The `d N` (`calc-normal-language`

) command selects the usual
notation for Calc formulas, as described in the rest of this manual.
Matrices are displayed in a multi-line tabular format, but all other
objects are written in linear form, as they would be typed from the
keyboard.

The `d O` (`calc-flat-language`

) command selects a language
identical with the normal one, except that matrices are written in
one-line form along with everything else. In some applications this
form may be more suitable for yanking data into other buffers.

Even in one-line mode, long formulas or vectors will still be split
across multiple lines if they exceed the width of the Calculator window.
The `d b` (`calc-line-breaking`

) command turns this line-breaking
feature on and off. (It works independently of the current language.)
If you give a numeric prefix argument of five or greater to the `d b`
command, that argument will specify the line width used when breaking
long lines.

The `d B` (`calc-big-language`

) command selects a language
which uses textual approximations to various mathematical notations,
such as powers, quotients, and square roots:

____________ | a + 1 2 | ----- + c \| b

in place of ‘`sqrt((a+1)/b + c^2)`’.

Subscripts like ‘`a_i`’ are displayed as actual subscripts in Big
mode. Double subscripts, ‘`a_i_j`’ (‘`subscr(subscr(a, i), j)`’)
are displayed as ‘`a`’ with subscripts separated by commas:
‘`i, j`’. They must still be entered in the usual underscore
notation.

One slight ambiguity of Big notation is that

3 - - 4

can represent either the negative rational number ‘`-3:4`’, or the
actual expression ‘`-(3/4)`’; but the latter formula would normally
never be displayed because it would immediately be evaluated to
‘`-3:4`’ or ‘`-0.75`’, so this ambiguity is not a problem in
typical use.

Non-decimal numbers are displayed with subscripts. Thus there is no
way to tell the difference between ‘`16#C2`’ and ‘`C2_16`’,
though generally you will know which interpretation is correct.
Logarithms ‘`log(x,b)`’ and ‘`log10(x)`’ also use subscripts
in Big mode.

In Big mode, stack entries often take up several lines. To aid
readability, stack entries are separated by a blank line in this mode.
You may find it useful to expand the Calc window’s height using
`C-x ^` (`enlarge-window`

) or to make the Calc window the only
one on the screen with `C-x 1` (`delete-other-windows`

).

Long lines are currently not rearranged to fit the window width in
Big mode, so you may need to use the `<` and `>` keys
to scroll across a wide formula. For really big formulas, you may
even need to use `{` and `}` to scroll up and down.

The `d U` (`calc-unformatted-language`

) command altogether disables
the use of operator notation in formulas. In this mode, the formula
shown above would be displayed:

sqrt(add(div(add(a, 1), b), pow(c, 2)))

These four modes differ only in display format, not in the format expected for algebraic entry. The standard Calc operators work in all four modes, and unformatted notation works in any language mode (except that Mathematica mode expects square brackets instead of parentheses).