In a general sense, a function is a rule for carrying out a computation given input values called arguments. The result of the computation is called the value or return value of the function. The computation can also have side effects, such as lasting changes in the values of variables or the contents of data structures (see Definition of side effect). A pure function is a function which, in addition to having no side effects, always returns the same value for the same combination of arguments, regardless of external factors such as machine type or system state.
In most computer languages, every function has a name. But in Lisp,
a function in the strictest sense has no name: it is an object which
can optionally be associated with a symbol (e.g.,
that serves as the function name. See Function Names. When a
function has been given a name, we usually also refer to that symbol
as a “function” (e.g., we refer to “the function
In this manual, the distinction between a function name and the
function object itself is usually unimportant, but we will take note
wherever it is relevant.
Certain function-like objects, called special forms and macros, also accept arguments to carry out computations. However, as explained below, these are not considered functions in Emacs Lisp.
Here are important terms for functions and function-like objects:
A function (in the strict sense, i.e., a function object) which is written in Lisp. These are described in the following section. See Lambda Expressions.
A function which is callable from Lisp but is actually written in C.
Primitives are also called built-in functions, or subrs.
Examples include functions like
addition, all special forms (see below) are also considered
Usually, a function is implemented as a primitive because it is a
fundamental part of Lisp (e.g.,
car), or because it provides a
low-level interface to operating system services, or because it needs
to run fast. Unlike functions defined in Lisp, primitives can be
modified or added only by changing the C sources and recompiling
Emacs. See Writing Emacs Primitives.
A primitive that is like a function but does not evaluate all of its
arguments in the usual way. It may evaluate only some of the
arguments, or may evaluate them in an unusual order, or several times.
See Special Forms.
A construct defined in Lisp, which differs from a function in that it translates a Lisp expression into another expression which is to be evaluated instead of the original expression. Macros enable Lisp programmers to do the sorts of things that special forms can do. See Macros.
An object which can be invoked via the
primitive, usually due to the user typing in a key sequence
bound to that command. See Interactive Call. A command is
usually a function; if the function is written in Lisp, it is made
into a command by an
interactive form in the function
definition (see Defining Commands). Commands that are functions
can also be called from Lisp expressions, just like other functions.
Keyboard macros (strings and vectors) are commands also, even though they are not functions. See Keyboard Macros. We say that a symbol is a command if its function cell contains a command (see Symbol Components); such a named command can be invoked with M-x.
A function object that is much like a lambda expression, except that it also encloses an environment of lexical variable bindings. See Closures.
A function that has been compiled by the byte compiler. See Byte-Code Type.
A place-holder for a real function. If the autoload object is called, Emacs loads the file containing the definition of the real function, and then calls the real function. See Autoload.
You can use the function
functionp to test if an object is a
This function returns
t if object is any kind of
function, i.e., can be passed to
funcall. Note that
t for symbols that are function names,
nil for special forms.
It is also possible to find out how many arguments an arbitrary function expects:
This function provides information about the argument list of the
specified function. The returned value is a cons cell of the
(min . max), where min is the
minimum number of arguments, and max is either the maximum
number of arguments, or the symbol
many for functions with
&rest arguments, or the symbol
function is a special form.
Note that this function might return inaccurate results in some situations, such as the following:
functionp, the next three functions do not treat
a symbol as its function definition.
This function returns
t if object is a built-in function
(i.e., a Lisp primitive).
(subrp 'message) ;
messageis a symbol, ⇒ nil ; not a subr object.
(subrp (symbol-function 'message)) ⇒ t
This function returns
t if object is a byte-code
function. For example:
(byte-code-function-p (symbol-function 'next-line)) ⇒ t
This works like
func-arity, but only for built-in functions and
without symbol indirection. It signals an error for non-built-in
functions. We recommend to use