Interpreters Guide

Specific terminology used often by Richard Stallman in his speeches, with translations in Italian.

This is useful for interpreters even if they are translating into languages other than Italian, since it shows terms they should think about before the speech.

Free software

Software libero. It is important to be familiar with the four freedoms. See:

Proprietary software
Software proprietario
User-subjugating software
Software soggiogante (che mette l'utente sotto il giogo)
Nonfree software
Software non libero
Proprietary software packages
Pacchetti di software proprietario
Open Source
Open Source (software a codice sorgente aperto)
GNU/Linux (GNU slash Linux)
GNU Linux
GNU plus Linux

GNU con Linux

Important: GNU is the operating system developed by Stallman and it currently functions with a kernel called “Linux”. When Stallman refers to the complete operating system, he always calls it “GNU/Linux” or “GNU plus Linux”, so you need to call it the same in your language. If he refers to the kernel alone, he will say “Linux”; in that case, you should also say “Linux” in your language.

Kernel (il nucleo del sistema operativo)
Source code
Codice sorgente
To develop (software, a program)
The developer
Lo sviluppatore/il programmatore

Acronimo ricorsivo che sta per “GNU is Not Unix”. In inglese si pronuncia con la g dura come in “ghiaccio”, in italiano si può pronunciare come in “gnocchi”.

GNU General Public License
Licenza Pubblica Generica di GNU

GPL (gi-pi-elle). Sta per “General Public License”.


Copyleft (not translated in Italian). To learn more about copyleft, see:

Important: in free software contexts we never say that a work is “protected” by a license or by copyright (non si dici un'opera “protetta” o “tutelata”). Instead, we say the work has been published or released “under” such and such license or “according” to such and such law ( l'opera è stata pubblicata “sotto” tale o quale licenza o “in base” a tale e quale legge, per esempio la legge sul diritto d'autore).

sost. il male; agg. malvagio
Malicious features
Funzionalità malevole
DRM (Digital Restrictions Management)

Gestione digitale delle restrizioni.

DRM (Digital Rights Management)

Gestione digitale dei diritti. This is a propaganda term used by the enemies of software freedom. Thus, Stallman uses it only when quoting the enemy. See

Back doors
Porte segrete
Trusted Computing
Informatica fidata
Treacherous Computing
Informatica infida
DMCA (Digital Millennium Copyright Act)

You don't translate this in Italian, it is the name of a US law about digital copyright.

EUCD (European Union Copyright Directive)
Direttiva sul Copyright dell'Unione Europea
Software patents
Brevetti sul software
Patent law
Legge sui brevetti

It's the name of a text editor program developed by Stallman. You don't translate it.


It's the brand name of a video recording device that is designed to break if some free software in it is modified.


Tivoizzazione. It's a neologism used by Stallman to refer to devices that implement the same restrictions as the TIVO. Stallman will pause to give you time to explain this.


Amazon's marketing name for its ebook reader.


The correct name for Amazon's ebook reader. (See You should say “Swindle”, then explain what the word means. Stallman will pause to give you time to do that.

1984 by George Orwell

The famous book by George Orwell that Amazon canceled from all Kindle devices.


iGadgets. It refers to devices manufactured by Apple such as the iPad, iPhone, etc. Stallman will pause to give you time to explain this.

Some websites Stallman is likely to mention during his speech: