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### 3.9 Standard Mathematical Functions

These mathematical functions allow integers as well as floating point numbers as arguments.

— Function: sin arg
— Function: cos arg
— Function: tan arg

These are the basic trigonometric functions, with argument arg measured in radians.

— Function: asin arg

The value of `(asin `arg`)` is a number between −pi/2 and pi/2 (inclusive) whose sine is arg. If arg is out of range (outside [−1, 1]), `asin` returns a NaN.

— Function: acos arg

The value of `(acos `arg`)` is a number between 0 and pi (inclusive) whose cosine is arg. If arg is out of range (outside [−1, 1]), `acos` returns a NaN.

— Function: atan y &optional x

The value of `(atan `y`)` is a number between −pi/2 and pi/2 (exclusive) whose tangent is y. If the optional second argument x is given, the value of `(atan y x)` is the angle in radians between the vector `[`x`, `y`]` and the `X` axis.

— Function: exp arg

This is the exponential function; it returns e to the power arg.

— Function: log arg &optional base

This function returns the logarithm of arg, with base base. If you don't specify base, the natural base e is used. If arg or base is negative, `log` returns a NaN.

— Function: log10 arg

This function returns the logarithm of arg, with base 10: `(log10 `x`)` == `(log `x` 10)`.

— Function: expt x y

This function returns x raised to power y. If both arguments are integers and y is positive, the result is an integer; in this case, overflow causes truncation, so watch out. If x is a finite negative number and y is a finite non-integer, `expt` returns a NaN.

— Function: sqrt arg

This returns the square root of arg. If arg is negative, `sqrt` returns a NaN.

In addition, Emacs defines the following common mathematical constants:

— Variable: float-e

The mathematical constant e (2.71828...).

— Variable: float-pi

The mathematical constant pi (3.14159...).