Emacs has built-in support for computing cryptographic hashes. A cryptographic hash, or checksum, is a digital fingerprint of a piece of data (e.g., a block of text) which can be used to check that you have an unaltered copy of that data.
Emacs supports several common cryptographic hash algorithms: MD5,
SHA-1, SHA-2, SHA-224, SHA-256, SHA-384 and SHA-512. MD5 is the
oldest of these algorithms, and is commonly used in message
digests to check the integrity of messages transmitted over a
network. MD5 and SHA-1 are not collision resistant (i.e., it is
possible to deliberately design different pieces of data which have
the same MD5 or SHA-1 hash), so you should not use them for anything
security-related. For security-related applications you should use
the other hash types, such as SHA-2 (e.g.
This function returns a list of symbols representing algorithms that
secure-hash can use.
This function returns a hash for object. The argument
algorithm is a symbol stating which hash to compute: one of
sha512. The argument object should be a buffer or a
The optional arguments start and end are character
positions specifying the portion of object to compute the
message digest for. If they are
nil or omitted, the hash is
computed for the whole of object.
If the argument binary is omitted or
nil, the function
returns the text form of the hash, as an ordinary Lisp string.
If binary is non-
nil, it returns the hash in binary
form, as a sequence of bytes stored in a unibyte string. The length
of the returned string depends on algorithm:
md5: 32 characters (32 bytes if binary is non-
sha1: 40 characters (40 bytes if binary is non-
sha224: 56 characters (56 bytes if binary is non-
sha256: 64 characters (64 bytes if binary is non-
sha384: 96 characters (96 bytes if binary is non-
sha512: 128 characters (128 bytes if binary is non-
This function does not compute the hash directly from the internal representation of object’s text (see Text Representations). Instead, it encodes the text using a coding system (see Coding Systems), and computes the hash from that encoded text. If object is a buffer, the coding system used is the one which would be chosen by default for writing the text of that buffer into a file. If object is a string, the user’s preferred coding system is used (see Recognize Coding in GNU Emacs Manual).
This function returns an MD5 hash. It is semi-obsolete, since for
most purposes it is equivalent to calling
md5 as the algorithm argument. The object,
start and end arguments have the same meanings as in
secure-hash. The function returns a 32-character string.
If coding-system is non-
nil, it specifies a coding system
to use to encode the text; if omitted or
nil, the default
coding system is used, like in
md5 signals an error if the text can’t be encoded
using the specified or chosen coding system. However, if
noerror is non-
nil, it silently uses
Return a hash of buffer-or-name. If
nil, this defaults
to the current buffer. As opposed to
function computes the hash based on the internal representation of the
buffer, disregarding any coding systems. It’s therefore only useful
when comparing two buffers running in the same Emacs, and is not
guaranteed to return the same hash between different Emacs versions.
It should be somewhat more efficient on larger buffers than
secure-hash is, and should not allocate more memory.
This function is equivalent to calling
secure-hash like this:
(secure-hash 'sha1 object start end binary)
It returns a 40-character string if binary is
nil, or a
40-byte unibyte string otherwise.