GNU's Bulletin, vol. 1 no. 21, July, 1996

Table of Contents

GNU's Who

Miles Bader and Thomas Bushnell, n/BSG (whose name used to be Michael) work on the Hurd. Roland McGrath still works on the Hurd and maintains make and the GNU C library; after 9 years with us, he has decided to join the University of Utah's Flux Project (see section GNUs Flashes, for information on this project). We thank him for his work and dedication. Karl Heuer enhances Emacs and is in charge of making Deluxe Distributions. Jim Blandy has returned to the FSF temporarily, and is working on a desktop interface.

Melissa Weisshaus is working on special documentation projects.

Peter H. Salus has joined us to do fundraising and publishing and manage the non-technical side of the FSF. He ran the section First Free Software Conference. Carol Botteron has joined us to manage the FSF Office, and Tami Friedman has joined the Office staff. Brian Youmans is our new Distribution Manager. Robert J. Chassell is our Secretary/Treasurer. Daniel Hagerty has left the FSF; we thank him for his hard work.

Thanks to volunteer Scott Ewing for helping to coordinate all the volunteers in the GNU Project. Richard Stallman continues as a volunteer who does countless tasks, such as Emacs maintenance. Volunteers Phil Nelson and Len Tower work on our Web site. Len also remains our online JOAT (jack-of-all-trades), for mailing lists, gnUSENET newsgroups, information requests, etc.

Administrivia and Copyright

Written and Edited by: Melissa Weisshaus, Robert J. Chassell, and Leonard H. Tower Jr.

Illustrations by: Etienne Suvasa

Japanese Edition by: Mieko Hikichi and Nobuyuki Hikichi

ISSN (International Standard Serial Number): 1075-7813

The GNU's Bulletin is published at the end of January and the end of July each year. Please note that there is no postal mailing list. To get a copy, send your name and address with your request to the address on the top menu. Enclosing $0.78 in U.S. Postage and/or a donation of a few dollars is appreciated but not required. If you're outside the USA, sending a mailing label and enough International Reply Coupons for a package of about 100 grams is appreciated but not required. (Including a few extra International Reply Coupons for copying costs is also appreciated.)

Copyright (C) 1996 Free Software Foundation, Inc.

This page is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NoDerivs 3.0 United States License.

Other GPL'ed Software

We maintain a list of copylefted software that we do not presently distribute. FTP the file `/pub/gnu/GPLedSoftware' from a GNU FTP host (listed in section How to Get GNU Software). Please let us know of additional programs we should mention. We don't list Emacs Lisp Libraries; host has a list of those you can FTP in the file `/pub/gnu/emacs/elisp-archive/LCD-datafile.Z'.

What Is the FSF?

The Free Software Foundation is dedicated to eliminating restrictions on people's right to use, copy, modify, and redistribute computer programs. We do this by promoting the development and use of free software. Specifically, we are putting together a complete, integrated software system named "GNU" ("GNU's Not Unix", pronounced "guh-new") that will be upwardly compatible with Unix. Most parts of this system are already being used and distributed.

The word "free" in our name refers to freedom, not price. You may or may not pay money to get GNU software, but either way you have three specific freedoms once you get it: first, the freedom to copy a program, and distribute it to your friends and co-workers; second, the freedom to change a program as you wish, by having full access to source code; third, the freedom to distribute a modified version and thus help build the community. Free software means you can study the source and learn how such programs are written; it means you can port it or improve it, and then share your work with others.

If you redistribute GNU software, you may charge a distribution fee or you may give it away, so long as you include the source code and the GNU General Public License; see section What Is Copyleft?, for details.

Other organizations distribute whatever free software happens to be available. By contrast, the Free Software Foundation concentrates on the development of new free software, working towards a GNU system complete enough to eliminate the need to use a proprietary system.

Besides developing GNU, the FSF distributes GNU software and manuals for a distribution fee, and accepts gifts (tax-deductible in the U.S.) to support GNU development. Most of the FSF's funds come from its distribution service.

The Board of the Foundation is: Richard M. Stallman, President; Robert J. Chassell, Secretary/Treasurer; Gerald J. Sussman, Harold Abelson, and Leonard H. Tower Jr., Directors.

What Is Copyleft?

The simplest way to make a program free is to put it in the public domain, uncopyrighted. But this permits proprietary modified versions, which deny others the freedom to redistribute and modify; such versions undermine the goal of giving freedom to all users. To prevent this, copyleft uses copyrights in a novel manner. Typically, copyrights take away freedoms; copyleft preserves them. It is a legal instrument that requires those who pass on a program to include the rights to use, modify, and redistribute the code; the code and the freedoms become legally inseparable.

The copyleft used by the GNU Project is made from the combination of a regular copyright notice and the GNU General Public License (GPL). The GPL is a copying license which basically says that you have the aforementioned freedoms. An alternate form, the GNU Library General Public License (LGPL), applies to a few (but not most) GNU libraries. This license permits linking the libraries into proprietary executables under certain conditions. The appropriate license is included in each GNU source code distribution and in many manuals. Printed copies are available upon request.

We strongly encourage you to copyleft your programs and documentation, and we have made it as simple as possible for you to do so. The details on how to apply either form of GNU Public License appear at the end of each license.

First Free Software Conference

In February, the FSF hosted the First Conference on Freely Redistributable Software at the Cambridge (MA) Marriott. The Conference drew 185 attendees from 14 countries, with Linus Torvalds and Richard M. Stallman as the keynote speakers, eight tutorials, eleven technical presentations, and a half dozen BoFs.

The Conference Proceedings have been published and are available from the FSF while supplies last (see the FSF Order Form, in the centerfold).

The FSF is currently negotiating with groups in Europe and the U.S. concerning co-sponsorship of future events.

The FSF thanks everyone who made this Conference a success, especially the program committee: Peter H. Salus (Chair), Lisa A. Bloch, Robert J. Chassell, Chris Demetriou, Marshall Kirk McKusick, Rich Morin, Eric S. Raymond, & Vernor Vinge. We also thank John Gilmore & Red Hat Software for subsidizing several of the European presenters, Stuart McRobert of Imperial College, London for producing the Proceedings, & Cygnus Support for donating the funds to print them.

The technical presentations were:

There will be a second conference, co-sponsored by Cygnus Support, in February, 1997. See the Web site at `' or contact later this year for more information.


Strive for perfection in everything. Take the best that exists and make it better. If it doesn't exist, create it. Accept nothing nearly right or good enough.

- Sir Henry Royce, co-founder of Rolls-Royce


What Is the Hurd?

The Hurd is a collection of server processes that run on top of Mach, a free message-passing microkernel developed at CMU. The Hurd and Mach together form the kernel of the GNU operating system. The GNU C Library implements the Unix "system call" interface by sending messages to Hurd servers as appropriate.

The Hurd allows users to create and share useful projects without knowing much about the internal workings of the system--projects that might never have been attempted without freely available source, a well-designed interface, and a multiple server design. The Hurd is thus like other expandable GNU software, e.g. Emacs and GUILE.

Currently, there are free ports of the Mach kernel to the 386 PC, the DEC PMAX workstation, and several other machines, with more in progress, including the Amiga, PA-RISC HP 700, & DEC Alpha-3000. Contact us if you want to help with one of these or start your own. Porting the GNU Hurd & GNU C Library is easy (easier than porting GNU Emacs, certainly easier than porting the compiler) once a Mach port to a particular platform exists. Right now we are using the University of Utah's Mach distribution which we hope will be unified with the distribution produced by the Open Software Foundation.

The first test version of the Hurd was just released. See section GNUs Flashes, for a report on recent progress.

We need help with significant Hurd-related projects. Experienced system programmers who are interested should send mail to Porting the Mach kernel or the GNU C Library to new systems is another way to help.

You can get the Hurd from, our FTP distribution site, along with complete binaries for an i386 GNU system. We will not be distributing these things on CD-ROM until they are more stable.

What Is a GNU/Linux system?

by Richard M. Stallman

A GNU/Linux system is a system which is a combination of Linux and GNU.

Linux is a kernel, compatible with the Unix kernel, written by Linus Torvalds.

GNU is a Unix-like operating system. We started the GNU Project in 1984 with the aim of bringing such a system into existence. A Unix-like operating system consists of many components; we had to obtain each of the important components somehow. The job was so large that many of the people who sympathized with the goal were discouraged from attempting it, but we decided we would reach the goal no matter how long it took.

We found some components already available as free software--for example, the X Window System and TeX. Naturally we decided to use them, since the job was big enough even with short cuts. We obtained other components by helping to convince their developers to make them free--for example, the Berkeley network utilities.

The rest of components, we had to write. These include GNU Emacs, the GNU C & C++ compilers & libraries, Bash, Ghostscript, Groff, & many others.

All of these various components--those we wrote, those we helped make free, and those we found already available--together make up the GNU system.

Until recently, users couldn't run the GNU system, because one part (the kernel; see section What Is the Hurd?) was not yet ready. (We made the first test release just recently.) However, for a couple of years now, it has been possible to put together the Linux kernel and the almost-complete GNU system, resulting in a complete Unix-like free operating system suitable for actual use.

While commonly referred to as "Linux systems", we prefer the term "Linux-based GNU systems," or "GNU/Linux systems" for short, since these systems are mostly the same as the GNU system. This gives Linus credit for the kernel that he wrote, while still indicating that these systems as a whole are essentially variants of the GNU system.

We also occasionally use the term "GNU/Hurd system" to emphasize that we mean a version of the GNU system which uses the Hurd rather than Linux.

We think it is proper to give the GNU Project credit for making the free Unix-like system that it set out for a decade ago. But there is a more important reason for friends of GNU to use names like "Linux-based GNU system" instead of "Linux system." This is to help spread the GNU Project's philosophical idea: that there is ethical importance in freeing users to share software and cooperate in improving it; that free software belongs to a community, and people who benefit from the community should feel a moral obligation to help build the community when they have a chance.

When users install a system which they call "Linux," they can easily miss ever seeing the GNU idea. When businesses promote a system and call it "Linux," they can easily avoid bringing the GNU idea to users' attention. And if the GNU idea is not widely known, fewer people will write free software.

A conference was recently announced on the topic of developing "Linux applications"; although the conference is about using the GNU system, the conference announcement did not mention GNU.

The announcement does not even hint that there is any ethical reason to contribute to free software. On the contrary, it offers a panel entitled, "Licenses and licensing--I don't want to give away my application!!!" (The three `!' marks appear in the announcement). Even the title encourages people writing new software (which could enhance all free operating systems) to make it proprietary instead, thus contributing nothing to the free software community.

It would be harder to express that attitude if everyone knew that the topic is a variant of the GNU system. It is up to you and us to make sure they know. To do that, we have to inform people using variant GNU systems that that is what they are doing.

So please use the term "Linux-based GNU system" or "GNU/Linux" when you talk about a system which is a combination of Linux and GNU. At first, it may feel strange to go against the flow, but think how much more "against the flow" it was to start writing a free operating system. We did it, and you can do it.

FSF and Debian Separate Amicably

Ian Murdock started the effort to put together Debian, a Linux-based GNU system designed to be easy to install & upgrade. He asked for & got the FSF's sponsorship for the project, hoping that besides being useful in its own right, it would give the FSF experience in packaging up a complete GNU system.

This March, Murdock stepped down as the head of Debian, having become too busy with other work. The new team head did not want FSF sponsorship. As a result, the FSF is no longer a sponsor of Debian. We wish the situation were otherwise. However, we are working together on some design issues.

We have not yet decided whether the FSF will distribute a CD-ROM of Debian, since we don't know if that would achieve enough of the goals that we previously hoped for as sponsors of the system.

GNUs Flashes

Free Software Redistributors Donate

The SNOW 2.1 CD producers added the words "Includes $5 donation to the FSF" to the front of their CD. Potential buyers will know just how much of the price is for the FSF & how much is for the redistributor.

The Sun Users Group Deutschland has made it even clearer: their CD says, "Price 90 DM, + 12 DM donation to the FSF."

ASCII Corporation (Japan) has also donated to the FSF and plans to add a donation to the price of their next GNU software CD-ROM.

Austin Code Works, a free software redistributor, supports free software development by giving the FSF 20% of the selling price for the GNU software CDs they produce & sell.

TOHDO-SHA is donating 400 yen to the FSF for each copy of The GNU Emacs Lisp Reference Manual, Japanese Edition sold at bookstores in Japan.

CQ Publishing made a large donation from the sales of their GAWK book in Japanese, and Specialized Systems Consultants, Inc. is donating 3% of the profits from selling "Effective AWK Programming", by Arnold Robbins. Walnut Creek CDROM gives us part of their selling price every month.

In the long run, the success of free software depends on how much new free software people develop. Free software distribution offers an opportunity to raise funds for such development in an ethical way. These redistributors have made use of the opportunity. Many others let it go to waste.

You can help promote free software development by convincing for-a-fee redistributors to contribute--either by doing development themselves or by donating to development organizations (the FSF and others).

The way to convince distributors to contribute is to demand and expect this of them. This means choosing among distributors partly by how much they give to free software development. Then you can show distributors they must compete to be the one who gives the most.

To make this work, you must insist on numbers that you can compare, such as, "We will give ten dollars to the Foobar project for each disk sold." A vague commitment, such as "A portion of the profits is donated," doesn't give you a basis for comparison. Even a precise fraction "of the profits from this disk" is not very meaningful, since creative accounting and unrelated business decisions can greatly alter what fraction of the sales price counts as profit.

Also, press developers for firm information about what kind of development they do or support. Some kinds make much more long-term difference than others. For example, maintaining a separate version of a GNU program contributes very little; maintaining a program on behalf of the GNU Project contributes much. Easy new ports contribute little, since someone else would surely do them; difficult ports such as adding a new CPU to the GNU compiler or Mach contribute more; major new features & programs contribute the most.

By establishing the idea that supporting further development is "the proper thing to do" when distributing free software for a fee, we can assure a steady flow of resources for making more free software.

Help from Free Software Companies

When choosing a free software business, ask those you are considering how much they do to assist free software development, e.g., by contributing money to free software development or by writing free software improvements themselves for general use. By basing your decision partially on this factor, you can help encourage those who profit from free software to contribute to its growth.

Wingnut (SRA's special GNU support group) regularly donates a part of its income to the FSF to support the development of new GNU programs. Listing them here is our way of thanking them. Wingnut has made a pledge to donate 10% of their income to the FSF, and has purchased several Deluxe Distribution packages in Japan. Also see section Cygnus Matches Donations!.

   Wingnut Project
   Software Research Associates, Inc.
   1-1-1 Hirakawa-cho, Chiyoda-ku
   Tokyo 102, Japan

   Phone:  (+81-3)3234-2611
   Fax:    (+81-3)3942-5174
   WWW: `'

Some Bad News about Pine

Pine is a simple electronic mail reader for beginning users, which we have included on our Source CDs since 1995.

In March of 1996, the Pine developers released a new version with new usage restrictions. The new terms do not permit everyone to redistribute, and do not permit distribution of modified versions at all. Either restriction would be enough to prevent Pine from being free software.

The previous versions of Pine remain free; however, no substantial program is bug-free, and every program needs to be maintained. So this April the Free Software Foundation recruited a team of volunteers to carry on development of the free version of Pine, starting from the last available free release (3.91).

Forking a program is unfortunate; people should try their best to work together before giving up and working separately. So before embarking on separate development, we tried our best to persuade the old developers to make their work free software once again. In the end, though, they rejected our plea.

The new team has just started, and has yet to do a release. However, you can report bugs in Pine 3.91 to them at the address, so they can be fixed in the next release of the free alternative version of Pine.

Free Software Support

The Free Software Foundation does not provide technical support. Our mission is developing software, because that is the most time-efficient way to increase what free software can do. We leave it to others to earn a living providing support. We see programmers as providing a service, much as doctors and lawyers do now; both medical and legal knowledge are freely redistributable, but their practitioners charge for service.

The GNU Service Directory is a list of people who offer support and other consulting services. It is `/pub/gnu/GNUinfo/SERVICE' on a GNU FTP host (listed in section How to Get GNU Software), on the World Wide Web at URL `', in the file `etc/SERVICE' in the GNU Emacs distribution, and the file `SERVICE' in the GCC distribution. Contact us to get a copy or to be listed in it. Those service providers who share their income with the FSF are listed in section Help from Free Software Companies.

If you find a deficiency in any GNU software, we want to know. We have many Internet mailing lists for bug reports, announcements, and questions. They are also gatewayed into USENET news as the gnu.* newsgroups. You can request a list of the mailing lists from either address on the top menu.

When we receive a bug report, we usually try to fix the problem. While our bug fixes may seem like individual assistance, they are not; they are part of preparing a new improved version. We may send you a patch for a bug so that you can help us test the fix and ensure its quality. If your bug report does not evoke a solution from us, you may still get one from another user who reads our bug report mailing lists. Otherwise, use the Service Directory.

Please do not ask us to help you install software or learn how to use it--but do tell us how an installation script fails or where documentation is unclear.

When choosing a service provider, ask those you are considering how much they do to assist free software development, e.g., by contributing money to free software development or by writing free software improvements themselves for general use. By basing your decision partially on this factor, you can encourage those who profit from free software to contribute to its growth.

What Is the LPF?

The League for Programming Freedom (LPF) aims to protect the freedom to write software. This freedom is threatened by "look-and-feel" interface copyright lawsuits and by software patents.

The League is a grass-roots organization of professors, students, business people, programmers, users, & even software companies dedicated to bringing back the freedom to write programs. The League isn't opposed to the legal system that Congress intended--copyright on individual programs. The League aims to reverse recent changes made by judges in response to special interests.

Membership dues in the League are $42 per year for programmers, managers, and professionals; $10.50 for students; $21 for others.

To join, please send a check and the following information:

The League is not connected with the Free Software Foundation, and is not concerned with the issue of free software. The FSF supports the League because, like any software developer smaller than Microsoft, it is endangered by software patents and interface copyrights. You are in danger, too! It would be easy to ignore the problem until you or your employer is sued, but it is more prudent to organize before that happens.

If you haven't made up your mind yet, write to the League for more information:

   League for Programming Freedom
   One Kendall Square - #143
   P.O. Box 9171
   Cambridge, MA   02139

   World Wide Web: `'

News from the LPF

by Dean Anderson, President, League for Programming Freedom

Statement on Supreme Court Decision

The recent Supreme Court action in Lotus v. Borland represents a victory for Borland, the League, developers, and users. While we wish the Supreme Court was more specific and had provided a written opinion, the Supreme Court tie allows the First Circuit decision to stand as law for the First Circuit, and as an "authoritative reference" for other Circuits. Essentially, the action means that one cannot own the user interface to programs.

This action is a win for users because their investment in learning a user interface can be preserved when they change vendors. It will be more difficult to create software monopolies based on claiming an exclusive right to a user interface. This decision will promote competition in the software industry as software companies will now compete to provide better and cheaper software which speaks the languages that users already know.

The League can now focus its attention on the software patent problem. Software patents are now the major threat to software developers, and to users and the general public as prices are driven up by legal and licensing costs. Software innovations which would improve our quality of life may be blocked by patent disputes and licensing quagmires. As people become more dependent on computer networks and software, the software patent issue will become more critical.

Tell a Friend about the LPF

The user interface copyright battle was largely fought in the courtroom, and that involved some key moments of focus and coordination. But since we will probably be battling in Congress over software patents, our approach will have to be somewhat different. Therefore, it is very important to get more members. Membership is what will get us the most clout with Congress. In the next year, we will need to gear up to promote our ideas more widely, both inside & outside of the software world. Your help & support is very important to the success of this effort, so encourage everyone you know to join the LPF!

Keep writing letters! Write the LPF, your representatives, newspapers, journals, and others. Be sure to send us copies of the articles you wrote, and the publications to which they were sent. See our Web page at `' for more info on how to help the LPF (send suggestions to

Help the GNU Translation Project

GNU is going international! Our Translation Project gets users, translators, and maintainers together, so GNU will gradually speak many native languages.

To complete the GNU Translation Project, we need many people who like their own language and write it well, and who are also able to synergize with other translators speaking the same language as part of "translation teams".

If you want to start a new team, or want more information on existing teams or other aspects of this project, write Also see section GNU Software, for information about gettext, the tool the GNU Translation Project uses to help translators and programmers.

GNU & Other Free Software in Japan

Mieko ( and Nobuyuki Hikichi ( continue to volunteer for the GNU Project in Japan. They translate each issue of this Bulletin into Japanese and distribute it widely, along with their translation of Version 2 of the GNU General Public License. This translation of the GPL is authorized by the FSF and is available by anonymous FTP from in `/pub/gnu/local-fix/GPL2-j'. They are working on a formal translation of the GNU Library General Public License. They also solicit donations and offer GNU software consulting.

nepoch (the Japanese version of Epoch) & MULE are available and widely used in Japan. MULE (the MULtilingual Enhancement of GNU Emacs) can handle many character sets at once. Its features are being merged into the principal version of Emacs. See section GNU Software, for more details on MULE. The FSF does not distribute nepoch, but MULE is available on the section July 1996 Source Code CD-ROMs. FTP it from in `/JAPAN/mule', or in `/pub/mule'.

An anonymous user in Japan has redistributed GNU material that was left over from an FSF Tokyo seminar. He bought these items for reader presents in magazines of Gijitsu Hyouron-Sha, a publishing company.

The Village Center, Inc. prints a Japanese translation (ISBN 4-938704-02-1) of the GNU Emacs Lisp Reference Manual and puts the Texinfo source on various bulletin boards. They also publish Nobuyuki & Mieko's Think GNU (ISBN 4-938704-10-2); this may be the first non-FSF copylefted publication in Japan. They also redistribute GNU CD-ROMs at this bookstore:

   Shosen Grande
   1-3-2 Kanda Jinbo-cho, Chiyoda-ku
   Tokyo 101,   Japan

   Telephone: 03-3295-0011

Part of Village Center's profits are donated to the FSF. Their address is:

   Village Center, Inc.
   3-2 Kanda Jinbo-cho, Chiyoda-ku
   Tokyo 101,   Japan

   Telephone: 03-3221-3520
   URL: for GNU products info
   handling by Village Center

Addison-Wesley Publishers Japan Ltd. has printed Japanese translations of the GNU Make Manual (ISBN 4-7952-9627-X) and the GAWK Manual (ISBN 4-7952-9672-8). Their address is:

   Addison-Wesley Publishers Japan Ltd.
   Nichibou Bldg. 2F
   1-2-2 Sarugaku-cho, Chiyoda-ku
   Tokyo 101,   Japan

   Telephone: 03-3291-4581

There is a mailing list in Japan to discuss both hardware & software which is under the GNU General Public License. It provides information about making your own computer system. The main language of the list is Japanese. If you are interested in getting information or having discussions in English, ask or

Many groups in Japan now distribute GNU software. They include JUG, a PC user group; ASCII, a periodical and book publisher; the Fujitsu FM Towns users group; and SRA's special GNU users' support group, Wingnut, who also purchased the first Deluxe Distribution package in Japan (also see section Help from Free Software Companies). (Since then, there have been several other purchases of Deluxe Distribution packages in Japan.)

It is easy to place an order directly with the FSF from Japan, thus funding new software. To get an FSF Order Form written in Japanese, ask We encourage you to buy our software CDs: for example, 140 CD-ROM orders at the corporate rate allow the FSF to hire a programmer for a year to write more free software.

Many programs in the field of parallel processing and knowledge processing were released to the public under the name of "ICOT Free Software (IFS)" in the Fifth Generation Computer Systems project. IFS was an 11-year Japanese project started in 1982 and FGCS was its 2-year follow-on project.

As of the end of March 1996, over 3,900 persons have accessed the ICOT Web page, and almost 21,000 files have been transferred since the first release in 1992. As ICOT was wound up in June, 1995, maintenance and further development of IFS was transferred to the Japan Information Processing Development Center (JIPDEC). JIPDEC established the Research Institute for Advanced Information Technology (AITEC). AITEC not only maintains, develops, and distributes IFS, but also develops parallel knowledge processing software in collaboration with several Japanese universities. Newly developed software will be released to the public with conditions similar to those of IFS.

For now, the domain name will remain For more information, please see URL `'.

Forthcoming GNUs

Information about the current status of released GNU programs can be found in section GNU Software. Here is some news of future plans.

GNU Software

All our software is available via FTP; see section How to Get GNU Software. We also offer section CD-ROMs, and printed section GNU Documentation, which includes manuals and reference cards. In the articles describing the contents of each medium, the version number listed after each program name was current when we published this Bulletin. When you order a newer CD-ROM, some of the programs may be newer and therefore the version number higher. See the see section Free Software Foundation Order Form, for ordering information.

Some of the contents of our FTP distributions are compressed. We have software on our FTP sites to uncompress these files. Due to patent troubles with compress, we use another compression program, gzip. (Such prohibitions on software development are fought by the League for Programming Freedom; see section What Is the LPF?, for details.)

You may need to build GNU make before you build our other software. Some vendors supply no make utility at all and some native make programs lack the VPATH feature essential for using the GNU configure system to its full extent. The GNU make sources have a shell script to build make itself on such systems.

We welcome all bug reports and enhancements sent to the appropriate electronic mailing list (see section Free Software Support).

Configuring GNU Software

We are using Autoconf, a uniform scheme for configuring GNU software packages in order to compile them (see "Autoconf" and "Automake" below, in this article). The goal is to have all GNU software support the same alternatives for naming machine and system types.

Ultimately, it will be possible to configure and build the entire system all at once, eliminating the need to configure each individual package separately.

You can also specify both the host and target system to build cross-compilation tools. Most GNU programs now use Autoconf-generated configure scripts.

GNU Software Now Available

For future programs and features, see section Forthcoming GNUs.

Key to cross reference:

   BinCD        December 1995 Binaries CD-ROM
   SrcCD        December 1995 Source CD-ROMs

[FSFman] shows that we sell a manual for that package. [FSFrc] shows we sell a reference card for that package. To order them, see the see section Free Software Foundation Order Form. See section GNU Documentation, for more information on the manuals. Source code for each manual or reference card is included with each package.

Program/Package Cross Reference

Here is a list of the package each GNU program or library is in. You can FTP the current list in the file `/pub/gnu/ProgramIndex' from a GNU FTP host (listed in section How to Get GNU Software).

   * 4dview geomview

   * a2p perl
   * a2x xopt
   * ac bsd44
   * accton bsd44
   * ackpfd phttpd
   * acl bsd44
   * acm acm
   * acms acm
   * addbbox geomview
   * addftinfo Groff
   * adventure bsd44
   * afm2tfm TeX
   * aid ID Utils
   * amd bsd44
   * ansitape bsd44
   * AnswerGarden xopt
   * apply bsd44
   * appres xreq
   * apropos bsd44
   * ar Binutils
   * arithmetic bsd44
   * arp bsd44
   * atc bsd44
   * authwn WN
   * autoconf Autoconf
   * autoheader Autoconf
   * automake Automake
   * autoreconf Autoconf
   * autoscan Autoconf
   * autoupdate Autoconf
   * auto_box xopt
   * auto_box xreq

   * b2m Emacs
   * backgammon bsd44
   * bad144 bsd44
   * badsect bsd44
   * banner bsd44
   * basename Shellutils
   * bash BASH
   * battlestar bsd44
   * bc bc
   * bcd bsd44
   * bdes bsd44
   * bdftops Ghostscript
   * beach_ball xopt
   * beach_ball xreq
   * beach_ball2 xopt
   * bibtex TeX
   * biff bsd44
   * bison Bison
   * bitmap xreq
   * boggle bsd44
   * bpltobzr Fontutils
   * bugfiler bsd44
   * buildhash Ispell
   * bzrto Fontutils

   * c++ GCC
   * c++filt Binutils
   * c2ph perl
   * ca100 xopt
   * caesar bsd44
   * cal bsd44
   * calendar bsd44
   * canfield bsd44
   * cat Textutils
   * cbars wdiff
   * cc GCC
   * cc1 GCC
   * cc1obj GCC
   * cc1plus GCC
   * cccp GCC
   * cdwrite mkisofs
   * cfengine cfengine
   * cgi Spinner
   * charspace Fontutils
   * checknr bsd44
   * chess bsd44
   * chflags bsd44
   * chgrp Fileutils
   * ching bsd44
   * chmod Fileutils
   * chown Fileutils
   * chpass bsd44
   * chroot bsd44
   * ci RCS
   * cksum Textutils
   * cktyps g77
   * clisp CLISP
   * clri bsd44
   * cmail xboard
   * cmmf TeX
   * cmodext xopt
   * cmp Diffutils
   * co RCS
   * col bsd44
   * colcrt bsd44
   * colrm bsd44
   * column bsd44
   * comm Textutils
   * compress bsd44
   * comsat bsd44
   * connectd bsd44
   * cp Fileutils
   * cpicker xopt
   * cpio cpio
   * cpp GCC
   * cppstdin perl
   * cribbage bsd44
   * crock xopt
   * csh bsd44
   * csplit Textutils
   * ctags Emacs
   * ctwm xopt
   * cu UUCP
   * cut Textutils
   * cvs CVS
   * cvscheck CVS
   * cvtmail Emacs
   * cxterm xopt

   * d Fileutils
   * date Shellutils
   * dc bc
   * dd Fileutils
   * ddd DDD
   * defid ID Utils
   * delatex TeX
   * demangle Binutils
   * descend CVS
   * detex TeX
   * df Fileutils
   * dhtppd phttpd
   * diff Diffutils
   * diff3 Diffutils
   * diffpp enscript
   * digest-doc Emacs
   * dipress bsd44
   * dir Fileutils
   * dircolors Fileutils
   * dirname Shellutils
   * dish xopt
   * disklabel bsd44
   * diskpart bsd44
   * dld dld
   * dm bsd44
   * dmesg bsd44
   * doschk doschk
   * dox xopt
   * du Fileutils
   * dump bsd44
   * dump mkisofs
   * dumpfs bsd44
   * dvi2tty TeX
   * dvicopy TeX
   * dvips TeX
   * dvitype TeX

   * ecc ecc
   * echo Shellutils
   * ed ed
   * edit-pr GNATS
   * editres xreq
   * edquota bsd44
   * eeprom bsd44
   * egrep grep
   * eid ID Utils
   * emacs Emacs
   * emacsclient Emacs
   * emacsserver Emacs
   * emacstool Emacs
   * emu xopt
   * enscript enscript
   * env Shellutils
   * eqn Groff
   * error bsd44
   * es es
   * esdebug es
   * etags Emacs
   * ex nvi
   * example geomview
   * exicyclog Exim
   * exigrep Exim
   * exim Exim
   * eximon Exim
   * eximon Exim
   * eximstats Exim
   * exinext Exim
   * exiwhat Exim
   * expand Textutils
   * expect DejaGnu
   * expr Shellutils
   * exterm xopt

   * f2c f2c
   * factor bsd44
   * fakemail Emacs
   * false Shellutils
   * fastboot bsd44
   * fax2ps HylaFAX
   * faxalter HylaFAX
   * faxanswer HylaFAX
   * faxcover HylaFAX
   * faxd HylaFAX
   * faxd.recv HylaFAX
   * faxmail HylaFAX
   * faxquit HylaFAX
   * faxrcvd HylaFAX
   * faxrm HylaFAX
   * faxstat HylaFAX
   * fc f2c
   * fdraw xopt
   * ffe g77
   * fgrep grep
   * fid ID Utils
   * file bsd44
   * find Findutils
   * find2perl perl
   * finger Finger
   * fingerd Finger
   * fish bsd44
   * fixfonts Texinfo
   * fixinc.svr4 GCC
   * fixincludes GCC
   * flex flex
   * flex++ flex
   * flythrough geomview
   * fmt bsd44
   * fnid ID Utils
   * fold Textutils
   * font2c Ghostscript
   * fontconvert Fontutils
   * forth Tile Forth
   * forthicon Tile Forth
   * forthtool Tile Forth
   * fortune bsd44
   * fpr bsd44
   * freq Ispell
   * freqtbl Ispell
   * from bsd44
   * fsck bsd44
   * fsplit bsd44
   * fstat bsd44
   * ftp bsd44
   * ftp Inetutils
   * ftpd bsd44
   * ftpd Inetutils

   * g++ GCC
   * gas Binutils
   * gawk GAWK
   * gcal gcal
   * gcc GCC
   * gcore bsd44
   * gdb GDB
   * genclass libg++
   * geomstuff geomview
   * gettext gettext
   * getty bsd44
   * gftodvi TeX
   * gftopk TeX
   * gftype TeX
   * ghostview Ghostview
   * gid ID Utils
   * ginsu geomview
   * git GIT
   * gitaction GIT
   * gitcmp GIT
   * gitkeys GIT
   * gitmatch GIT
   * gitmount GIT
   * gitps GIT
   * gitredir GIT
   * gitrgrep GIT
   * gitview GIT
   * gitwipe GIT
   * gn GN
   * gnans Gnans
   * gnanslator Gnans
   * gnats GNATS
   * gnuchess Chess
   * gnuchessc Chess
   * gnuchessn Chess
   * gnuchessr Chess
   * gnuchessx Chess
   * gnuclient gnuserv
   * gnudoit gnuserv
   * gnupdisp Shogi
   * gnuplot gnuplot
   * gnuplot_x11 gnuplot
   * gnuserv gnuserv
   * gnushogi Shogi
   * gnushogir Shogi
   * gnushogix Shogi
   * go GnuGo
   * gpc xopt
   * gpc xreq
   * gperf cperf
   * gperf libg++
   * gprof Binutils
   * graffiti geomview
   * graph Graphics
   * grep grep
   * grodvi Groff
   * groff Groff
   * grops Groff
   * grotty Groff
   * groups Shellutils
   * gs Ghostscript
   * gsbj Ghostscript
   * gsdj Ghostscript
   * gslj Ghostscript
   * gslp Ghostscript
   * gsnd Ghostscript
   * gsrenderfont Fontutils
   * gunzip gzip
   * gvclock geomview
   * gwm xopt
   * gzexe gzip
   * gzip gzip

   * h2ph perl
   * h2pl perl
   * hack bsd44
   * hangman bsd44
   * head Textutils
   * hello hello
   * hexdump bsd44
   * hexl Emacs
   * hinge geomview
   * hostname Shellutils
   * hp2xx hp2xx
   * hterm xopt
   * htmlencode phttpd
   * httpd apache
   * httpdecode phttpd

   * i18nOlwmV2 xopt
   * i2mif xopt
   * ico xopt
   * ico xreq
   * id Shellutils
   * ident RCS
   * ifconfig bsd44
   * ifnames Autoconf
   * ImageMagick xopt
   * imageto Fontutils
   * iman xopt
   * imgrotate Fontutils
   * indent indent
   * indxbib Groff
   * inetd bsd44
   * inetd Inetutils
   * info Texinfo
   * inimf TeX
   * init bsd44
   * initex TeX
   * inn bsd44
   * install Fileutils
   * iostat bsd44
   * isodiag mkisofs
   * isodump mkisofs
   * ispell Ispell
   * ixterm xopt
   * ixx xopt

   * join Textutils
   * jot bsd44
   * jove bsd44

   * kdestroy bsd44
   * kdump bsd44
   * kermit bsd44
   * kgames xopt
   * kgmon bsd44
   * kill bsd44
   * kinit bsd44
   * kinput2 xopt
   * klist bsd44
   * kpasswdd bsd44
   * ksrvtgt bsd44
   * kterm xopt
   * ktrace bsd44

   * lam bsd44
   * larn bsd44
   * lasergnu gnuplot
   * last bsd44
   * lastcomm bsd44
   * latex TeX
   * lclock xopt
   * ld Binutils
   * leave bsd44
   * less less
   * lesskey less
   * libavcall.a ffcall
   * libbfd.a Binutils
   * libbfd.a GDB
   * libbzr.a Fontutils
   * libc.a C Library
   * libcompat.a bsd44
   * libcurses.a bsd44
   * libcurses.a ncurses
   * libdcurses.a ncurses
   * libedit.a bsd44
   * libF77.a f2c
   * libF77.a g77
   * libg++.a libg++
   * libgdbm.a gdbm
   * libgf.a Fontutils
   * libgmp.a gmp
   * libgnanslib.a Gnans
   * libgnussl.a gnussl
   * libI77.a f2c
   * libI77.a g77
   * libkvm.a bsd44
   * libm.a bsd44
   * libncurses.a ncurses
   * libnihcl.a NIHCL
   * libnihclmi.a NIHCL
   * libnihclvec.a NIHCL
   * libnls.a xreq
   * libobjects.a libobjects
   * liboctave.a Octave
   * liboldX.a xreq
   * libpbm.a Fontutils
   * libPEXt.a xopt
   * libpk.a Fontutils
   * libresolv.a bsd44
   * librpc.a bsd44
   * libsipp.a SIPP
   * libtcl.a DejaGnu
   * libtelnet.a bsd44
   * libterm.a bsd44
   * libtermcap.a Termcap
   * libtfm.a Fontutils
   * libtiff.a tiff
   * libutil.a bsd44
   * libvacall.a ffcall
   * libWc.a xopt
   * libwidgets.a Fontutils
   * libX.a xreq
   * libXau.a xreq
   * libXaw.a xreq
   * libXcp.a xopt
   * libXcu.a xopt
   * libXdmcp.a xreq
   * libXmp.a xopt
   * libXmu.a xreq
   * libXO.a xopt
   * libXop.a xopt
   * libXp.a xopt
   * libXpex.a xopt
   * libXt.a xopt
   * libXt.a xreq
   * libXwchar.a xopt
   * liby.a bsd44
   * libYgl.a Ygl
   * lid ID Utils
   * limn Fontutils
   * listres xopt
   * listres xreq
   * lkbib Groff
   * ln Fileutils
   * locate Findutils
   * lock bsd44
   * logcvt-ip2n phttpd
   * logger bsd44
   * login bsd44
   * logname Shellutils
   * logo ucblogo
   * lookbib Groff
   * lorder bsd44
   * lpr bsd44
   * ls Fileutils
   * lynx lynx

   * m4 m4
   * mail bsd44
   * mail-files Sharutils
   * mailq smail
   * mailshar Sharutils
   * make make
   * make-docfile Emacs
   * make-path Emacs
   * makeindex TeX
   * makeinfo Texinfo
   * MakeTeXPK TeX
   * man bsd44
   * man-macros Groff
   * maniview geomview
   * mattrib mtools
   * maze xopt
   * maze xreq
   * mazewar xopt
   * mc mc
   * mcd mtools
   * mcopy mtools
   * mcserv mc
   * md5sum Textutils
   * mdel mtools
   * mdir mtools
   * me-macros Groff
   * medit2gv geomview
   * merge RCS
   * mesg bsd44
   * mf TeX
   * mformat mtools
   * mft TeX
   * mgdiff xopt
   * mh bsd44
   * mille bsd44
   * mkafmmap enscript
   * mkcache GN
   * mkdep bsd44
   * mkdir Fileutils
   * mkfifo Fileutils
   * mkid ID Utils
   * mkisofs mkisofs
   * mklocale bsd44
   * mkmanifest mtools
   * mkmf bsd44
   * mkmodules CVS
   * mknod Fileutils
   * mkstr bsd44
   * mlabel mtools
   * mm-macros Groff
   * mmd mtools
   * monop bsd44
   * more bsd44
   * morse bsd44
   * mount bsd44
   * mountd bsd44
   * movemail Emacs
   * mprof bsd44
   * mrd mtools
   * mread mtools
   * mren mtools
   * ms-macros Groff
   * msgcmp gettext
   * msgfmt gettext
   * msgmerge gettext
   * msgs bsd44
   * msgunfmt gettext
   * mst Smalltalk
   * mt cpio
   * mterm xopt
   * mtree bsd44
   * mtype mtools
   * mule MULE
   * muncher xopt
   * mv Fileutils
   * mvdir Fileutils
   * mwrite mtools

   * NDview geomview
   * nethack NetHack
   * netstat bsd44
   * newfs bsd44
   * nfsd bsd44
   * nfsiod bsd44
   * nfsstat bsd44
   * nice Shellutils
   * nl Textutils
   * nlmconv Binutils
   * nm Binutils
   * nohup Shellutils
   * nose geomview
   * notify HylaFAX
   * nroff Groff
   * number bsd44

   * objc GCC
   * objcopy Binutils
   * objdump Binutils
   * objective-c GCC
   * obst-boot OBST
   * obst-CC OBST
   * obst-cct OBST
   * obst-cgc OBST
   * obst-cmp OBST
   * obst-cnt OBST
   * obst-cpcnt OBST
   * obst-csz OBST
   * obst-dir OBST
   * obst-dmp OBST
   * obst-gen OBST
   * obst-gsh OBST
   * obst-init OBST
   * obst-scp OBST
   * obst-sil OBST
   * obst-stf OBST
   * oclock xreq
   * octave Octave
   * od Textutils
   * oleo Oleo
   * ora-examples xopt

   * p2c p2c
   * pagesize bsd44
   * palette xopt
   * pascal bsd44
   * passwd bsd44
   * paste Textutils
   * patch patch
   * patgen TeX
   * pathalias bsd44
   * pathchk Shellutils
   * pathto smail
   * pax bsd44
   * pbmplus xopt
   * perl perl
   * pfbtops Groff
   * phantasia bsd44
   * phttpd phttpd
   * pic Groff
   * pico pine
   * pig bsd44
   * pine pine
   * ping bsd44
   * pixedit xopt
   * pixmap xopt
   * pktogf TeX
   * pktype TeX
   * plaid xopt
   * plot2fig Graphics
   * plot2plot Graphics
   * plot2ps Graphics
   * plot2tek Graphics
   * pltotf TeX
   * pollrcvd HylaFAX
   * pom bsd44
   * pooltype TeX
   * portmap bsd44
   * ppt bsd44
   * pr Textutils
   * pr-addr GNATS
   * pr-edit GNATS
   * primes bsd44
   * printenv Shellutils
   * printf Shellutils
   * protoize GCC
   * proxygarb Spinner
   * ps bsd44
   * ps2ascii Ghostscript
   * ps2epsi Ghostscript
   * ps2fax HylaFAX
   * psbb Groff
   * pstat bsd44
   * psycho xopt
   * ptester phttpd
   * ptx ptx
   * pubdic+ xopt
   * puzzle xopt
   * puzzle xreq
   * pwd Shellutils
   * pyramid xopt

   * query-pr GNATS
   * quiz bsd44
   * quot bsd44
   * quota bsd44
   * quotacheck bsd44
   * quotaon bsd44

   * rain bsd44
   * random bsd44
   * ranlib Binutils
   * rbootd bsd44
   * rc rc
   * rcp bsd44
   * rcp Inetutils
   * rcs RCS
   * rcs-to-cvs CVS
   * rcs2log Emacs
   * rcsdiff RCS
   * rcsfreeze RCS
   * rcsmerge RCS
   * rdist bsd44
   * reboot bsd44
   * recode recode
   * recvstats HylaFAX
   * red ed
   * refer Groff
   * remsync Sharutils
   * renice bsd44
   * repquota bsd44
   * restore bsd44
   * rev bsd44
   * rexecd bsd44
   * rexecd Inetutils
   * rlog RCS
   * rlogin bsd44
   * rlogin Inetutils
   * rlogind bsd44
   * rlogind Inetutils
   * rm Fileutils
   * rmail bsd44
   * rmdir Fileutils
   * rmt cpio
   * rmt tar
   * robots bsd44
   * rogue bsd44
   * route bsd44
   * routed bsd44
   * rr xopt
   * rs bsd44
   * rsh bsd44
   * rsh Inetutils
   * rshd bsd44
   * rshd Inetutils
   * rsmtp smail
   * runq smail
   * runtest DejaGnu
   * runtest.exp DejaGnu
   * ruptime bsd44
   * rwho bsd44
   * rwhod bsd44

   * s2p perl
   * sail bsd44
   * saoimage SAOimage
   * savecore bsd44
   * sc bsd44
   * sccs bsd44
   * sccs2rcs CVS
   * scdisp xopt
   * screen screen
   * script bsd44
   * scsiformat bsd44
   * sctext xopt
   * sdiff Diffutils
   * sed sed
   * send-pr GNATS
   * sendfax HylaFAX
   * sendmail bsd44
   * sgi2fax HylaFAX
   * sgn GN
   * sh bsd44
   * shar Sharutils
   * shinbun xopt
   * shogi Shogi
   * showfont xopt
   * showmount bsd44
   * shutdown bsd44
   * size Binutils
   * sj3 xopt
   * sjxa xopt
   * slattach bsd44
   * sleep Shellutils
   * sliplogin bsd44
   * smail smail
   * smtpd smail
   * snake bsd44
   * snftobdf xopt
   * soelim Groff
   * sort Textutils
   * sos2obst OBST
   * spider xopt
   * split Textutils
   * startslip bsd44
   * stereo geomview
   * stf OBST
   * strings Binutils
   * strip Binutils
   * stty Shellutils
   * su Shellutils
   * sum Textutils
   * superopt Superopt
   * swapon bsd44
   * sweep geomview
   * sync bsd44
   * sysctl bsd44
   * syslog Inetutils
   * syslogd bsd44
   * syslogd Inetutils
   * systat bsd44

   * tabs Termutils
   * tac Textutils
   * tackdown geomview
   * tail Textutils
   * taintperl perl
   * talk bsd44
   * talk Inetutils
   * talkd bsd44
   * talkd Inetutils
   * tangle TeX
   * tar tar
   * tbl Groff
   * tcal gcal
   * tcl DejaGnu
   * tclsh DejaGnu
   * tcopy bsd44
   * tcp Emacs
   * tee Shellutils
   * tek2plot Graphics
   * telnet bsd44
   * telnet Inetutils
   * telnetd bsd44
   * telnetd Inetutils
   * test Shellutils
   * test-g++ DejaGnu
   * test-tool DejaGnu
   * tetris bsd44
   * tex TeX
   * tex3patch Texinfo
   * texi2dvi Texinfo
   * texindex Texinfo
   * texspell TeX
   * textfmt HylaFAX
   * tfmtodit Groff
   * tftopl TeX
   * tftp bsd44
   * tftp Inetutils
   * tftpd bsd44
   * tftpd Inetutils
   * tgrind TeX
   * time time
   * timed bsd44
   * timer Emacs
   * timex xopt
   * tip bsd44
   * tkpostage xopt
   * tn3270 bsd44
   * togeomview geomview
   * touch Fileutils
   * tput Termutils
   * tr Textutils
   * traceroute bsd44
   * transcript HylaFAX
   * transfig xopt
   * transformer geomview
   * trek bsd44
   * trigrp geomview
   * trn3 bsd44
   * troff Groff
   * trpt bsd44
   * trsp bsd44
   * true Shellutils
   * tset bsd44
   * tsort bsd44
   * tty Shellutils
   * ttygnans Gnans
   * tunefs bsd44
   * tupdate gettext
   * tvtwm xopt
   * twm xreq

   * ul bsd44
   * ulpc Spinner
   * umount bsd44
   * uname Shellutils
   * uncompress gzip
   * unexpand Textutils
   * unifdef bsd44
   * unify wdiff
   * uniq Textutils
   * unprotoize GCC
   * unshar Sharutils
   * unvis bsd44
   * update bsd44
   * updatedb Findutils
   * users Shellutils
   * uuchk UUCP
   * uucico UUCP
   * uuconv UUCP
   * uucp UUCP
   * uucpd bsd44
   * uucpd Inetutils
   * uudecode Sharutils
   * uudir UUCP
   * uuencode Sharutils
   * uulog UUCP
   * uuname UUCP
   * uupath smail
   * uupick UUCP
   * uurate UUCP
   * uusched UUCP
   * uustat UUCP
   * uuto UUCP
   * uux UUCP
   * uuxqt UUCP

   * v Fileutils
   * vacation bsd44
   * vandal xopt
   * vcdiff Emacs
   * vdir Fileutils
   * vftovp TeX
   * vgrind bsd44
   * vi nvi
   * viewres xopt
   * viewres xreq
   * vine xopt
   * vipw bsd44
   * virmf TeX
   * virtex TeX
   * vis bsd44
   * vmstat bsd44
   * vptovf TeX

   * w bsd44
   * waisgn GN
   * wakeup Emacs
   * wall bsd44
   * wargames bsd44
   * wc Textutils
   * wdiff wdiff
   * weave TeX
   * what bsd44
   * whatis bsd44
   * whereis bsd44
   * who Shellutils
   * whoami Shellutils
   * whois bsd44
   * window bsd44
   * winterp xopt
   * wish DejaGnu
   * wn WN
   * wndex WN
   * worm bsd44
   * worms bsd44
   * write bsd44
   * wump bsd44

   * x11perf xreq
   * x2p perl
   * xalarm xopt
   * xancur xopt
   * xargs Findutils
   * xauth xreq
   * xbfe Fontutils
   * xbiff xopt
   * xbiff xreq
   * xboard xboard
   * xboing xopt
   * xbuffy3 xopt
   * xcalc xopt
   * xcalc xreq
   * xcalendar xopt
   * xcdplayer xopt
   * xcell xopt
   * xclipboard xreq
   * xclock xreq
   * xcmdmenu xopt
   * xcms xopt
   * xcmsdb xreq
   * xcmstest xreq
   * xco xopt
   * xcolorize xopt
   * xcolors xopt
   * xconsole xreq
   * xcrtca xopt
   * xdaliclock xopt
   * xdiary xopt
   * xditview Groff
   * xditview xopt
   * xditview xreq
   * xdm xreq
   * xdpyinfo xreq
   * xdu xopt
   * xdvi TeX
   * xdvi xopt
   * xdvorak xopt
   * xearth xopt
   * xed xopt
   * xedit xopt
   * xedit xreq
   * xev xopt
   * xev xreq
   * xexit xopt
   * xeyes xopt
   * xeyes xreq
   * xfd xreq
   * xfed xopt
   * xfedor xopt
   * xfeoak xopt
   * xferstats HylaFAX
   * xfig xopt
   * xfontsel xopt
   * xfontsel xreq
   * xforecast xopt
   * xgas xopt
   * xgas xreq
   * xgc xopt
   * xgc xreq
   * xgettext gettext
   * xhearts xopt
   * xhelp xopt
   * xhost xreq
   * xinit xreq
   * xkeycaps xopt
   * xkill xreq
   * xlax xopt
   * xlayout xopt
   * xlbiff xopt
   * xless xopt
   * xload xopt
   * xload xreq
   * xlogin xopt
   * xlogo xreq
   * xlsatoms xreq
   * xlsclients xreq
   * xlsfonts xreq
   * xmag xreq
   * xmail xopt
   * xmailbox xopt
   * xmailwatcher xopt
   * xman xopt
   * xman xreq
   * xmandel xopt
   * xmessage xopt
   * xmeter xopt
   * xmh xreq
   * xmh-icons xopt
   * xmh.editor xopt
   * xmodmap xreq
   * xmon xopt
   * xmove xopt
   * xmphone xopt
   * xpd xopt
   * xphoon xopt
   * xpipeman xopt
   * xplot Graphics
   * xpostit xopt
   * xpr xopt
   * xpr xreq
   * xprompt xopt
   * xproof xopt
   * xprop xreq
   * xpserv xopt
   * xrdb xreq
   * xrefresh xreq
   * xrsh xopt
   * xrubik xopt
   * xrunclient xopt
   * xscope xopt
   * xscreensaver xopt
   * xsession xopt
   * xset xreq
   * xsetroot xreq
   * xshogi xshogi
   * xstdcmap xreq
   * xstr bsd44
   * xtalk xopt
   * xterm xreq
   * xterm_color xopt
   * xtetris xopt
   * xTeXcad.13 xopt
   * xtiff xopt
   * xtokid ID Utils
   * xtree xopt
   * xtv xopt
   * xwd xreq
   * xwininfo xreq
   * xwud xreq

   * yacc bsd44
   * yes Shellutils
   * youbin xopt
   * yow Emacs

   * zcat gzip
   * zcmp gzip
   * zdiff gzip
   * zforce gzip
   * zgrep gzip
   * zmore gzip
   * znew gzip

   * [ Shellutils

The Deluxe Distribution

The Free Software Foundation has been asked repeatedly to create a package that provides executables for all of our software. Normally we offer only sources. The Deluxe Distribution provides binaries with the source code and includes six T-shirts, all our CD-ROMs, printed manuals, & reference cards.

The FSF Deluxe Distribution contains the binaries and sources to hundreds of different programs including Emacs, the GNU C/C++ Compiler, the GNU Debugger, the complete X Window System, and all the GNU utilities.

We will make a Deluxe Distribution for most machines/operating systems. We may be able to send someone to your office to do the compilation, if we can't find a suitable machine close to us. However, we can only compile the programs that already support your chosen machine/system -- porting is a separate matter (to commission a port, consult the GNU Service Directory; details in section Free Software Support). Compiling all these programs takes time; a Deluxe Distribution for an unusual machine will take longer to produce than one for a common machine. Please contact the FSF Office with any questions.

We supply the software on a write-once CD-ROM (in ISO 9660 format with "Rock Ridge" extensions), or on one of these tapes in Unix tar format: 1600 or 6250bpi 1/2in reel, Sun DC300XLP 1/4in cartridge -- QIC24, IBM RS/6000 1/4in c.t. -- QIC 150, Exabyte 8mm c.t., or DAT 4mm c.t. If your computer cannot read any of these, please contact us to see if we can handle your format.

The manuals included are one each of the Bison, Calc, GAWK, GNU C Compiler, GNU C Library, GDB, Flex, GNU Emacs Lisp Reference, Programming in Emacs Lisp: An Introduction, Make, Texinfo, & Termcap manuals; six copies of the GNU Emacs manual; and ten reference cards each for Emacs, Bison, Calc, Flex, & GDB.

Every Deluxe Distribution also has a copy of the latest editions of our CD-ROMs that have sources of our software & compiler tool binaries for some systems. The CDs are in ISO 9660 format with Rock Ridge extensions.

The price of the Deluxe Distribution is $5000 (shipping included). These sales provide enormous financial assistance to help the FSF develop more free software. To order, please fill out the "Deluxe Distribution" section on the see section Free Software Foundation Order Form and send it to:

   Free Software Foundation, Inc.
   51 Franklin St, Fifth Floor
   Boston, MA   02110-1301

   Telephone: +1-617-542-5942
   Fax (including Japan): +1-617-542-2652
   Electronic Mail:
   World Wide Web:


We offer these CD-ROMs:

Our CD-ROMs are in ISO 9660 format and can be mounted as a read-only file system on most computers. If your driver supports it, you can mount each CD with "Rock Ridge" extensions and it will look just like an ordinary Unix file system, rather than one full of truncated and otherwise mangled names that fit vanilla ISO 9660.

You can build most of the software without copying the sources off the CD. You only need enough disk space for object files and intermediate build targets.

Pricing of the GNU CD-ROMs

If a business or organization is ultimately paying, the July 1996 Source CD set costs $240. The set costs $60 if you, an individual, are paying out of your own pocket. The December 1995 Compiler Tools Binaries CD-ROM costs $220 for a business or organization, and $55 for an individual.

What Do the Different Prices Mean?

The software on our disks is free; anyone can copy it and anyone can run it. What we charge for is the physical disk and the service of distribution.

We charge two different prices depending on who is buying. When a company or other organization buys the July 1996 Source CD-ROMs, we charge $240. When an individual buys the same CD-ROMs, we charge just $60. This distinction is not a matter of who is allowed to use the software. In either case, once you have a copy, you can distribute as many copies as you wish and there's no restriction on who can have or run them. The price distinction is entirely a matter of what kind of entity pays for the CDs.

You, the reader, are certainly an individual, not a company. If you are buying a disk "in person", then you are probably doing so as an individual. But if you expect to be reimbursed by your employer, then the disk is really for the company; so please pay the company price and get reimbursed for it. We won't try to check up on you--we use the honor system--so please cooperate.

Buying CDs at the company price is very helpful for GNU; just 140 Source CDs at that price support an FSF programmer or tech writer for a year.

Why Is There an Individual Price?

In the past, our distribution tapes were ordered mainly by companies. The CD at the price of $240 provides them with all of our software for a much lower price than they would previously have paid for six different tapes. To lower the price more would cut into the FSF's funds very badly and decrease the software development we can do.

However, for individuals, $240 is too high a price; hardly anyone could afford that. So we decided to make CDs available to individuals at the lower price of $60.

Is There a Maximum Price?

Our stated prices are minimum prices. Feel free to pay a higher price if you wish to support GNU development more. The sky's the limit; we will accept as high a price as you can offer. Or simply give a donation (tax-deductible in the U.S.) to the Free Software Foundation, a tax-exempt public charity.

December 1995 Compiler Tools Binaries CD-ROM

We have the third edition of our CD-ROM that has binaries and complete sources for GNU compiler tools for some systems which lack a compiler. This enables the people who use these systems to compile GNU and other free software without having to buy a proprietary compiler. You can also use these GNU tools to compile your own C/C++/Objective-C programs. Older editions of this CD are available while supplies last at a reduced price; see the see section Free Software Foundation Order Form.

We hope to have more systems on each update of this CD. If you can help build binaries for new systems (especially those that don't come with a C compiler), or have one to suggest, please contact us at the addresses on the top menu.

These packages:

   * DJGPP 1.12m4 from GCC 2.6.3
   * GCC/G++/Objective-C 2.7.1
   * GNU C Library 1.09
   * GDB 4.15.1
   * Binutils 2.6
   * Bison 1.24
   * Emacs 19.29 (MS-DOS only)
   * Flex 2.5.2
   * Make 3.74
   * libg++ 2.7.1

On these platforms:

   * i386-msdos
   * hppa1.0-hp-hpux9
   * sparc-sun-solaris2
   * sparc-sun-sunos4.1

MS-DOS/Windows Book with CD-ROM

We are working on our first book on GNU Software for DOS/Windows, but we do not know when it will be finished. It will include a CD-ROM with the sources & binaries for much of the GNU software.

Because it just slows us down, please do NOT contact us about this book until we announce it on our electronic mailing lists (to subscribe, ask

Source Code CD-ROMs

We have several versions of our Source Code CD-ROMs available, including:

The older Source CDs are available while supplies last at a reduced price (please note that the December 1994 Source CD is permanently out of stock). All the Source CDs have Texinfo source for the GNU manuals listed in section GNU Documentation.

MIT Scheme & much of X11 is not on the older Source CDs.

There are no precompiled programs on these Source CDs. You will need a C compiler (programs which need some other interpreter or compiler normally provide the C source for a bootstrapping program). We ship C compiler binaries for some systems on the section December 1995 Compiler Tools Binaries CD-ROM.

July 1996 Source Code CD-ROMs

The 8th edition of our Source Code CD is out with two CD-ROM disks. It has programs, bug fixes, & improvements not on the older Source CDs. It has these packages, & some manuals that are not part of packages:

   * acm 4.7
   * apache 1.1
   * Autoconf 2.10
   * Automake 1.0
   * BASH 1.14.6
   * bc 1.03
   * Binutils 2.7
   * Bison 1.25
   * C Library 1.93
   * Calc 2.02d
   * cfengine 1.3.7
   * Chess 4.0.pl77
   * CLISP 1996.05.30
   * Common Lisp 2.2
   * cperf 2.1a
   * cpio 2.4.2
   * CVS 1.8.1
   * DejaGnu 1.3
   * Diffutils 2.7
   * dld 3.3
   * doschk 1.1
   * ed 0.2
   * Elib 1.0
   * elisp archive
   * Emacs 18.59
   * Emacs 19.31
   * Emacs 19.32
   * enscript 1.4.0
   * es 0.84
   * Exim 0.53
   * f2c 1996.07.23
   * ffcall 1.0
   * Fileutils 3.13
   * Findutils 4.1
   * Finger 1.37
   * flex 2.5.3
   * Fontutils 0.6
   * g77 0.5.18
   * GAWK 3.0.0
   * gcal 1.01
   * GCC/G++/Objective-C 2.7.2
   * GCC 2.7.3
   * GDB 4.16
   * gdbm 1.7.3
   * Generic NQS 3.50.0
   * geomview 1.5.0
   * gettext 0.10
   * Ghostscript 3.33
   * Ghostview 1.5
   * Ghostview for Windows 1.0
   * GIT 4.3.11
   * gmp 2.0.2
   * GN 2.24
   * Gnans 1.5.1
   * gnat 3.05
   * GNATS 3.2
   * GNU Emacs Lisp Reference Manual 1.03
   * GNU Emacs Lisp Reference Manual 2.4
   * GnuGo 1.2
   * gnuplot 3.5
   * gnuserv 2.1alpha
   * gnussl 0.2
   * Graphics 0.17
   * grep 2.0
   * Groff 1.10
   * gzip 1.2.4
   * hello 1.3
   * hp2xx 3.1.4
   * HylaFAX 4.0b018
   * ID Utils 3.1
   * indent 1.9.1
   * Inetutils 1.0
   * Ispell 3.1.20
   * karma 1.4
   * less 321
   * libg++ 2.7.2
   * libobjects 0.1.19
   * lynx 2.5
   * m4 1.4
   * make 3.75
   * MandelSpawn 0.07
   * maxima 5.2
   * mc 3.2.1
   * miscfiles 1.0
   * mkisofs 1.05GNU
   * mm 1.07
   * mtools 3.0
   * MULE 2.3
   * ncurses 1.9.9e
   * NetHack 3.2.1
   * NIHCL 3.1.4
   * nvi 1.71
   * Oaklisp 930720
   * OBST 3.4.3
   * Octave 1.1.1
   * Oleo 1.6
   * p2c 1.20
   * patch 2.1
   * perl 4.036
   * perl 5.003
   * phttpd
   * pine 3.91
   * Programming in Emacs Lisp an Introduction 1.04
   * ptx 0.4
   * rc 1.4
   * RCS 5.7
   * readline 2.0
   * regex 0.12
   * rx 1.0
   * SAOimage 1.18
   * screen 3.7.1
   * sed 2.05
   * Sharutils 4.2
   * Shellutils 1.12
   * Shogi 1.2p03
   * SIPP 3.1
   * smail 3.2
   * Smalltalk 1.1.1
   * Spinner 1.0b14
   * Superopt 2.5
   * tar 1.11.8
   * Termcap 1.3
   * Termutils 2.0
   * TeX 3.145
   * Texinfo 3.7
   * Textutils 1.19
   * tiff 3.4b035
   * Tile Forth 2.1
   * time 1.7
   * ucblogo 3.3
   * UUCP 1.06.1
   * W3 2.2.26
   * wdiff 0.5
   * WN 1.15.3
   * X11R6.1
   * xboard 3.4.pl1
   * xgrabsc 2.41
   * xshogi 1.2p03
   * Ygl 3.1
December 1995 Source Code CD-ROMs

We still have copies of the 7th edition of our Source CD available. This was the first two-disk edition of our Source Code CD. It contains these packages, & some manuals that are not part of packages:

   * acm 4.7
   * apache 0.8.8
   * Autoconf 2.7
   * BASH 1.14.5
   * bc 1.03
   * Binutils 2.5.2
   * Binutils 2.6
   * Bison 1.24
   * C Library 1.09
   * Calc 2.02c
   * cfengine 1.2.21
   * Chess 4.0.pl75
   * CLISP 1995.08.12
   * Common Lisp 2.2
   * cperf 2.1a
   * cpio 2.3
   * CVS 1.6
   * DDD 1.3b
   * DejaGnu 1.2.9
   * Diffutils 2.7
   * dld 3.2.3
   * doschk 1.1
   * ecc 1.2.1
   * ed 0.2
   * Elib 0.07
   * Elisp archive
   * Emacs 18.59
   * Emacs 19.28
   * Emacs 19.29
   * Emacs 19.30
   * es 0.84
   * f2c 1995.11.18
   * ffcall 1.0
   * Fileutils 3.12
   * Findutils 4.1
   * Finger 1.37
   * flex 2.5.2
   * Fontutils 0.6
   * g77 0.5.17
   * GAWK 2.15.6
   * GCC/G++/Objective C 2.7.1
   * GDB 4.15.1
   * gdbm 1.7.3
   * gettext 0.9a
   * Ghostscript 2.6.2
   * Ghostview 1.5
   * Ghostview for Windows 1.0
   * GIT 4.3.7
   * gmp 1.3.2
   * GN 2.23
   * Gnans 1.5
   * GNATS 3.2
   * GNU Emacs Lisp Reference Manual, Ed. 1.03 for Version 18.59
   * GNU Emacs Lisp Reference Manual, Ed. 2.4 for Version 19.29
   * GnuGo 1.2
   * gnuplot 3.5
   * gnuserv 2.1alpha
   * Graphics 0.17
   * grep 2.0
   * Groff 1.09
   * gzip 1.2.4
   * hello 1.3
   * hp2xx 3.1.4
   * HylaFAX v3.0pl0
   * Hyperbole 4.01
   * indent 1.9.1
   * Ispell 3.1.20
   * less 290
   * libg++ 2.7.1
   * libobjects 0.1.3
   * m4 1.4
   * make 3.74
   * mc 3.0
   * MIT Scheme 7.3
   * mkisofs 1.04GNU
   * mtools 2.0.7
   * MULE 2.3
   * ncurses 1.9.7a
   * NetHack 3.1.3
   * NIHCL 3.1.4
   * nvi 1.34
   * Oaklisp 93.07.23
   * OBST 3.4.3
   * Octave 1.1.1
   * Oleo 1.6
   * p2c 1.20
   * patch 2.1
   * perl 4.036
   * perl 5.001
   * phttpd 0.99.68
   * pine 3.91
   * Programming in Emacs Lisp: An Introduction, Ed. 1.04
   * ptx 0.4
   * rc 1.4
   * RCS 5.7
   * recode 3.4
   * regex 0.12
   * rx 0.05
   * SAOimage 1.08
   * screen 3.7.1
   * sed 2.05
   * Sharutils 4.1
   * Shellutils 1.12
   * Shogi 1.2p03
   * SIPP 3.1
   * Smalltalk 1.1.1
   * SNePS 2.3.1
   * Spinner 1.0b11
   * Superopt 2.5
   * tar 1.11.8
   * Termcap 1.3
   * TeX 3.145
   * Texinfo 3.6
   * Textutils 1.13
   * Tile Forth 2.1
   * time 1.6
   * tput 1.0
   * ucblogo 3.3
   * UUCP 1.06.1
   * W3 2.2.25
   * wdiff 0.5
   * X11R6
   * xboard 3.3.pl3
   * xgrabsc 2.41
   * xshogi 1.2p03
   * Ygl 3.0.2
November 1993 Source Code CD-ROM

We still have the 3rd edition of our Source CD, at a reduced price, while supplies last. It was the last Source Code CD to contain X11R5. This CD has Edition 2.2 for version 19 of the GNU Emacs Lisp Reference Manual & some additional software; not all FSF distributed software is included (see section Source Code CD-ROMs). It contains these packages:

   * acm 3.1
   * Autoconf 1.7
   * BASH 1.13.4
   * bc 1.02
   * Binutils 1.9
   * Binutils 2.3
   * Bison 1.22
   * C Library 1.06.7
   * Calc 2.02b
   * Chess 4.0p62
   * CLISP 93.11.08
   * cpio 2.3
   * CVS 1.3
   * dc 0.2
   * DejaGnu 1.0.1
   * Diffutils 2.6
   * dld 3.2.3
   * doschk 1.1
   * ecc 1.2.1
   * Elib 0.06
   * Emacs 18.59
   * Emacs 19.21
   * es 0.84
   * f2c 1993.04.28
   * Fileutils 3.9
   * find 3.8
   * Finger 1.37
   * flex 2.3.8
   * Fontutils 0.6
   * GAS 1.36.utah
   * GAS 1.38.1
   * GAS 2.2
   * GAWK 2.15.3
   * GCC/G++/Objective-C 2.5.4
   * GDB 4.11
   * gdbm 1.7.1
   * Ghostscript 2.6.1
   * Ghostview 1.5
   * Ghostview for Windows 1.0
   * gmp 1.3.2
   * GNATS 3.01
   * GnuGo 1.1
   * gnuplot 3.5
   * gperf 2.1a
   * Graphics 0.17
   * grep 2.0
   * Groff 1.08
   * gzip 1.2.4
   * hello 1.3
   * hp2xx 3.1.3a
   * indent 1.8
   * Ispell 4.0
   * less 177
   * libg++ 2.5.1
   * m4 1.1
   * make 3.69.1
   * MandelSpawn 0.06
   * mtools 2.0.7
   * MULE 1.0
   * NetFax 3.2.1
   * NetHack 3.1.3
   * NIHCL 3.0
   * Oleo 1.5
   * p2c 1.20
   * patch 2.1
   * PCL 93.03.18
   * perl 4.036
   * ptx 0.3
   * rc 1.4
   * RCS
   * recode 3.2.4
   * regex 0.12
   * screen 3.5.2
   * sed-1.18 2.03
   * shellutils 1.9.1
   * Shogi 1.1p02
   * Smalltalk 1.1.1
   * Superopt 2.3
   * tar 1.11.2
   * Termcap 1.2
   * TeX 3.1
   * Texinfo 3.1
   * tileforth 2.1
   * time 1.6
   * tput 1.0
   * UUCP 1.04
   * uuencode 1.0
   * wdiff 0.04
   * X11R5

CD-ROM Subscription Service

Our subscription service enables you to stay current with the latest GNU developments. For a one-time cost equivalent to three Source CD-ROMs (plus shipping in some cases), we will ship you four new versions of the section Source Code CD-ROMs. The CD-ROMs are sent as they are issued (currently twice a year, but we hope to make it more frequent). We do not yet know if we will be offering subscriptions to the Compiler Tools Binaries CD or our DOS/Windows Book with CD-ROM when it is available.

A subscription is an easy way to keep up with the regular bug fixes to the X Window System. Each edition of the section Source Code CD-ROMs, has updated sources for the X Window System.

Please note: In two cases, you must pay 4 times the normal shipping required for a single order when you pay for each subscription. If you're in Alaska, Hawaii, or Puerto Rico you must add $20.00 for shipping for each subscription. If you're outside of the U.S., Canada, and Puerto Rico, you must add $80.00 for each subscription. See "CD-ROMs" and "Tax and Shipping Costs" on the see section Free Software Foundation Order Form.

GNU Documentation

GNU is dedicated to having quality, easy-to-use online & printed documentation. GNU manuals are intended to explain underlying concepts, describe how to use all the features of each program, & give examples of command use. GNU manuals are distributed as Texinfo source files, which yield both typeset hardcopy via the TeX document formatting system and online hypertext display via the menu-driven Info system. Source for these manuals comes with our software; here are the manuals that we publish as printed books. See the see section Free Software Foundation Order Form, to order them.

Most GNU manuals are bound as soft cover books with lay-flat bindings. This allows you to open them so they lie flat on a table without creasing the binding. They have an inner cloth spine and an outer cardboard cover that will not break or crease as an ordinary paperback will. Currently, the GDB, Emacs, Emacs Lisp Reference, Programming in Emacs Lisp: An Introduction, GNU Awk User's Guide, Make, Bison, & Texinfo manuals have this binding. The other GNU manuals also lie flat when opened, using a GBC binding. All our manuals are 7in by 9.25in except the 8.5in by 11in Calc manual.

The edition number of the manual and version number of the program listed after each manual's name were current at the time this Bulletin was published.

Debugging with GDB (Edition 4.12 for Version 4.14) tells how to run your program under GNU Debugger control, examine and alter data, modify a program's flow of control, and use GDB through GNU Emacs.

The GNU Emacs Manual (11th Edition for Version 19.32) describes editing with GNU Emacs. It explains advanced features, including outline mode and regular expression search; how to use special programming modes to write languages like C++ and TeX; how to use the tags utility; how to compile and correct code; how to make your own keybindings; and other elementary customizations.

Programming in Emacs Lisp: An Introduction (Edition 1.04) is for people who are not necessarily interested in programming, but who do want to customize or extend their computing environment. If you read it in Emacs under Info mode, you can run the sample programs directly.

The GNU Emacs Lisp Reference Manual (Edition 2.4 for Version 19.32) and The GNU Emacs Lisp Reference, Japanese Edition (Japanese DRAFT Revision 1.0, from English Edition 2.4 for Version 19.29) cover this programming language in depth, including data types, control structures, functions, macros, syntax tables, searching/matching, modes, windows, keymaps, byte compilation, and the operating system interface.

The GNU Awk User's Guide (Edition 1.0 for Version 3.0.0) tells how to use GAWK. It is written for those who have never used awk and describes features of this powerful string and record manipulation language.

GNU Make (Edition 0.50 for Version 3.75 Beta) describes GNU make, a program used to rebuild parts of other programs. The manual tells how to write makefiles, which specify how a program is to be compiled and how its files depend on each other. Included are an introductory chapter for novice users and a section about automatically generated dependencies.

The Flex manual (Edition 1.03 for Version 2.3.7) teaches you to write a lexical scanner definition for the flex program to create a C++ or C-coded scanner that recognizes the patterns defined. You need no prior knowledge of scanners.

The Bison Manual (November 1995 Edition for Version 1.25) teaches you how to write context-free grammars for the Bison program that convert into C-coded parsers. You need no prior knowledge of parser generators.

Using and Porting GNU CC (November 1995 Edition for Version 2.7.2) tells how to run, install, and port the GNU C Compiler to new systems. It lists new features and incompatibilities of GCC, but people not familiar with C will still need a good reference on the C programming language. It also covers G++.

The Texinfo manual (Edition 2.20 for Version 3) explains the markup language that produces our online Info documentation & typeset hardcopies. It tells you how to make tables, lists, chapters, nodes, indexes, cross references, & how to catch mistakes. This second edition describes over 50 new commands.

The Termcap Manual (3nd Edition for Version 1.3), often described as "twice as much as you ever wanted to know about termcap," details the format of the termcap database, the definitions of terminal capabilities, and the process of interrogating a terminal description. This manual is primarily for programmers.

The C Library Reference Manual (Edition 0.07 for Version 1.09) describes the library's facilities, including both what Unix calls "library functions" & "system calls." We are doing small copier runs of this manual until it becomes more stable. Please send fixes to

The Emacs Calc Manual (Edition 2.02 for Version 2.02) is both a tutorial and a reference manual. It tells how to do ordinary arithmetic, how to use Calc for algebra, calculus, and other forms of mathematics, and how to extend Calc.

How to Get GNU Software

All the software & publications from the Free Software Foundation are distributed with permission to copy and redistribute. One way to get GNU software is to copy it from someone else who has it. You can also get GNU software directly from the FSF by ordering CD-ROMs and books. Such orders provide most of the funds for the FSF staff to develop more free software, so please support our work by ordering from the FSF if you can. See the see section Free Software Foundation Order Form.

There are also third party groups who distribute our software. Some are listed in section Free Software Redistributors Donate; also see section Free Software for Microcomputers. Please note that the Free Software Foundation is not affiliated with them in any way and is not responsible for either the currency of their versions or the swiftness of their responses.

If you decide to do business with a commercial distributor of free software, ask them how much they do to assist free software development, e.g., by contributing money to free software development projects or by writing free software themselves for general use. By basing your decision partially on this factor, you can help encourage support for free software development.

Our main FTP host is very busy & limits the number of logins. Please use one of these other sites that also provide GNU software via FTP (program: ftp, user: anonymous, password: your e-mail address, mode: binary). If you can't reach one of them, get the software from GNU's main FTP host, (IP address: More hosts & details are in `/pub/gnu/GETTING.GNU.SOFTWARE' & `/pub/gnu/GNUinfo/FTP' on any host.

Most of the files on the FTP sites are compressed with gzip to lessen FTP traffic. Refer to the `/pub/gnu/=README-about-.gz-files' on each FTP site for instructions on uncompressing them. uncompress and unpack do not work!

If you can UUCP, get e-mail instructions from (Europe).

FSF T-shirt

The front of our T-shirt has the GNU Emacs Lisp code (USE 'GNU) with "()" being the dancing parentheses from the cover of our GNU Emacs Lisp Reference Manual (drawn by Berkeley, CA artist Etienne Suvasa). The shirt's back is imprinted with the Preamble to the GNU General Public License.

These shirts come in black, purple, red, pink, burgundy, blue, and natural (off-white). When you order, please give 3 choices. Black and purple are printed in white; the other colors are printed in black. All shirts are thick 100% cotton, and come in sizes S, M, L, XL, and XXL (but they run small so you may want a larger size than usual).

GNU T-shirts often create spontaneous friendships at conferences & on university campuses. They also make great gifts for friends & family, including children!


Language is thought, and the state has no right getting mixed up in it.

- Laurent Dominati, a member of the conservative Union
  for French Democracy, referring to a recent attempt to
  legislate usage of the French language


Free Software for Microcomputers

We do not provide support for GNU software on most microcomputers because it is peripheral to the GNU Project. However, we are willing to publish information about groups who do support and maintain them. If you are aware of any such efforts, please send the details, including postal addresses, archive sites, and mailing lists, to either address on the top menu.

See section CD-ROMs, for microcomputer software available from the FSF. Please do not ask us about any other software. We do not maintain any of it and have no additional information.

Project GNU Wish List

Wishes for this issue are for:

Thank GNUs

Thanks to Jill and Professor Donald Knuth of Stanford University, Bradley Yearwood, Paul Eggert, D. A. Hall & N. A. Olsen, Tom & Patricia Puckett, the Rubin Estate, Kyoto Micro Computer, Vance Petree, and Alan Bram for their regular and/or substantial contributions, & to John Romkey for his very large contribution.

Thanks to all those mentioned elsewhere in this & past Bulletins.

Thanks to the Artificial Intelligence Laboratory, Laboratory for Computer Science, and Project Athena all at MIT for their invaluable assistance.

Thanks to the many companies & organizations who have bought our Deluxe Distribution; to Simon Karpen, Scott Kay, Reuven Lerner, Chuck Campbell, Robert Lopez, Mike Miscevic, Timothy Mooney, Kay Nettle, Alan Schwartz, Jason Verch, Karl Vogel, & PCI for helping to build Deluxe Distributions; David Krikorian, James DuPrie, & David Caswell for helping test our MS-DOS CD; Peter Ford, Joan Quigley, & Douglas Alan for helping master GNU CDs.

For their help in Japan, thanks to: Nobuyuki Hikichi, Mieko Hikichi, Ken'ichi Handa, Prof. Masayuki Ida, Yukitoshi Fujimura, Prof. Takafumi Hayashi, Takeshi Hayashi, Mr. Akiba, & Mr. Nakamura. Thanks to the Hewlett Packard Computer Users' Association in Japan for their quarterly donations. Thanks to the Nihon Sun Users Group & Hitachi, Ltd. for their generous contributions. Thanks to Addison-Wesley Publishers Japan Ltd., A.I. Soft, Village Center, Inc., ASCII Corporation, & many others in Japan, for their continued donations & support.

We thank those groups who have donated us booths at their conferences, including the Sun Users Group.

Thanks to all the volunteers who helped the GNU Project at conferences; Barry Meikle of the University of Toronto Bookstore for donating ad space; Warren A. Hunt, Jr. & Computational Logic, Inc. for their continued donations & support; to Cygnus Support for helping the GNU Project in many ways.

Thanks to all who have lent or donated machines, including: Hewlett-Packard for a CD write-once system; the Open Software Foundation for ten 486s & two 386s; Tadashi Kobayashi of Toshiba Corporation & Shinichi Mochizuki of Toshiba America for a T4850 notebook computer; Delta Microsystems for an Exabyte tape drive; an anonymous donor for a 4mm DAT cartridge drive; Concentra, Inc. for four HP workstations; Network Computing Devices, Inc. for three NCD X-terminals; Russ Button for two SCSI disk drives; Simson Garfinkel for an NCD X-terminal; IBM Corp. for an Exabyte tape drive & an RS/6000; Hewlett-Packard for a dozen computers; MIT's Media Laboratory for an HP 68020; SONY Corp. & Software Research Associates, Inc., both of Tokyo, for three SONY News workstations; an anonymous donor for a Sun-3/280; Liant Software Corp. for 5 VT100s; several anonymous donors & Rocky Bernstein for IBM RT/PC hardware & manuals.

Thanks to all who have contributed ports and extensions, as well as all who have sent in other source code, documentation, and good bug reports.

Thanks to all those who sent money and offered other kinds of help.

Thanks to all those who support us by ordering T-shirts, manuals, reference cards, distribution CD-ROMs, and books.

The creation of this Bulletin is our way of thanking all who have expressed interest in what we are doing.

Donations Translate Into Free Software

If you appreciate Emacs, GNU CC, Ghostscript, and other free software, you may wish to help us make sure there is more in the future--remember, donations translate into more free software!

Your donation to us is tax-deductible in the United States. We gladly accept any currency, although the U.S. dollar is the most convenient.

If your employer has a matching gifts program for charitable donations, please arrange to: add the FSF to the list of organizations for your employer's matching gifts program; and have your donation matched (note section Cygnus Matches Donations!). If you do not know, please ask your personnel department.

Circle amount you are donating, cut out this form, and send it with your donation to:

   Free Software Foundation, Inc.
   51 Franklin St, Fifth Floor
   Boston, MA  02110-1301
 $500   $250   $100   $50   Other $_____  Other currency:_____

You can charge a donation to any of Carte Blanche, Diner's Club, JCB, MasterCard, Visa, or American Express. Charges may also be faxed to +1-617-542-2652.

 Card type: __________________  Expiration Date: _____________

 Account Number: _____________________________________________

 Cardholder's Signature: _____________________________________

 Name: _______________________________________________________

 Street Address: _____________________________________________

 City/State/Province: ________________________________________

 Zip Code/Postal Code/Country: _______________________________

 Telephone Number: ___________________________________________

 Email Address: ______________________________________________

Cygnus Matches Donations!

To encourage cash donations to the Free Software Foundation, Cygnus Support will continue to contribute corporate funds to the FSF to accompany gifts by its employees, and by its customers and their employees.

Donations payable to the Free Software Foundation should be sent by eligible persons to Cygnus Support, which will add its gifts and forward the total to the FSF each quarter. The FSF will provide the contributor with a receipt to recognize the contribution (which is tax-deductible on U.S. tax returns). To see if your employer is a Cygnus customer, or for more information, please contact Cygnus:

   Cygnus Support
   1937 Landings Drive
   Mountain View, CA   94043

   Telephone: 415-903-1400
              +1-800-Cygnus1 (-294-6871)
   Fax:       415-903-0122
   World Wide Web: `'

Free Software Foundation Order Form

All items are distributed with permission to copy and to redistribute.
Texinfo source for each manual and source for each reference card is on
the appropriate CD-ROM; the prices for these magnetic
media do not include printed documentation.  All items are provided on
an ``as is'' basis, with no warranty of any kind.  Please allow six
weeks for delivery (though it won't usually take that long).


Unix Software

FSF Deluxe Distribution
(Please contact us with any questions.  see section The Deluxe Distribution
for machine, operating system, and media types.)

____ @ $5000 = $ ______   The Deluxe Distribution, with manuals, etc.

Machine: _____________________________________________________________________

Operating system: ____________________________________________________________

Media type: __________________________________________________________________

Version of X Window System to build: _________________________________________

CD-ROMs, in ISO 9660 format (see section CD-ROMs):

GNU Source Code CD-ROMs, Version 8 with X11R6.1 (see section July 1996 Source Code CD-ROMs):

____ @ $240  = $ ______   for corporations and other organizations.

____ @ $ 60  = $ ______   for individuals.

Subscriptions, next 4 updates, of the Source Code CD-ROM, in ISO 9660 format
(see section CD-ROM Subscription Service):

____ @ $720  = $ ______   for corporations and other organizations.

____ @ $180  = $ ______   for individuals.

GNU Compiler Tools Binaries CD-ROM, Version 3, December 1995 Edition
(see section December 1995 Compiler Tools Binaries CD-ROM):

____ @ $220  = $ ______   for corporations and other organizations.

____ @  $55  = $ ______   for individuals.


See section First Free Software Conference

____ @ $ 25  = $ ______   The Proceedings of the First Conference
                          on Freely Redistributable Software - only
                          available while supplies last.


These manuals (see section GNU Documentation).  The latest version of each manual
will be shipped.  Please contact us if you want a specific version.

____ @ $ 25  = $ ______   GNU Emacs version manual, with a reference card.

____ @ $ 50  = $ ______   GNU Emacs Lisp Reference manual, in two volumes.

____ @ $ 60  = $ ______   GNU Emacs Lisp Reference, Japanese Edition.

____ @ $ 50  = $ ______   Using and Porting GNU CC.

____ @ $ 50  = $ ______   GNU C Library Reference Manual.

____ @ $ 50  = $ ______   GNU Emacs Calc manual, with a reference card.

____ @ $ 20  = $ ______   Programming in Emacs Lisp: An Introduction.

____ @ $ 20  = $ ______   Debugging with GDB, with a reference card.

____ @ $ 25  = $ ______   GAWK manual.

____ @ $ 20  = $ ______   Make manual.

____ @ $ 20  = $ ______   Bison manual, with a reference card.

____ @ $ 20  = $ ______   Flex manual, with a reference card.

____ @ $ 20  = $ ______   Texinfo manual.

____ @ $ 15  = $ ______   Termcap manual.

Reference Cards

The following reference cards, in packets of ten.  For single copies please
contact us.

____ @ $ 10  = $ ______   GNU Emacs version 19 reference cards.

____ @ $ 10  = $ ______   GNU Emacs Calc reference cards.

____ @ $ 10  = $ ______   GDB reference cards.

____ @ $ 10  = $ ______   Bison reference cards.

____ @ $ 10  = $ ______   Flex reference cards.


GNU/FSF T-shirts, thick 100% cotton in sizes: M, L, XL, & XXL (they run
small); and in colors: black, purple, red, pink, burgundy, blue, &
natural (off-white); please list 1st, 2nd, and 3rd choice of color
(see section FSF T-shirt):

____ @ $ 15  = $ ______   Size _____

                          Color choice: 1st _______ 2nd _______ 3rd _______

____ @ $ 15  = $ ______   Size _____

                          Color choice: 1st _______ 2nd _______ 3rd _______

____ @ $ 15  = $ ______   Size  _____

                          Color choice: 1st _______ 2nd _______ 3rd _______

____ @ $ 15  = $ ______   Size _____

                          Color choice: 1st _______ 2nd _______ 3rd _______

Older Items

Older items are only available while supplies last.

____ @ $  5  = $ ______   GNU Emacs version 18 reference cards, in packets
                           of ten.

Please fill in the number of each older CD-ROM you order:

                                                for             for
                                                corporations    individuals:
                                                and other

GNU Compiler Tools Binaries CD-ROM
        December 1995 (Version 3)               ____________    ____________

GNU Compiler Tools Binaries CD-ROM
        December 1994 (Version 2)               ____________    ____________

GNU Compiler Tools Binaries CD-ROM
        December 1993 (Version 1)               ____________    ____________

Please note that the December 1994 Source CD is permanently out of stock.

GNU Source Code CD-ROM
        December 1995 (Version 7) with X11R6    ____________    ____________

GNU Source Code CD-ROM
        June 1995 (Version 6) with X11R6        ____________    ____________

GNU Source Code CD-ROM
        May 1994 (Version 4) with X11R6         ____________    ____________

GNU Source Code CD-ROM
        November 1993 (Version 3) with X11R5    ____________    ____________

GNU Source Code CD-ROM
        May 1993 (Version 2) with X11R5         ____________    ____________

GNU Source Code CD-ROM
        October 1992 (Version 1) with X11R5     ____________    ____________

Please put the total count and cost of the above older CD-ROMs here:

____ @ $ 80  = $ ______   for corporations and other organizations.

____ @ $ 20  = $ ______   for individuals.


      Subtotal $ ______

Tax and Shipping Costs

             + $ ______   For addresses in Massachusetts: add 5% sales tax
                          or give tax exempt number.  There is no sales tax
                          on T-shirts.
             + $ ______   Shipping fee for addresses in Alaska, Hawaii, or
                          Puerto Rico:
                            $  5.00 base charge;
                          + $  5.00 for *each* Emacs Calc or Emacs Lisp
                            Reference manual ($ 5.00 * #ofMans);
                          + $ 20.00 for *each* CD-ROM subscription
                                             ($20.00 * #ofSubs);
                          + $  1.00 for *each* item other then the above
                            (shipping for all other items =
                                                     $ 1.00 * #ofOtherItems).
             + $ ______   Shipping fee for most Foreign Destinations: (Please
                          do *not* use this formula for addresses in China,
                          Guam, Indonesia, Israel, Malaysia, New Zealand,
                          Philippines, and Thailand.  Please fax,
                          or contact us for an exact shipping quote.)
                            $ 20.00 base charge for orders to other
                              addresses outside of U.S., Canada, & Puerto Rico:
                          + $ 80.00 for *each*  CD-ROM subscription
                                  ($ 80.00 * #ofSubs);
                          + $ 10.00 for *each* of the other items in the
                            order ($ 10.00 * #ofItems).
             + $ ______   Optional (tax-deductible in the U.S.) donation.
                 ------   We suggest 5% if paying by credit card.

         TOTAL $ ______   We pay for shipping via UPS ground transportation in
                          the contiguous 48 states and Canada.  For very
                          large orders, ask about actual shipping costs for
                          that order.

Shipping Information

Name: ________________________________________________________________________

Mail Stop/Dept. Name: ________________________________________________________

Organization: ________________________________________________________________

Street Address: ______________________________________________________________

City/State/Province: _________________________________________________________

Zip Code/Postal Code/Country: ________________________________________________

Telephone number in case of a problem with your order.
For international orders, please include a Fax number. _______________________

E-mail Address: ______________________________________________________________

|                                                                            |
|  Orders filled only upon receipt of check, money order, or credit card     |
|  order in U.S. dollars.  Unpaid orders will be returned to the sender.     |
|  We do not have the staff to handle the billing of unpaid orders.  Please  |
|  help keep our lives simple by including your payment with your order.     |
|                                                                            |

For orders from outside the U.S.:

You are responsible for paying all duties, tariffs, and taxes.  If you
refuse to pay the charges, the shipper will return or abandon the order.

 |                                                                         |
 |      Please make checks payable to the ``Free Software Foundation''.    |
 |                                                                         |
 |           Checks must be in U.S. dollars, drawn on a U.S. bank.         |
 |                                                                         |

For Credit Card Orders:

The Free Software Foundation takes these credit cards: Carte Blanche,
Diner's Club, JCB, MasterCard, Visa, or American Express.  Please note that
we are charged about 5% of an order's total amount in credit card
processing fees.  Please consider paying by check instead, or adding on a 5%
donation to make up the difference.  To place a credit card order, please
give us this information:

Card type: ___________________________________________________________________

Account Number: ______________________________________________________________

Expiration Date: _____________________________________________________________

Cardholder's Signature: ______________________________________________________

|                                                                            |
|     If you wish to pay by wire transfer or you are a reseller, please      |
|     contact us or write us for details.                                    |
|                                                                            |

                Please mail orders to:  Free Software Foundation
                                        51 Franklin St, Fifth Floor
                                        Boston, MA   02110
PRICES AND CONTENTS MAY CHANGE          +1-617-542-5942
WITHOUT NOTICE AFTER January 31, 1997   Fax (including Japan): +1-617-542-2652

Version: July 1996 Info Bull

Address Page


Free Software Foundation, Inc                          |       |
Electronic Mail:                   | stamp |
51 Franklin St, Fifth Floor                            |       |
Boston, MA  02110-1301                                 | here  |
USA                                                    |       |