22.8.2 Reading One Event

The lowest level functions for command input are read-event, read-char, and read-char-exclusive.

If you need a function to read a character using the minibuffer, use read-char-from-minibuffer (see Asking Multiple-Choice Questions).

Function: read-event &optional prompt inherit-input-method seconds

This function reads and returns the next event of command input, waiting if necessary until an event is available.

The returned event may come directly from the user, or from a keyboard macro. It is not decoded by the keyboard’s input coding system (see Terminal I/O Encoding).

If the optional argument prompt is non-nil, it should be a string to display in the echo area as a prompt. If prompt is nil or the string ‘""’, read-event does not display any message to indicate it is waiting for input; instead, it prompts by echoing: it displays descriptions of the events that led to or were read by the current command. See The Echo Area.

If inherit-input-method is non-nil, then the current input method (if any) is employed to make it possible to enter a non-ASCII character. Otherwise, input method handling is disabled for reading this event.

If cursor-in-echo-area is non-nil, then read-event moves the cursor temporarily to the echo area, to the end of any message displayed there. Otherwise read-event does not move the cursor.

If seconds is non-nil, it should be a number specifying the maximum time to wait for input, in seconds. If no input arrives within that time, read-event stops waiting and returns nil. A floating point seconds means to wait for a fractional number of seconds. Some systems support only a whole number of seconds; on these systems, seconds is rounded down. If seconds is nil, read-event waits as long as necessary for input to arrive.

If seconds is nil, Emacs is considered idle while waiting for user input to arrive. Idle timers—those created with run-with-idle-timer (see Idle Timers)—can run during this period. However, if seconds is non-nil, the state of idleness remains unchanged. If Emacs is non-idle when read-event is called, it remains non-idle throughout the operation of read-event; if Emacs is idle (which can happen if the call happens inside an idle timer), it remains idle.

If read-event gets an event that is defined as a help character, then in some cases read-event processes the event directly without returning. See Help Functions. Certain other events, called special events, are also processed directly within read-event (see Special Events).

Here is what happens if you call read-event and then press the right-arrow function key:

     ⇒ right
Function: read-char &optional prompt inherit-input-method seconds

This function reads and returns a character input event. If the user generates an event which is not a character (i.e., a mouse click or function key event), read-char signals an error. The arguments work as in read-event.

If the event has modifiers, Emacs attempts to resolve them and return the code of the corresponding character. For example, if the user types C-a, the function returns 1, which is the ASCII code of the ‘C-a’ character. If some of the modifiers cannot be reflected in the character code, read-char leaves the unresolved modifier bits set in the returned event. For example, if the user types C-M-a, the function returns 134217729, 8000001 in hex, i.e. ‘C-a’ with the Meta modifier bit set. This value is not a valid character code: it fails the characterp test (see Character Codes). Use event-basic-type (see Classifying Events) to recover the character code with the modifier bits removed; use event-modifiers to test for modifiers in the character event returned by read-char.

In the first example below, the user types the character 1 (ASCII code 49). The second example shows a keyboard macro definition that calls read-char from the minibuffer using eval-expression. read-char reads the keyboard macro’s very next character, which is 1. Then eval-expression displays its return value in the echo area.

     ⇒ 49

;; We assume here you use M-: to evaluate this.
(symbol-function 'foo)
     ⇒ "^[:(read-char)^M1"
(execute-kbd-macro 'foo)
     -| 49
     ⇒ nil
Function: read-char-exclusive &optional prompt inherit-input-method seconds

This function reads and returns a character input event. If the user generates an event which is not a character event, read-char-exclusive ignores it and reads another event, until it gets a character. The arguments work as in read-event. The returned value may include modifier bits, as with read-char.

None of the above functions suppress quitting.

Variable: num-nonmacro-input-events

This variable holds the total number of input events received so far from the terminal—not counting those generated by keyboard macros.

We emphasize that, unlike read-key-sequence, the functions read-event, read-char, and read-char-exclusive do not perform the translations described in Keymaps for Translating Sequences of Events. If you wish to read a single key taking these translations into account (for example, to read Function Keys in a terminal or Mouse Events from xterm-mouse-mode), use the function read-key:

Function: read-key &optional prompt disable-fallbacks

This function reads a single key. It is intermediate between read-key-sequence and read-event. Unlike the former, it reads a single key, not a key sequence. Unlike the latter, it does not return a raw event, but decodes and translates the user input according to input-decode-map, local-function-key-map, and key-translation-map (see Keymaps for Translating Sequences of Events).

The argument prompt is either a string to be displayed in the echo area as a prompt, or nil, meaning not to display a prompt.

If argument disable-fallbacks is non-nil then the usual fallback logic for unbound keys in read-key-sequence is not applied. This means that mouse button-down and multi-click events will not be discarded and local-function-key-map and key-translation-map will not get applied. If nil or unspecified, the only fallback disabled is downcasing of the last event.

Function: read-char-choice prompt chars &optional inhibit-quit

This function uses read-from-minibuffer to read and return a single character that is a member of chars, which should be a list of single characters. It discards any input characters that are not members of chars, and shows a message to that effect.

The optional argument inhibit-quit is by default ignored, but if the variable read-char-choice-use-read-key is non-nil, this function uses read-key instead of read-from-minibuffer, and in that case inhibit-quit non-nil means ignore keyboard-quit events while waiting for valid input. In addition, if read-char-choice-use-read-key is non-nil, binding help-form (see Help Functions) to a non-nil value while calling this function causes it to evaluate help-form and display the result when the user presses help-char; it then continues to wait for a valid input character, or for keyboard-quit.

Function: read-multiple-choice prompt choices &optional help-string show-help long-form

Ask user a multiple choice question. prompt should be a string that will be displayed as the prompt.

choices is an alist where the first element in each entry is a character to be entered, the second element is a short name for the entry to be displayed while prompting (if there’s room, it might be shortened), and the third, optional entry is a longer explanation that will be displayed in a help buffer if the user requests more help.

If optional argument help-string is non-nil, it should be a string with a more detailed description of all choices. It will be displayed in a help buffer instead of the default auto-generated description when the user types ?.

If optional argument show-help is non-nil, the help buffer will be displayed immediately, before any user input. If it is a string, use it as the name of the help buffer.

If optional argument long-form is non-nil, the user will have to type in long-form answers (using completing-read) instead of hitting a single key. The answers must be among the second elements of the values in the choices list.

The return value is the matching value from choices.

 "Continue connecting?"
 '((?a "always" "Accept certificate for this and future sessions.")
   (?s "session only" "Accept certificate this session only.")
   (?n "no" "Refuse to use certificate, close connection.")))

The read-multiple-choice-face face is used to highlight the matching characters in the name string on graphical terminals.