GNU Astronomy Utilities

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Command-line options allow configuring the behavior of a program in all GNU/Linux applications for each particular execution on a particular input data. A single option can be called in two ways: long or short. All options in Gnuastro accept the long format which has two hyphens an can have many characters (for example --hdu). Short options only have one hyphen (-) followed by one character (for example -h). You can see some examples in the list of options in Common options or those for each program’s “Invoking ProgramName” section. Both formats are shown for those which support both. First the short is shown then the long.

Usually, the short options are for when you are writing on the command-line and want to save keystrokes and time. The long options are good for shell scripts, where you aren’t usually rushing. Long options provide a level of documentation, since they are more descriptive and less cryptic. Usually after a few months of not running a program, the short options will be forgotten and reading your previously written script will not be easy.

Some options need to be given a value if they are called and some don’t. You can think of the latter type of options as on/off options. These two types of options can be distinguished using the output of the --help and --usage options, which are common to all GNU software, see Getting help. In Gnuastro we use the following strings to specify when the option needs a value and what format that value should be in. More specific tests will be done in the program and if the values are out of range (for example negative when the program only wants a positive value), an error will be reported.


The value is read as an integer.


The value is read as a float. There are generally two types, depending on the context. If they are for fractions, they will have to be less than or equal to unity.


The value is read as a string of characters (for example a file name) or other particular settings like a HDU name, see below.

To specify a value in the short format, simply put the value after the option. Note that since the short options are only one character long, you don’t have to type anything between the option and its value. For the long option you either need white space or an = sign, for example -h2, -h 2, --hdu 2 or --hdu=2 are all equivalent.

The short format of on/off options (those that don’t need values) can be concatenated for example these two hypothetical sequences of options are equivalent: -a -b -c4 and -abc4. As an example, consider the following command to run Crop:

$ astcrop -Dr3 --wwidth 3 catalog.txt --deccol=4 ASTRdata

The $ is the shell prompt, astcrop is the program name. There are two arguments (catalog.txt and ASTRdata) and four options, two of them given in short format (-D, -r) and two in long format (--width and --deccol). Three of them require a value and one (-D) is an on/off option.

If an abbreviation is unique between all the options of a program, the long option names can be abbreviated. For example, instead of typing --printparams, typing --print or maybe even --pri will be enough, if there are conflicts, the program will warn you and show you the alternatives. Finally, if you want the argument parser to stop parsing arguments beyond a certain point, you can use two dashes: --. No text on the command-line beyond these two dashes will be parsed.

Gnuastro has two types of options with values, those that only take a single value are the most common type. If these options are repeated or called more than once on the command-line, the value of the last time it was called will be assigned to it. This is very useful when you are testing/experimenting. Let’s say you want to make a small modification to one option value. You can simply type the option with a new value in the end of the command and see how the script works. If you are satisfied with the change, you can remove the original option for human readability. If the change wasn’t satisfactory, you can remove the one you just added and not worry about forgetting the original value. Without this capability, you would have to memorize or save the original value somewhere else, run the command and then change the value again which is not at all convenient and is potentially cause lots of bugs.

On the other hand, some options can be called multiple times in one run of a program and can thus take multiple values (for example see the --column option in Invoking Table. In these cases, the order of stored values is the same order that you specified on the command-line.

Gnuastro’s programs don’t keep any internal default values, so some options are mandatory and if they don’t have a value, the program will complain and abort. Most programs have many such options and typing them by hand on every call is impractical. To facilitate the user experience, after parsing the command-line, Gnuastro’s programs read special configuration files to get the necessary values for the options you haven’t identified on the command-line. These configuration files are fully described in Configuration files.

CAUTION: In specifying a file address, if you want to use the shell’s tilde expansion (~) to specify your home directory, leave at least one space between the option name and your value. For example use -o ~/test, --output ~/test or --output= ~/test. Calling them with -o~/test or --output=~/test will disable shell expansion.

CAUTION: If you forget to specify a value for an option which requires one, and that option is the last one, Gnuastro will warn you. But if it is in the middle of the command, it will take the text of the next option or argument as the value which can cause undefined behavior.

NOTE: In some contexts Gnuastro’s counting starts from 0 and in others 1. You can assume by default that counting starts from 1, if it starts from 0 for a special option, it will be explicitly mentioned.

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