmag xreq
   * xmail xopt
   * xmailbox xopt
   * xmailwatcher xopt
   * xman xopt
   * xman xreq
   * xmandel xopt
   * xmessage xopt
   * xmeter xopt
   * xmh xreq
   * xmh-icons xopt
   * xmh.editor xopt
   * xmodmap xreq
   * xmon xopt
   * xmove xopt
   * xmphone xopt
   * xpd xopt
   * xphoon xopt
   * xpipeman xopt
   * xplot Graphics
   * xpostit xopt
   * xpr xopt
   * xpr xreq
   * xprompt xopt
   * xproof xopt
   * xprop xreq
   * xpserv xopt
   * xrdb xreq
   * xrefresh xreq
   * xrsh xopt
   * xrubik xopt
   * xrunclient xopt
   * xscope xopt
   * xscreensaver xopt
   * xsession xopt
   * xset xreq
   * xsetroot xreq
   * xshogi xshogi
   * xstdcmap xreq
   * xstr bsd44
   * xtalk xopt
   * xterm xreq
   * xterm_color xopt
   * xtetris xopt
   * xTeXcad.13 xopt
   * xtiff xopt
   * xtree xopt
   * xtv xopt
   * xwd xreq
   * xwininfo xreq
   * xwud xreq

   * yacc bsd44
   * yes Shellutils
   * youbin xopt
   * yow Emacs

   * zcat gzip
   * zcmp gzip
   * zdiff gzip
   * zforce gzip
   * zgrep gzip
   * zmore gzip
   * znew gzip

   * [ Shellutils


We offer Unix source code on tapes in tar format on these media:

The contents of the various tapes for Unix systems are the same (except the RS/6000 Emacs tape also has binaries for Emacs); only the media are different. For prices, see the see section Free Software Foundation Order Form. Source code for the manuals & reference cards is included (see section GNU Documentation).

Some of the files on the tapes may be compressed with gzip to make them fit. Refer to the top-level `README' file at the beginning of each tape for instructions on uncompressing them. uncompress and unpack do not work!

Languages Tape

This tape contains programming tools: compilers, interpreters and related programs (parsers, conversion programs, debuggers, etc.).

   * Binutils 2.5.2
   * Bison 1.24
   * C Library 1.09
   * cperf 2.1a
   * DejaGnu 1.2
   * dld 3.2.3
   * ecc 1.2.1
   * f2c 1995.02.24
   * flex 2.5.2
   * g77 0.5.15
   * Gawk 2.15.6
   * GCC/G++/Object-C 2.6.3
   * GCC/G++/Object-C 2.7.0
   * GDB 4.14
   * gdbm 1.7.3
   * gmp 1.3.2
   * gzip 1.2.4
   * indent 1.9.1
   * libg++ 2.6.2
   * libg++ 2.7.0
   * libobjects 0.1.3
   * Make 3.74
   * ncurses 1.9.1a
   * NIHCL 3.1.4
   * OBST 3.4.3
   * Octave 1.1.1
   * p2c 1.20
   * perl 4.036
   * perl 5.001
   * regex 0.12
   * rx 0.05
   * Smalltalk 1.1.1
   * Superopt 2.5
   * Texinfo 3.6
   * Tile Forth 2.1
   * ucblogo

Lisps/Emacs Tape

This tape has Common Lisp systems and libraries, GNU Emacs, assorted extensions that work with GNU Emacs, and a few other important utilities.

   * Calc 2.02c
   * CLISP 1995.04.25
   * Common Lisp 2.1
   * elib 0.06
   * Emacs 18.59
   * Emacs 19.28
   * Emacs 19.29
   * GNU Emacs Lisp Reference Manual Ed. 1.3 for Version 18
   * GNU Emacs Lisp Reference Manual Ed. 2.4 for Version 19.29
   * gzip 1.2.4
   * Make 3.74
   * MULE 2.2
   * PCL 2.1
   * Programming in Emacs Lisp Ed. 1.03
   * Texinfo 3.6

Utilities Tape

This tape consists mostly of smaller utilities, and miscellaneous applications.

   * acm 4.7
   * Autoconf 2.4
   * BASH 1.14.5
   * bc 1.03
   * cfengine 1.0.4
   * Chess 4.0.74
   * cpio 2.3
   * CVS 1.3
   * Diffutils 2.7
   * doschk 1.1
   * ed 0.2
   * es 0.84
   * Fileutils 3.12
   * Findutils 4.1
   * finger 1.37
   * Fontutils 0.6
   * Ghostscript 2.6.2
   * Ghostview 1.5
   * Ghostview for Windows 1.0
   * GIT 4.3.6
   * GNATS 3.2
   * GnuGo 1.1
   * gnuplot 3.5
   * Graphics 0.17
   * grep 2.0
   * Groff 1.09
   * gzip 1.2.4
   * hello 1.3
   * hp2xx 3.1.4
   * HylaFAX 3.0.0
   * ispell 3.1.18
   * less 2.9.0
   * m4 1.4
   * Make 3.74
   * MandelSpawn 0.07
   * mkisofs 1.03GNU
   * mm 1.07
   * mtools 2.0.7
   * Nethack 3.1.3
   * nvi 1.34
   * Oleo 1.6
   * patch 2.1
   * pine 3.91
   * ptx 0.4
   * rc 1.4
   * RCS 5.7
   * readline 2.0
   * recode 3.4
   * saoimage 1.08
   * screen 3.6.2
   * sed 2.05
   * Sharutils 4.1
   * Shellutils 1.12
   * Shogi 1.2.3
   * tar 1.11.8
   * Termcap 1.2
   * Texinfo 3.6
   * Textutils 1.12
   * time 1.6
   * tput 1.0
   * UUCP 1.05
   * wdiff 0.5
   * xboard 3.2.2
   * xshogi 1.2.03
   * Ygl 2.9.5

Scheme Tape

Scheme is a simplified, lexically-scoped dialect of Lisp. It was designed at MIT and other universities to teach students the art of programming and to research new parallel programming constructs and compilation techniques.

This tape now has MIT Scheme 7.3, which conforms to the "Revised^4 Report On the Algorithmic Language Scheme" (MIT AI Lab Memo 848b), for which TeX source is included. It is written partly in C, but is presently hard to bootstrap. Binaries that can be used to bootstrap it are available for: HP 9000 series 300, 400, 700, & 800 (running HP-UX 9.0), NeXT (NeXT OS 2 or 3.2), DEC Alpha (OSF/1), IBM RS-6000 (AIX), Sun-3 or Sun-4 (SunOS 4.1), DECstation 3100/5100 (Ultrix 4.0), Sony NeWS-3250 (NEWS OS 5.01), & Intel i386 (MS-DOS, Windows 3.1 or NT). If your system is not on this list & you don't enjoy the bootstrap challenge, see "JACAL" in section GNU Software.

X11 Tapes

The two X11 tapes contain Version 11, Release 6 of the X Window System. The first tape has all of the core software, documentation, & some contributed clients. We call this the "required" X tape since it is necessary for running X or GNU Emacs under X. The second, "optional" tape has contributed libraries & toolkits, the Andrew User Interface System, games, et al.

The X11 Required tape also contains all fixes and patches released to date. We update this tape as new fixes and patches are released for programs on both tapes. See section Tape & CD-ROM Subscription Service.

We will distribute X11R5 on tape until X11R6 is stable and on the section November 1993 Source Code CD-ROM, while supplies last.

Berkeley 4.4BSD--Lite Tape

The "4.4BSD--Lite" release is the last from the Computer Systems Research Group at the University of California at Berkeley. It has most of the BSD software system, except for a few files that remain proprietary. It is much more complete than the previous "Net2" release.

VMS Emacs and VMS Compiler Tapes

We offer two VMS tapes. One has just GNU Emacs 18.59 (none of the other software on the section Lisps/Emacs Tape, is included). The other has GCC 2.3.3, Bison 1.19 (to compile GCC), GAS 1.38 (to assemble GCC's output), and some library and include files (none of the other software on the section Languages Tape, is included). We are not aware of a GDB port for VMS. Both VMS tapes have DEC VAX executables from which you can bootstrap, as the DEC VMS C compiler cannot compile GCC. We do not have executables for DEC Alpha VMS systems. Please do not ask us to devote effort to VMS support, because it is peripheral to the GNU Project.


We offer these CD-ROMs:

Our CD-ROMs are in ISO 9660 format & can be mounted as a read-only file system on most computers. If your driver supports it you can mount each CD-ROM with "Rock Ridge" extensions (the MS-DOS CD-ROM is only in ISO 9660 format), & it will look just like an ordinary Unix file system, rather than one full of truncated & otherwise mangled names that fit vanilla ISO 9660.

You can build most of the software without copying the sources off the CD. You only need enough disk space for object files and intermediate build targets.

Pricing of the GNU CD-ROMs

If a business or organization is ultimately paying, the June 1995 Source CD costs $240. It costs $60 if you, an individual, are paying out of your own pocket. The December 1994 Compiler Tools Binaries CD-ROM costs $220 for a business or organization, and $55 for an individual.

What do the individual and company prices mean?

The software on our disks is free; anyone can copy it and anyone can run it. What we charge for is the physical disk and the service of distribution.

We charge two different prices depending on who is buying. When a company or other organization buys the June 1995 Source CD-ROM, we charge $240. When an individual buys the same CD-ROM, we charge just $60. This distinction is not a matter of who is allowed to use the software. In either case, once you have a copy, you can distribute as many copies as you wish and there's no restriction on who can have or run them. The price distinction is entirely a matter of what kind of entity pays for the CD.

You, the reader, are certainly an individual, not a company. If you are buying a disk "in person", then you are probably doing so as an individual. But if you expect to be reimbursed by your employer, then the disk is really for the company; so please pay the company price and get reimbursed for it. We won't try to check up on you--we use the honor system--so please cooperate.

Buying CDs at the company price is very helpful for GNU; just 140 Source CDs at that price supports an FSF programmer or tech writer for a year.

Why is there an individual price?

In the past, our distribution tapes have been ordered mainly by companies. The CD at the price of $240 provides them with all of our software for a much lower price than they would previously have paid for six different tapes. To lower the price more would cut into the FSF's funds very badly and decrease the software development we can do.

However, for individuals, $240 is too high a price; hardly anyone could afford that. So we decided to make CDs available to individuals at the lower price of $60.

Is there a maximum price?

Our stated prices are minimum prices. Feel free to pay a higher price if you wish to support GNU development more. The sky's the limit; we will accept as high a price as you can offer. Or simply give a donation (tax-deductible in the U.S.) to the Free Software Foundation, a tax-exempt public charity.

December 1994 Compiler Tools Binaries CD-ROM

We now have the second edition of the CD-ROM that has binaries for GNU compiler tools for some systems which lack a compiler. This enables the people who use these systems to compile GNU and other free software without having to buy a proprietary compiler. You can also use these GNU tools to compile your own C/C++/Objective-C programs. The first edition of this CD is available while supplies last at a reduced price; see the see section Free Software Foundation Order Form.

We hope to have more systems on each update of this CD. If you can help build binaries for new systems (especially those that don't come with a C compiler), or have one to suggest, please contact us at the addresses on the top menu.

These packages:

   * DJGPP 1.12.m2 from GCC 2.6.0
   * GCC/G++/Objective-C 2.6.2
   * GNU C Library 1.09
   * GDB 4.13
   * Binutils 2.5.2
   * Bison 1.22
   * Emacs 19.26 (MS-DOS only)
   * Flex 2.4.7
   * Make 3.72.1
   * libg++ 2.6.1

On these platforms:

   * i386-msdos
   * hppa1.1-hp-hpux9
   * sparc-sun-solaris2
   * sparc-sun-sunos4.1

MS-DOS Book with CD-ROM

We hope to release our first Book describing GNU Software for MS-DOS in late fall, 1995. Contact either address on the top menu for more information then.

It will include a CD-ROM with all the sources & binaries on the MS-DOS Diskettes. For version numbers & some details, see section MS-DOS Diskettes.

Debian GNU/Linux Book with CD-ROM

We hope to release our first Book describing Debian GNU/Linux in late fall, 1995. A CD will be inside the book with sources for Debian GNU/Linux.

GNU/Linux is a complete operating system for i386, i486, & Pentium machines, available in both source code & binary form. It is a GNU/Linux system--that is to say, a variant GNU system which uses Linux as the kernel. (All the systems now available that use the Linux kernel are GNU/Linux systems.)

Debian is being developed by Ian Murdock and the Debian Association in conjunction with the Free Software Foundation. We are distributing it as an interim measure until the GNU kernel (the Hurd) is ready for users.

You can FTP Debian under `/pub/debian' from For details about Debian & how to get involved, see `/pub/gnu/GNUinfo/DEBIAN' on a GNU FTP host (section How to Get GNU Software).

Source Code CD-ROMs

We have several versions of our Source Code CD-ROMs available, including:

These & other older Source CDs are available while supplies last at a reduced price; see the see section Free Software Foundation Order Form (please note that the December 1994 Source CD is permanently out of stock). All the Source CDs also have Texinfo source for the GNU manuals listed in section GNU Documentation.

The VMS tapes' contents are not included. Many programs that are only on MS-DOS diskettes & not on the tapes are also not included. The MIT Scheme & X11 Optional tapes' contents are not on the November 1993, May 1994, or June 1995 Source CDs. See section Tapes & section MS-DOS Diskettes.

There are no precompiled programs on these Source CDs. You will need a C compiler (programs which need some other interpreter or compiler normally provide the C source for a bootstrapping program). We ship C compiler binaries for some systems on the section December 1994 Compiler Tools Binaries CD-ROM.

June 1995 Source Code CD-ROM

The sixth edition of our Source CD is out! Not all FSF distributed software is included (see section Source Code CD-ROMs). It contains these packages, and some manuals that are not part of packages:

   * acm 4.7
   * Autoconf 2.4
   * BASH 1.14.5
   * bc 1.03
   * Binutils 2.5.2
   * Bison 1.24
   * C Library 1.09
   * Calc 2.02c
   * cfengine 1.0.4
   * Chess 4.0.pl74
   * CLISP 1995.04.25
   * Common Lisp 2.1
   * cperf 2.1a
   * cpio 2.3
   * CVS 1.3
   * DejaGnu 1.2
   * Diffutils 2.7
   * dld 3.2.3
   * doschk 1.1
   * ecc 1.2.1
   * ed 0.2
   * elib 0.06
   * Emacs 18.59
   * Emacs 19.28
   * Emacs 19.29
   * GNU Emacs Lisp Reference Manual Ed. 1.3 for Version 18
   * GNU Emacs Lisp Reference Manual Ed. 2.4 for Version 19.29
   * es 0.84
   * f2c 1995.02.24
   * Fileutils 3.12
   * Findutils 4.1
   * finger 1.37
   * flex 2.5.2
   * Fontutils 0.6
   * g77 0.5.15
   * Gawk 2.15.6
   * GCC 2.6.3
   * GCC 2.7.0
   * GDB 4.14
   * gdbm 1.7.3
   * Ghostscript 2.6.2
   * Ghostview 1.5
   * Ghostview for Windows 1.0
   * GIT 4.3.6
   * gmp 1.3.2
   * GNATS 3.2
   * GnuGo 1.1
   * gnuplot 3.5
   * Graphics 0.17
   * grep 2.0
   * Groff 1.09
   * gzip 1.2.4
   * hello 1.3
   * hp2xx 3.1.4
   * HylaFAX 3.0.pl0
   * indent 1.9.1
   * ispell 3.1.18
   * less 2.90
   * libg++ 2.6.2
   * libg++ 2.7.0
   * libobjects 0.1.3
   * m4 1.4
   * Make 3.74
   * MandelSpawn 0.07
   * mkisofs 1.03GNU
   * mtools 2.0.7
   * MULE 2.2
   * ncurses 1.9.1
   * Nethack 3.1.3
   * NIHCL 3.1.4
   * nvi 1.34
   * OBST 3.4.3
   * Octave 1.1.1
   * Oleo 1.6
   * p2c 1.20
   * patch 2.1
   * PCL 2.1
   * perl 4.036
   * perl 5.001
   * pine 3.91
   * Programming in Emacs Lisp: An Introduction Ed. 1.03 for Version 19
   * ptx 0.4
   * rc 1.4
   * RCS 5.7
   * recode 3.4
   * regex 0.12
   * rx 0.05
   * screen 3.6.2
   * sed 2.05
   * Sharutils 4.1
   * Shellutils 1.12
   * Shogi 1.2p03
   * Smalltalk 1.1.1
   * Superopt 2.5
   * tar 1.11.8
   * Termcap 1.2
   * TeX 3.1415
   * Texinfo 3.6
   * Textutils 1.12
   * Tile Forth 2.1
   * time 1.6
   * tput 1.0
   * ucblogo
   * UUCP 1.05
   * wdiff 0.5
   * X11R6
   * xboard 3.2.pl2
   * xshogi 1.2p03
   * Ygl 2.9.5
May 1994 Source Code CD-ROM

We still have the fourth edition of our Source CD, at a reduced price, while supplies last. This CD has Edition 2.3 for version 19.25 of the GNU Emacs Lisp Reference Manual & some additional software; not all FSF distributed software is included (see section Source Code CD-ROMs). It contains these packages:

   * acm 4.5
   * Autoconf 1.10
   * BASH 1.13.5
   * bc 1.02
   * Binutils 2.3
   * Bison 1.22
   * C Library 1.08
   * Calc 2.02c
   * Chess 4.0.69
   * CLISP 1994.01.08
   * Common Lisp 1.0
   * cpio 2.3
   * CVS 1.3
   * dc 0.2
   * DejaGnu 1.2
   * Diffutils 2.6
   * dld 3.2.3
   * doschk 1.1
   * ecc 1.2.1
   * ed 0.1
   * elib 0.06
   * Emacs 18.59
   * Emacs 19.23
   * es 0.84
   * f2c 1994.04.14
   * Fileutils 3.9
   * find 3.8
   * finger 1.37
   * flex 2.4.6
   * Fontutils 0.6
   * GAS 1.36.utah
   * GAS 2.2
   * Gawk 2.15.4
   * GCC 2.5.8
   * GDB 4.12
   * gdbm 1.7.1
   * Ghostscript 2.6.1
   * Ghostview 1.5
   * Ghostview for Windows 1.0
   * gmp 1.3.2
   * GNATS 3.2
   * GnuGo 1.1
   * gnuplot 3.5
   * gperf 2.1a
   * Graphics 0.17
   * grep 2.0
   * Groff 1.09
   * gzip 1.2.4
   * hello 1.3
   * hp2xx 3.1.4
   * indent 1.9.1
   * ispell 4.0
   * libg++ 2.5.3
   * m4 1.1
   * Make 3.71
   * MandelSpawn 0.07
   * mtools 2.0.7
   * MULE 1.0
   * NetFax 3.2.1
   * Nethack 3.1.3
   * NIHCL 3.0
   * nvi 1.11
   * Octave 1.0
   * Oleo 1.5
   * p2c 1.20
   * patch 2.1
   * PCL 1993.03.18
   * perl 4.036
   * ptx 0.3
   * rc 1.4
   * RCS
   * recode 3.3
   * regex 0.12
   * screen 3.5.2
   * sed 2.05
   * shellutils 1.9.4
   * Shogi 1.1.02
   * Smalltalk 1.1.1
   * Superopt 2.3
   * tar 1.11.2
   * Termcap 1.2
   * TeX 3.1
   * Texinfo 3.1
   * Textutils 1.9.1
   * Tile Forth 2.1
   * time 1.6
   * tput 1.0
   * UUCP 1.05
   * uuencode 1.0
   * wdiff 0.04
   * X11R6
   * xboard 3.0.9
   * xshogi 1.2.02
November 1993 Source Code CD-ROM

We still have the third edition of our Source CD, at a reduced price, while supplies last. It contains X11R5, as we feel that people should have a choice between X11R5 and X11R6 until the latter is stable. This CD has Edition 2.2 for version 19 of the GNU Emacs Lisp Reference Manual & some additional software; not all FSF distributed software is included (see section Source Code CD-ROMs). It contains these packages:

   * acm 3.1
   * Autoconf 1.7
   * BASH 1.13.4
   * bc 1.02
   * Binutils 1.9 2.3
   * Bison 1.22
   * C Library 1.06.7
   * Calc 2.02b
   * Chess 4.0p62
   * CLISP 93.11.08
   * cpio 2.3
   * CVS 1.3
   * dc 0.2
   * DejaGnu 1.0.1
   * Diffutils 2.6
   * dld 3.2.3
   * doschk 1.1
   * ecc 1.2.1
   * elib 0.06
   * Emacs 18.59
   * Emacs 19.21
   * es 0.84
   * f2c 1993.04.28
   * Fileutils 3.9
   * find 3.8
   * finger 1.37
   * flex 2.3.8
   * Fontutils 0.6
   * GAS 1.36.utah
   * GAS 1.38.1
   * GAS 2.2
   * Gawk 2.15.3
   * GCC 2.5.4
   * GDB 4.11
   * gdbm 1.7.1
   * Ghostscript 2.6.1
   * Ghostview 1.5
   * Ghostview for Windows 1.0
   * gmp 1.3.2
   * GNATS 3.01
   * GnuGo 1.1
   * gnuplot 3.5
   * cperf 2.1a
   * Graphics 0.17
   * grep 2.0
   * Groff 1.08
   * gzip 1.2.4
   * hello 1.3
   * hp2xx 3.1.3a
   * indent 1.8
   * Ispell 4.0
   * less 177
   * libg++ 2.5.1
   * m4 1.1
   * Make 3.69.1
   * MandelSpawn 0.06
   * mtools 2.0.7
   * MULE 1.0
   * NetFax 3.2.1
   * Nethack 3.1.3
   * NIHCL 3.0
   * Oleo 1.5
   * p2c 1.20
   * patch 2.1
   * PCL 93.03.18
   * perl 4.036
   * ptx 0.3
   * rc 1.4
   * RCS
   * recode 3.2.4
   * regex 0.12
   * screen 3.5.2
   * sed 1.18 2.03
   * Shellutils 1.9.1
   * Shogi 1.1p02
   * Smalltalk 1.1.1
   * Superopt 2.3
   * tar 1.11.2
   * Termcap 1.2
   * TeX 3.1
   * Texinfo 3.1
   * Tile Forth 2.1
   * time 1.6
   * time 1.6
   * tput 1.0
   * UUCP 1.04
   * uuencode 1.0
   * wdiff 0.04
   * X11R5

MS-DOS Diskettes

The FSF distributes some of the GNU software ported to MS-DOS, on 3.5inch 1.44MB diskettes. These disks have both sources and executables.

DJGPP Diskettes

We offer DJGPP on 30 diskettes. For further details, see section GNU Software. The DJGPP diskettes contain the following:

   * bc 1.03
   * Binutils 2.4
   * Bison 1.22
   * cpio 2.3
   * Diffutils 2.6
   * doschk 1.1
   * Fileutils 3.9
   * Findutils 3.8
   * flex 2.4.7
   * GAS 2.4
   * Gawk 2.15.5
   * GCC 2.6.0
   * GDB 4.12
   * Ghostscript 2.6.1
   * Groff 1.09
   * gzip 1.24
   * hello 1.3
   * indent 1.9
   * ispell 4.0
   * libg++ 2.6.1
   * m4 1.2
   * Make 3.71
   * patch 2.1
   * sed 1.18
   * shellutils 1.9
   * Texinfo 3.1
   * texutils 1.9
   * wdiff 0.04

Emacs Diskettes

Two versions of GNU Emacs are included on the Emacs diskettes we distribute: GNU Emacs version 19.28 handles 8-bit character sets; the other, MULE version 2.1, handles 16-bit character sets including Kanji.

Selected Utilities Diskettes

The GNUish MS-DOS Project ported GNU software to PC compatibles. Though GNUish is no longer active, users still ask for these ports done some years ago. We offer these ports on five diskettes. To find out how to get them on the Internet, you can FTP files `/pub/gnu/MicrosPorts/MSDOS*' from a GNU FTP host (listed in section How to Get GNU Software). In general, the ports run on 8086/80286--based 16-bit machines; an 80386 is not required. Some are necessarily missing features.

Included are: cpio, diff, find, flex, gdbm, grep, indent, less, m4, make, ptx, RCS, sed, shar, sort, & Texinfo.

Windows Diskette

We offer GNU Chess and gnuplot for Microsoft Windows on a single diskette.

Tape & CD-ROM Subscription Service

If you do not have net access, our subscription service enables you to stay current with the latest GNU developments. For a one-time cost equivalent to three tapes or CD-ROMs (plus shipping in some cases), we will ship you four new versions of the tape of your choice or the Source Code CD-ROM. The tapes are sent each quarter; the CD-ROMs are sent as they are issued (currently twice a year, but we hope to make it more frequent.)

Regularly, we will send you a new version of a Lisps/Emacs, Languages, Utilities, or X Window System (X11R6) Required tape, or the Source CD-ROM. The MIT Scheme and X Window System Optional tapes are not changed often enough to warrant quarterly updates. We do not yet know if we will be offering subscriptions to the Compiler Tools Binaries or our new Books with CD-ROM.

Since Emacs 19 is on the Lisps/Emacs Tape and the Source CD-ROM, a subscription to either is an easy way to keep current with Emacs 19 as it evolves.

A subscription is an easy way to keep up with the regular bug fixes to the X Window System. We update the X11R6 Required tape as fixes and patches are issued throughout the year. Each edition of the section Source Code CD-ROMs, also has updated sources for the required part of the X Window System.

Please note: In two cases, you must pay 4 times the normal shipping required for a single order when you pay for each subscription. If you're in Alaska, Hawaii, or Puerto Rico you must add $20.00 for shipping for each subscription. If you're outside of U.S., Canada, and Puerto Rico, you must add $80.00 for each subscription. See "Unix and VMS Software" & "Shipping Instructions" on the see section Free Software Foundation Order Form.

The Deluxe Distribution

The Free Software Foundation has been asked repeatedly to create a package that provides executables for all of our software. Normally we offer only sources. In addition to providing binaries with the source code, the Deluxe Distribution includes a complete set of our printed manuals and reference cards.

The FSF Deluxe Distribution contains the binaries and sources to hundreds of different programs including GNU Emacs, the GNU C Compiler, the GNU Debugger, the complete X Window System, and all the GNU utilities.

We will make a Deluxe Distribution for most machines/operating systems. We may be able to send someone to your office to do the compilation, if we can't find a suitable machine close to us! However, we can only compile the programs that already support your chosen machine/system -- porting is a separate matter (to commission a port, consult the GNU Service Directory; details in section Free Software Support). Compiling all these programs takes time; a Deluxe Distribution for an unusual machine will take longer to produce than one for a common machine. Please contact the FSF Office with any questions.

We supply the software in one of these tape formats in Unix tar format: 1600 or 6250bpi 1/2in reel, Sun DC300XLP 1/4in cartridge -- QIC24, Hewlett-Packard 16-track DC600HC 1/4in cartridge, IBM RS/6000 1/4in cartridge -- QIC 150, Exabyte 8mm cartridge, or DAT 4mm cartridge. If your computer cannot read any of these, please contact us to see if we can handle your format.

The manuals included are one each of the Bison, Calc, Gawk, GNU C Compiler, GNU C Library, GDB, Flex, GNU Emacs Lisp Reference, Programming in Emacs Lisp: An Introduction, Make, Texinfo, & Termcap manuals; six copies of the GNU Emacs manual; and a packet of ten reference cards each for Emacs, Bison, Calc, Flex, & GDB.

Every Deluxe Distribution also has a copy of the latest editions of our CD-ROMs (including the MS-DOS & Debian GNU/Linux Books with CD when they are available) that have sources of our software & compiler tool binaries for some systems. The MS-DOS CD is in ISO 9660 format. The other CDs are in ISO 9660 format with Rock Ridge extensions.

The price of the Deluxe Distribution is $5000 (shipping included). These sales provide enormous financial assistance to help the FSF develop more free software. To order, please fill out the "Deluxe Distribution" section on the see section Free Software Foundation Order Form and send it to:

   Free Software Foundation, Inc.
   51 Franklin St -- Fifth Floor
   Boston, MA   02110--1307

   Telephone: +1-617-542-5942
   Fax (including Japan):       +1-617-542-2652
   Free Dial Fax (in Japan):
              0031-13-2473 (KDD)
              0066-3382-0158 (IDC)
   Electronic mail:

GNU Documentation

GNU is dedicated to having quality, easy-to-use online & printed documentation. GNU manuals are intended to explain underlying concepts, describe how to use all the features of each program, & give examples of command use. GNU manuals are distributed as Texinfo source files, which yield both typeset hardcopy via the TeX document formatting system and online hypertext display via the menu-driven Info system. Source for these manuals comes with our software; these are the manuals that we publish as printed books as well. See the see section Free Software Foundation Order Form, to order them.

Most GNU manuals are bound as soft cover books with lay-flat bindings. This allows you to open them so they lie flat on a table without creasing the binding. They have an inner cloth spine and an outer cardboard cover that will not break or crease as an ordinary paperback will. Currently, the GDB, Emacs, Emacs Lisp Reference, Programming in Emacs Lisp: An Introduction, GAWK, Make, Bison, & Texinfo manuals have this binding. The other GNU manuals also lie flat when opened, using a GBC or Wire--O binding. All our manuals are 7in by 9.25in except the 8.5in by 11in Calc manual.

The edition number of the manual and version number of the program listed after each manual's name were current at the time this Bulletin was published.

Debugging with GDB (Edition 4.12 for Version 4.14) tells how to use the GNU Debugger, run your program under debugger control, examine and alter data, modify a program's flow of control, and use GDB through GNU Emacs.

The Emacs Manual (11th Edition for Version 19.29) describes editing with GNU Emacs. It explains advanced features, including outline mode and regular expression search; how to use special modes for programming in languages like C++ and TeX; how to use the tags utility; how to compile and correct code; how to make your own keybindings; and other elementary customizations.

Programming in Emacs Lisp: An Introduction (Edition 1.03) is for people who are not necessarily interested in programming, but who do want to customize or extend their computing environment. If you read it in Emacs under Info mode, you can run the sample programs directly.

The GNU Emacs Lisp Reference Manual (Edition 2.4 for Version 19.29) covers this programming language in depth, including data types, control structures, functions, macros, syntax tables, searching/matching, modes, windows, keymaps, byte compilation, and the operating system interface.

The GAWK Manual (Edition 0.16 for Version 2.16) tells how to use the GNU implementation of awk. It is written for those who have never used awk and describes the features of this powerful string and record manipulation language.

The Make Manual (Edition 0.46 for Version 3.72) describes GNU make, a program used to rebuild parts of other programs. The manual tells how to write makefiles, which specify how a program is to be compiled and how its files depend on each other. Included are an introductory chapter for novice users and a section about automatically generated dependencies.

The Flex Manual (Edition 1.03 for Version 2.3.7) teaches you to write a lexical scanner definition for the flex program to create a C++ or C-coded scanner that recognizes the patterns defined. You need no prior knowledge of scanners.

The Bison Manual (December 1993 Edition for Version 1.23) teaches you how to write context-free grammars for the Bison program that convert into C-coded parsers. You need no prior knowledge of parser generators.

Using and Porting GNU CC (September 1994 Edition for Version 2.6) tells how to run, install, and port the GNU C Compiler to new systems. It lists new features and incompatibilities of GCC, but people not familiar with C will still need a good reference on the C programming language. It also covers G++. We are doing limited copier runs of this manual until it becomes more stable.

The Texinfo Manual (Edition 2.21 for Version 3) explains the markup language that produces our online Info documentation & typeset hardcopies. It tells you how to make tables, lists, chapters, nodes, indexes, cross references, & how to catch mistakes. This second edition describes over 50 new commands.

The Termcap Manual (2nd Edition for Version 1.2), often described as "twice as much as you ever wanted to know about termcap," details the format of the termcap database, the definitions of terminal capabilities, and the process of interrogating a terminal description. This manual is primarily for programmers.

The C Library Reference Manual (Edition 0.06 for Version 1.09) describes most of the facilities of the GNU C library, including both what Unix calls "library functions" and "system calls." We are doing limited copier runs of this manual until it becomes more stable. Please send corrections and improvements to

The Emacs Calc Manual (Edition 2.02 for Version 2.02) is both a tutorial and a reference manual. It tells how to do ordinary arithmetic, how to use Calc for algebra, calculus, and other forms of mathematics, and how to extend Calc.


Language is thought, and the state has no right getting mixed up in it.

- Laurent Dominati, a member of the conservative Union
  for French Democracy, referring to a recent attempt to
  legislate usage of the French language


How to Get GNU Software

All the software & publications from the Free Software Foundation are distributed with permission to copy and redistribute. One way to get GNU software is to copy it from someone else who has it. You can also get GNU software directly from the FSF by ordering diskettes, tapes, CD-ROMs, or Books with CD-ROMs. Such orders provide most of the funds for the FSF staff to develop more free software, so please support our work by ordering from the FSF if you can. See the see section Free Software Foundation Order Form.

There are also third party groups who distribute our software; they do not work with us, but can provide our software in other forms. Some are listed in section Free Software for Microcomputers; also see section Free Software Redistributors Donate. Please note that the Free Software Foundation is not affiliated with them in any way and is not responsible for either the currency of their versions or the swiftness of their responses.

If you decide to do business with a commercial distributor of free software, ask them how much they do to assist free software development, e.g., by contributing money to free software development projects or by writing free software themselves for general use. By basing your decision partially on this factor, you can help encourage support for free software development.

Our main FTP host is very busy & limits the number of logins. Please use one of these other Internet sites that also provide GNU software via FTP (program: ftp, user: anonymous, password: your e-mail address, mode: binary). If you have FTP access but can't reach one of these hosts, you can get the software the same way from GNU's main FTP host, (IP address: For more details & additional hosts, get the files `/pub/gnu/GETTING.GNU.SOFTWARE' and `/pub/gnu/GNUinfo/FTP'.

Most of the files on the FTP sites are compressed with gzip to lessen FTP traffic. Refer to the `/pub/gnu/=README-about-.gz-files' on each FTP site for instructions on uncompressing them. uncompress and unpack do not work!

Those on JANET can look on host in `/gnu'. Those who can UUCP can get UUCP instructions via electronic mail from: (Europe). For those without Internet access, see section Free Software Support, for information on getting electronic mail and file transfer via UUCP.

Other GPL'ed Software

Here are two examples of copylefted software that we do not presently distribute. FTP a more complete list from `/pub/gnu/GPLedSoftware' from a GNU FTP host (listed in section How to Get GNU Software). Please let us know of additional programs we should mention. We don't list GNU Emacs Lisp Libraries. Host has a list of those you can FTP in file `/pub/gnu/emacs/elisp-archive/LCD-datafile.Z'.

Free Software for Microcomputers

We do not provide support for GNU software on most microcomputers because it is peripheral to the GNU Project. However, we are willing to publish information about groups who do support and maintain them. If you are aware of any such efforts, please send the details, including postal addresses, archive sites, and mailing lists, to either address on the top menu.

See section MS-DOS Diskettes and section CD-ROMs, for microcomputer software available from the FSF. Please do not ask us about any other software. We do not maintain any of it and have no additional information.

FSF T-shirt

Our latest T-shirt has artwork by Berkeley, CA artist Etienne Suvasa. The front has the ever-popular picture of GNArnold from the Flex Manual, while the back has the Preamble to the GNU General Public License.

They are available in two colors, Natural & Black. Natural is an off-white, unbleached, undyed, environment-friendly cotton, printed with black ink, & is great for tye-dyeing or displaying as is. Black is printed with white ink & is perfect for late night hacking. All shirts are thick 100% cotton, & are available in sizes M, L, XL, & XXL. This shirt makes a great gift for your favorite hacker!


We don't have a patent on irony and satire; those tools are available for you to use in your own work.

- Guerrilla Girls, a New York City performance group


Project GNU Wish List

Wishes for this issue are for:

Thank GNUs

Thanks to Jill and Professor Donald Knuth of Stanford University for their regular, substantial contributions. Thanks to John Romkey for his large gift.

Thanks to all those mentioned elsewhere in this and past Bulletins.

Thanks to the many companies and organizations who have bought our Deluxe Distribution package.

Thanks to the Artificial Intelligence Laboratory, Laboratory for Computer Science, and Project Athena all at MIT for their invaluable assistance.

Thanks to the Hewlett Packard Computer Users' Association in Japan for their quarterly donations. Thanks to the Nihon Sun Users Group & Hitachi, Ltd. for their generous contributions. Thanks to Addison-Wesley Publishers Japan Ltd., A.I. Soft, Village Center, Inc., ASCII Corporation, & many others in Japan, for their donations & support. For their help in Japan, thanks to: Nobuyuki Hikichi, Mieko Hikichi, Ken'ichi Handa, Prof. Masayuki Ida, & Yukitoshi Fujimura.

For donating booths at their conferences, thanks to: the USENIX Association at Winter USENIX 95; and Dave Crowley and others at HP at the HPUX Developers Conference. Thanks to all the volunteers who helped the GNU Project at these and other conferences.

Thanks to Wired Magazine and Barry Meikle of the University of Toronto Bookstore for donating ad space in their separate publications. Thanks to Warren A. Hunt, Jr. and Computational Logic, Inc. for their continued donations and support.

Thanks again to Cygnus Support for assisting the GNU Project in many ways.

Thanks to all those who have lent or donated machines, including: Tadashi Kobayashi of Toshiba Corporation & Shinichi Mochizuki of Toshiba America for a T4850 notebook computer; Cygnus Support for a Sun SPARCstation; Delta Microsystems for a new Exabyte tape drive; an anonymous donor for a 4mm DAT cartridge drive; Concentra, Inc. for four HP workstations; Network Computing Devices, Inc. for three NCD X-terminals; Russ Button for two SCSI disk drives; Doug Lewan for a Sun-3/60; Computer Publishing Group, publishers of SunExpert & RS/6000, for several Sun workstations; Simson Garfinkel for an NCD X-terminal; Benjamin Cline for a Xylogics SMD controller; IBM Corp. for an Exabyte tape drive & an RS/6000; Hewlett-Packard for a dozen computers; CMU's Mach Project for a Sun-3/60; Intel Corp. for their 386 machine; NeXT for their workstation; MIT's Media Laboratory for a HP 68020; SONY Corp. & Software Research Associates, Inc., both of Tokyo, for three SONY News workstations; MIT's Laboratory for Computer Science for the DEC MicroVAX; the Open Software Foundation for two Compaq 386s; an anonymous donor for a Sun-3/280; Liant Software Corp. for 5 VT100s; Jerry Peek for a 386 machine; Interleaf, Inc., for the loan of a scanner; several anonymous donors for 8 IBM RT/PCs; & Rocky Bernstein for much IBM RT/PC hardware & manuals.

Thanks to all who have contributed ports and extensions, as well as all who have sent in other source code, documentation, and good bug reports.

Thanks to all those who sent money and offered other kinds of help.

Thanks to all those who support us by ordering t-shirts, manuals, reference cards, distribution tapes, diskettes, CD-ROMs, and Books with CD-ROMs.

The creation of this Bulletin is our way of thanking all who have expressed interest in what we are doing.

Donations Translate Into Free Software

If you appreciate Emacs, GNU CC, Ghostscript, and other free software, you may wish to help us make sure there is more in the future--remember, donations translate into more free software!

Your donation to us is tax-deductible in the United States. We gladly accept any currency, although the U.S. dollar is the most convenient.

If your employer has a matching gifts program for charitable donations, please arrange to: add the FSF to the list of organizations for your employer's matching gifts program; and have your donation matched (note section Cygnus Matches Donations!). If you do not know, please ask your personnel department.

Circle amount you are donating, cut out this form, and send it with your donation to:

   Free Software Foundation
   51 Franklin St -- Fifth Floor
   Boston, MA  02110-1301
   $500     $250     $100     $50     other $________

   Other currency:________

You can charge a donation to any of Carte Blanche, Diner's Club, JCB, Mastercard, Visa, or American Express. Charges may also be faxed to +1-617-542-2652. Individuals in Japan who are unable to place international calls may use the "free dial" numbers: 0031-13-2473 (KDD) and 0066-3382-0158 (IDC).

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Cygnus Matches Donations!

To encourage cash donations to the Free Software Foundation, Cygnus Support will continue to contribute corporate funds to FSF to accompany gifts by its employees, and by its customers and their employees.

Donations payable to the Free Software Foundation should be sent by eligible persons to Cygnus Support, which will add its gifts and forward the total to the FSF each quarter. The FSF will provide the contributor with a receipt to recognize the contribution (which is tax-deductible on U.S. tax returns). For more information, please contact Cygnus:

   Cygnus Support
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   Telephone: 415-903-1400
              +1-800-Cygnus1 (-294-6871)
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Free Software Foundation Order Form

All items are distributed with permission to copy and to redistribute.
Texinfo source for each manual and source for each reference card is on
the appropriate tape, diskette, or CD-ROM; the prices for these magnetic
media do not include printed documentation.  All items are provided on
an ``as is'' basis, with no warranty of any kind.  Please allow six
weeks for delivery (though it won't usually take that long).


Unix and VMS Software

These tapes in the formats indicated (see section Tapes, for contents):

        Please circle the dollar amount for each tape you order.

                Reel to   Sun (1)   HP        IBM (2)   Exabyte  DAT
                reel                          RS/6000
                Unix tar  Unix tar  Unix tar  Unix tar  Unix tar Unix tar
                9-track   QIC-24    16-track  QIC-150
                1600 bpi  DC300XLP  DC600HC   DC600A
                1/2" reel 1/4" c.t. 1/4" c.t. 1/4" c.t. 8mm c.t. 4mm c.t.

    (c.t. = cartridge tape)

Lisps/Emacs     $200      $210      $230      $215 (3)  $205     $225
Languages       $200      $210      $230      $215      $205     $225
Utilities       $200      $210      $230      $215      $205     $225
4.4BSD-Lite     $200      $210      $230      $215      $205     $225
Scheme          $200      $210      $230      $215      $205     $225
X11R5-Required  $200      $210      $230      $215      $205     $225
X11R5-Optional  $200      $210      $230      $215      $205     $225
X11R6-Required  $200      $210      $230      $215      $205     $225
X11R6-Optional  $200      $210      $230      $215      $205     $225

         (1) Sun tapes can be read on some other Unix systems.
         (2) IBM RS/6000 tapes can be read on some other Unix systems.
         (3) The IBM Emacs tape also has binaries for GNU Emacs.

Subscriptions, 4 updates for one year (see section Tape & CD-ROM Subscription Service):

Emacs           $600      $630      $690      $645      $615     $675
Languages       $600      $630      $690      $645      $615     $675
Utilities       $600      $630      $690      $645      $615     $675
X11R6-Required  $600      $630      $690      $645      $615     $675

      Subtotal $ ______  Please put total of the above circled amounts here.

These 1600 bpi reel-to-reel 9 track 1/2" tapes, in VMS BACKUP format (aka
interchange format) (see section VMS Emacs and VMS Compiler Tapes):

____ @ $195  = $ ______   VMS Emacs, GNU Emacs source & executables only.

____ @ $195  = $ ______   VMS Compiler, GCC, GAS, and Bison source and
                           executables only.

FSF Deluxe Distribution
(Please call with any questions.  see section The Deluxe Distribution for machine,
operating system, and media types.):

____ @ $5000 = $ ______   The Deluxe Distribution, with manuals, etc.

Machine: _____________________________________________________________________

Operating system: ____________________________________________________________

Media type: __________________________________________________________________

CD-ROMs, in ISO 9660 format (see section CD-ROMs):

GNU Source Code CD-ROM, Version 6 with X11R6 (see section June 1995 Source Code CD-ROM):

____ @ $240  = $ ______   for corporations and other organizations.

____ @ $ 60  = $ ______   for individuals.

Subscriptions, next 4 updates, of the Source Code CD-ROM, in ISO 9660 format
(see section Tape & CD-ROM Subscription Service):

____ @ $720  = $ ______   for corporations and other organizations.

____ @ $180  = $ ______   for individuals.

GNU Compiler Tools Binaries CD-ROM, Version 2, December 1994 Edition
(see section December 1994 Compiler Tools Binaries CD-ROM):

____ @ $220  = $ ______   for corporations and other organizations.

____ @  $55  = $ ______   for individuals.

Debian GNU/Linux Book with CD-ROM - expected late fall 1995 (see section Debian GNU/Linux Book with CD-ROM):

____ @ $200  = $ ______   for corporations and other organizations.

____ @  $50  = $ ______   for individuals.

MS-DOS Software

MS-DOS Book with CD-ROM - expected late fall 1995 (see section MS-DOS Book with CD-ROM):

____ @ $180  = $ ______   for corporations and other organizations.

____ @  $45  = $ ______   for individuals.

The following sources and executables for MS-DOS, on 3.5" 1.44MB diskettes
(see section MS-DOS Diskettes):

____ @ $ 90  = $ ______   Emacs diskettes, GNU Emacs, for 80386 and up.

____ @ $ 80  = $ ______   DJGPP diskettes, GCC version 2, for 80386 and up
                           (also on the see section December 1994 Compiler Tools Binaries CD-ROM and see section MS-DOS Book with CD-ROM.)

____ @ $ 85  = $ ______   Selected Utilities diskettes, 8086 and up.

____ @ $ 40  = $ ______   Windows diskette, GNU Chess and gnuplot for
                           Microsoft Windows.


These manuals (see section GNU Documentation).  Please call for bulk purchase

____ @ $ 25  = $ ______   GNU Emacs version manual, with a reference card.

____ @ $ 50  = $ ______   GNU Emacs Lisp Reference manual, in two volumes.

____ @ $ 50  = $ ______   Using and Porting GNU CC.

____ @ $ 50  = $ ______   GNU C Library Reference Manual.

____ @ $ 50  = $ ______   GNU Emacs Calc manual, with a reference card.

____ @ $ 20  = $ ______   Programming in Emacs Lisp: An Introduction.

____ @ $ 20  = $ ______   Debugging with GDB, with a reference card.

____ @ $ 20  = $ ______   Gawk manual.

____ @ $ 20  = $ ______   Make manual.

____ @ $ 20  = $ ______   Bison manual, with a reference card.

____ @ $ 20  = $ ______   Flex manual, with a reference card.

____ @ $ 20  = $ ______   Texinfo manual.

____ @ $ 15  = $ ______   Termcap manual.

Reference Cards

The following reference cards, in packets of ten.  For single copies please

____ @ $ 10  = $ ______   GNU Emacs version 19 reference cards.

____ @ $ 10  = $ ______   GNU Emacs Calc reference cards.

____ @ $ 10  = $ ______   GDB reference cards.

____ @ $ 10  = $ ______   Bison reference cards.

____ @ $ 10  = $ ______   Flex reference cards.


GNU/FSF T-shirts, thick 100% cotton (see section FSF T-shirt):

____ @ $ 15  = $ ______   Size M     ____ natural  ____ black.

____ @ $ 15  = $ ______   Size L     ____ natural  ____ black.

____ @ $ 15  = $ ______   Size XL    ____ natural  ____ black.

____ @ $ 15  = $ ______   Size XXL   ____ natural  ____ black.

Older Items

Older items are only available while supplies last.

____ @ $  5  = $ ______   GNU Emacs version 18 reference cards, in packets
                           of ten.

Please fill in the number of each older CD-ROM you order:

                                                for             for
                                                corporations    individuals:
                                                and other

GNU Compiler Tools Binaries CD-ROM
        December 1993 Edition (Version 1)       ____________    ____________

Please note that the December 1994 Source CD is permanently out of stock.

GNU Source Code CD-ROM
        May 1994 edition with X11R6             ____________    ____________

GNU Source Code CD-ROM
        November 1993 edition with X11R5        ____________    ____________

GNU Source Code CD-ROM
        May 1993 edition with X11R5             ____________    ____________

GNU Source Code CD-ROM
        October 1992 edition with X11R5         ____________    ____________

Please put the total count and cost of the above older CD-ROMs here:

____ @ $ 80  = $ ______   for corporations and other organizations.

____ @ $ 20  = $ ______   for individuals.


      Subtotal $ ______

Tax and Shipping Costs

             + $ ______   For addresses in Massachusetts: add 5% sales tax
                          or give tax exempt number.  There is no sales tax
                          on T-shirts.
             + $ ______   Shipping fee for addresses in Alaska, Hawaii, or
                          Puerto Rico:
                              $ 5.00 for *each* Emacs Calc or Emacs Lisp
                          Reference manual ($ 5.00 * #ofMans);
                            + $ 20.00 for *each* tape subscription or CD
                          subscription ($20.00 * #ofSubs);
                            + for all other items, pay $5.00 base charge,
                          plus $ 1.00 per item (shipping for all other
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             + $ ______   Shipping fee for most Foreign Destinations: (Please
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                              $20.00 base charge for orders to other
                          addresses outside of U.S., Canada, & Puerto Rico:
                            + $ 80.00 for *each* tape subscription or CD
                          subscription ($ 80.00 * #ofSubs);
                            + $ 10.00 for *each* of the other items in the
                          order ($ 10.00 * #ofItems).
             + $ ______   Optional (tax-deductible in the U.S.) donation.
                 ------   We suggest 5% if paying by credit card.

         TOTAL $ ______   We pay for shipping via UPS ground transportation in
                          the contiguous 48 states and Canada.  For very
                          large orders, ask about actual shipping costs for
                          that order.

Shipping Information

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Telephone number in case of a problem with your order.
For international orders, please include a FAX number. _______________________

|                                                                            |
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You are responsible for paying all duties, tariffs, and taxes.  If you
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The Free Software Foundation takes these credit cards: Carte Blanche,
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                Please mail orders to:  Free Software Foundation
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                                        FAX (including Japan): +1-617-542-2652
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PRICES AND CONTENTS MAY CHANGE                          0031-13-2473 (KDD)
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Version: June 1995 Info Bull

Address Page


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