This manual is for GNU Typist (version 2.9.3, 7 June 2013), a program to learn typing in several languages and for different keyboard layouts.
Copyright © 1998, 1999, 2000, 2001, 2002, 2003, 2004, 2008, 2011, 2012 Free Software Foundation, Inc.
Permission is granted to copy, distribute and/or modify this document under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License, Version 1.3 or any later version published by the Free Software Foundation; with no Invariant Sections, with no Front-Cover Texts, and with no Back-Cover Texts. A copy of the license is included in the section entitled “GNU Free Documentation License”.
GNU Typist is an interactive typing tutor that can help you to type correctly. It has several lessons for different keyboard layouts and in different languages. The lessons for gtypist are described in a easy-to-learn scripting language that the user can use to modify the existing lessons or create new ones.
GNU Typist (or gtypist) is free software; this means that everyone is free to use it and free to redistribute it on certain conditions. The precise conditions are found in the GNU General Public License that comes with this program and also follows this section.
You can obtain GNU Typist from a friend or from the Internet:
Copyright © 2007 Free Software Foundation, Inc. http://fsf.org/ Everyone is permitted to copy and distribute verbatim copies of this license document, but changing it is not allowed.
The GNU General Public License is a free, copyleft license for software and other kinds of works.
The licenses for most software and other practical works are designed to take away your freedom to share and change the works. By contrast, the GNU General Public License is intended to guarantee your freedom to share and change all versions of a program—to make sure it remains free software for all its users. We, the Free Software Foundation, use the GNU General Public License for most of our software; it applies also to any other work released this way by its authors. You can apply it to your programs, too.
When we speak of free software, we are referring to freedom, not price. Our General Public Licenses are designed to make sure that you have the freedom to distribute copies of free software (and charge for them if you wish), that you receive source code or can get it if you want it, that you can change the software or use pieces of it in new free programs, and that you know you can do these things.
To protect your rights, we need to prevent others from denying you these rights or asking you to surrender the rights. Therefore, you have certain responsibilities if you distribute copies of the software, or if you modify it: responsibilities to respect the freedom of others.
For example, if you distribute copies of such a program, whether gratis or for a fee, you must pass on to the recipients the same freedoms that you received. You must make sure that they, too, receive or can get the source code. And you must show them these terms so they know their rights.
Developers that use the GNU GPL protect your rights with two steps: (1) assert copyright on the software, and (2) offer you this License giving you legal permission to copy, distribute and/or modify it.
For the developers’ and authors’ protection, the GPL clearly explains that there is no warranty for this free software. For both users’ and authors’ sake, the GPL requires that modified versions be marked as changed, so that their problems will not be attributed erroneously to authors of previous versions.
Some devices are designed to deny users access to install or run modified versions of the software inside them, although the manufacturer can do so. This is fundamentally incompatible with the aim of protecting users’ freedom to change the software. The systematic pattern of such abuse occurs in the area of products for individuals to use, which is precisely where it is most unacceptable. Therefore, we have designed this version of the GPL to prohibit the practice for those products. If such problems arise substantially in other domains, we stand ready to extend this provision to those domains in future versions of the GPL, as needed to protect the freedom of users.
Finally, every program is threatened constantly by software patents. States should not allow patents to restrict development and use of software on general-purpose computers, but in those that do, we wish to avoid the special danger that patents applied to a free program could make it effectively proprietary. To prevent this, the GPL assures that patents cannot be used to render the program non-free.
The precise terms and conditions for copying, distribution and modification follow.
“This License” refers to version 3 of the GNU General Public License.
“Copyright” also means copyright-like laws that apply to other kinds of works, such as semiconductor masks.
“The Program” refers to any copyrightable work licensed under this License. Each licensee is addressed as “you”. “Licensees” and “recipients” may be individuals or organizations.
To “modify” a work means to copy from or adapt all or part of the work in a fashion requiring copyright permission, other than the making of an exact copy. The resulting work is called a “modified version” of the earlier work or a work “based on” the earlier work.
A “covered work” means either the unmodified Program or a work based on the Program.
To “propagate” a work means to do anything with it that, without permission, would make you directly or secondarily liable for infringement under applicable copyright law, except executing it on a computer or modifying a private copy. Propagation includes copying, distribution (with or without modification), making available to the public, and in some countries other activities as well.
To “convey” a work means any kind of propagation that enables other parties to make or receive copies. Mere interaction with a user through a computer network, with no transfer of a copy, is not conveying.
An interactive user interface displays “Appropriate Legal Notices” to the extent that it includes a convenient and prominently visible feature that (1) displays an appropriate copyright notice, and (2) tells the user that there is no warranty for the work (except to the extent that warranties are provided), that licensees may convey the work under this License, and how to view a copy of this License. If the interface presents a list of user commands or options, such as a menu, a prominent item in the list meets this criterion.
The “source code” for a work means the preferred form of the work for making modifications to it. “Object code” means any non-source form of a work.
A “Standard Interface” means an interface that either is an official standard defined by a recognized standards body, or, in the case of interfaces specified for a particular programming language, one that is widely used among developers working in that language.
The “System Libraries” of an executable work include anything, other than the work as a whole, that (a) is included in the normal form of packaging a Major Component, but which is not part of that Major Component, and (b) serves only to enable use of the work with that Major Component, or to implement a Standard Interface for which an implementation is available to the public in source code form. A “Major Component”, in this context, means a major essential component (kernel, window system, and so on) of the specific operating system (if any) on which the executable work runs, or a compiler used to produce the work, or an object code interpreter used to run it.
The “Corresponding Source” for a work in object code form means all the source code needed to generate, install, and (for an executable work) run the object code and to modify the work, including scripts to control those activities. However, it does not include the work’s System Libraries, or general-purpose tools or generally available free programs which are used unmodified in performing those activities but which are not part of the work. For example, Corresponding Source includes interface definition files associated with source files for the work, and the source code for shared libraries and dynamically linked subprograms that the work is specifically designed to require, such as by intimate data communication or control flow between those subprograms and other parts of the work.
The Corresponding Source need not include anything that users can regenerate automatically from other parts of the Corresponding Source.
The Corresponding Source for a work in source code form is that same work.
All rights granted under this License are granted for the term of copyright on the Program, and are irrevocable provided the stated conditions are met. This License explicitly affirms your unlimited permission to run the unmodified Program. The output from running a covered work is covered by this License only if the output, given its content, constitutes a covered work. This License acknowledges your rights of fair use or other equivalent, as provided by copyright law.
You may make, run and propagate covered works that you do not convey, without conditions so long as your license otherwise remains in force. You may convey covered works to others for the sole purpose of having them make modifications exclusively for you, or provide you with facilities for running those works, provided that you comply with the terms of this License in conveying all material for which you do not control copyright. Those thus making or running the covered works for you must do so exclusively on your behalf, under your direction and control, on terms that prohibit them from making any copies of your copyrighted material outside their relationship with you.
Conveying under any other circumstances is permitted solely under the conditions stated below. Sublicensing is not allowed; section 10 makes it unnecessary.
No covered work shall be deemed part of an effective technological measure under any applicable law fulfilling obligations under article 11 of the WIPO copyright treaty adopted on 20 December 1996, or similar laws prohibiting or restricting circumvention of such measures.
When you convey a covered work, you waive any legal power to forbid circumvention of technological measures to the extent such circumvention is effected by exercising rights under this License with respect to the covered work, and you disclaim any intention to limit operation or modification of the work as a means of enforcing, against the work’s users, your or third parties’ legal rights to forbid circumvention of technological measures.
You may convey verbatim copies of the Program’s source code as you receive it, in any medium, provided that you conspicuously and appropriately publish on each copy an appropriate copyright notice; keep intact all notices stating that this License and any non-permissive terms added in accord with section 7 apply to the code; keep intact all notices of the absence of any warranty; and give all recipients a copy of this License along with the Program.
You may charge any price or no price for each copy that you convey, and you may offer support or warranty protection for a fee.
You may convey a work based on the Program, or the modifications to produce it from the Program, in the form of source code under the terms of section 4, provided that you also meet all of these conditions:
A compilation of a covered work with other separate and independent works, which are not by their nature extensions of the covered work, and which are not combined with it such as to form a larger program, in or on a volume of a storage or distribution medium, is called an “aggregate” if the compilation and its resulting copyright are not used to limit the access or legal rights of the compilation’s users beyond what the individual works permit. Inclusion of a covered work in an aggregate does not cause this License to apply to the other parts of the aggregate.
You may convey a covered work in object code form under the terms of sections 4 and 5, provided that you also convey the machine-readable Corresponding Source under the terms of this License, in one of these ways:
A separable portion of the object code, whose source code is excluded from the Corresponding Source as a System Library, need not be included in conveying the object code work.
A “User Product” is either (1) a “consumer product”, which means any tangible personal property which is normally used for personal, family, or household purposes, or (2) anything designed or sold for incorporation into a dwelling. In determining whether a product is a consumer product, doubtful cases shall be resolved in favor of coverage. For a particular product received by a particular user, “normally used” refers to a typical or common use of that class of product, regardless of the status of the particular user or of the way in which the particular user actually uses, or expects or is expected to use, the product. A product is a consumer product regardless of whether the product has substantial commercial, industrial or non-consumer uses, unless such uses represent the only significant mode of use of the product.
“Installation Information” for a User Product means any methods, procedures, authorization keys, or other information required to install and execute modified versions of a covered work in that User Product from a modified version of its Corresponding Source. The information must suffice to ensure that the continued functioning of the modified object code is in no case prevented or interfered with solely because modification has been made.
If you convey an object code work under this section in, or with, or specifically for use in, a User Product, and the conveying occurs as part of a transaction in which the right of possession and use of the User Product is transferred to the recipient in perpetuity or for a fixed term (regardless of how the transaction is characterized), the Corresponding Source conveyed under this section must be accompanied by the Installation Information. But this requirement does not apply if neither you nor any third party retains the ability to install modified object code on the User Product (for example, the work has been installed in ROM).
The requirement to provide Installation Information does not include a requirement to continue to provide support service, warranty, or updates for a work that has been modified or installed by the recipient, or for the User Product in which it has been modified or installed. Access to a network may be denied when the modification itself materially and adversely affects the operation of the network or violates the rules and protocols for communication across the network.
Corresponding Source conveyed, and Installation Information provided, in accord with this section must be in a format that is publicly documented (and with an implementation available to the public in source code form), and must require no special password or key for unpacking, reading or copying.
“Additional permissions” are terms that supplement the terms of this License by making exceptions from one or more of its conditions. Additional permissions that are applicable to the entire Program shall be treated as though they were included in this License, to the extent that they are valid under applicable law. If additional permissions apply only to part of the Program, that part may be used separately under those permissions, but the entire Program remains governed by this License without regard to the additional permissions.
When you convey a copy of a covered work, you may at your option remove any additional permissions from that copy, or from any part of it. (Additional permissions may be written to require their own removal in certain cases when you modify the work.) You may place additional permissions on material, added by you to a covered work, for which you have or can give appropriate copyright permission.
Notwithstanding any other provision of this License, for material you add to a covered work, you may (if authorized by the copyright holders of that material) supplement the terms of this License with terms:
All other non-permissive additional terms are considered “further restrictions” within the meaning of section 10. If the Program as you received it, or any part of it, contains a notice stating that it is governed by this License along with a term that is a further restriction, you may remove that term. If a license document contains a further restriction but permits relicensing or conveying under this License, you may add to a covered work material governed by the terms of that license document, provided that the further restriction does not survive such relicensing or conveying.
If you add terms to a covered work in accord with this section, you must place, in the relevant source files, a statement of the additional terms that apply to those files, or a notice indicating where to find the applicable terms.
Additional terms, permissive or non-permissive, may be stated in the form of a separately written license, or stated as exceptions; the above requirements apply either way.
You may not propagate or modify a covered work except as expressly provided under this License. Any attempt otherwise to propagate or modify it is void, and will automatically terminate your rights under this License (including any patent licenses granted under the third paragraph of section 11).
However, if you cease all violation of this License, then your license from a particular copyright holder is reinstated (a) provisionally, unless and until the copyright holder explicitly and finally terminates your license, and (b) permanently, if the copyright holder fails to notify you of the violation by some reasonable means prior to 60 days after the cessation.
Moreover, your license from a particular copyright holder is reinstated permanently if the copyright holder notifies you of the violation by some reasonable means, this is the first time you have received notice of violation of this License (for any work) from that copyright holder, and you cure the violation prior to 30 days after your receipt of the notice.
Termination of your rights under this section does not terminate the licenses of parties who have received copies or rights from you under this License. If your rights have been terminated and not permanently reinstated, you do not qualify to receive new licenses for the same material under section 10.
You are not required to accept this License in order to receive or run a copy of the Program. Ancillary propagation of a covered work occurring solely as a consequence of using peer-to-peer transmission to receive a copy likewise does not require acceptance. However, nothing other than this License grants you permission to propagate or modify any covered work. These actions infringe copyright if you do not accept this License. Therefore, by modifying or propagating a covered work, you indicate your acceptance of this License to do so.
Each time you convey a covered work, the recipient automatically receives a license from the original licensors, to run, modify and propagate that work, subject to this License. You are not responsible for enforcing compliance by third parties with this License.
An “entity transaction” is a transaction transferring control of an organization, or substantially all assets of one, or subdividing an organization, or merging organizations. If propagation of a covered work results from an entity transaction, each party to that transaction who receives a copy of the work also receives whatever licenses to the work the party’s predecessor in interest had or could give under the previous paragraph, plus a right to possession of the Corresponding Source of the work from the predecessor in interest, if the predecessor has it or can get it with reasonable efforts.
You may not impose any further restrictions on the exercise of the rights granted or affirmed under this License. For example, you may not impose a license fee, royalty, or other charge for exercise of rights granted under this License, and you may not initiate litigation (including a cross-claim or counterclaim in a lawsuit) alleging that any patent claim is infringed by making, using, selling, offering for sale, or importing the Program or any portion of it.
A “contributor” is a copyright holder who authorizes use under this License of the Program or a work on which the Program is based. The work thus licensed is called the contributor’s “contributor version”.
A contributor’s “essential patent claims” are all patent claims owned or controlled by the contributor, whether already acquired or hereafter acquired, that would be infringed by some manner, permitted by this License, of making, using, or selling its contributor version, but do not include claims that would be infringed only as a consequence of further modification of the contributor version. For purposes of this definition, “control” includes the right to grant patent sublicenses in a manner consistent with the requirements of this License.
Each contributor grants you a non-exclusive, worldwide, royalty-free patent license under the contributor’s essential patent claims, to make, use, sell, offer for sale, import and otherwise run, modify and propagate the contents of its contributor version.
In the following three paragraphs, a “patent license” is any express agreement or commitment, however denominated, not to enforce a patent (such as an express permission to practice a patent or covenant not to sue for patent infringement). To “grant” such a patent license to a party means to make such an agreement or commitment not to enforce a patent against the party.
If you convey a covered work, knowingly relying on a patent license, and the Corresponding Source of the work is not available for anyone to copy, free of charge and under the terms of this License, through a publicly available network server or other readily accessible means, then you must either (1) cause the Corresponding Source to be so available, or (2) arrange to deprive yourself of the benefit of the patent license for this particular work, or (3) arrange, in a manner consistent with the requirements of this License, to extend the patent license to downstream recipients. “Knowingly relying” means you have actual knowledge that, but for the patent license, your conveying the covered work in a country, or your recipient’s use of the covered work in a country, would infringe one or more identifiable patents in that country that you have reason to believe are valid.
If, pursuant to or in connection with a single transaction or arrangement, you convey, or propagate by procuring conveyance of, a covered work, and grant a patent license to some of the parties receiving the covered work authorizing them to use, propagate, modify or convey a specific copy of the covered work, then the patent license you grant is automatically extended to all recipients of the covered work and works based on it.
A patent license is “discriminatory” if it does not include within the scope of its coverage, prohibits the exercise of, or is conditioned on the non-exercise of one or more of the rights that are specifically granted under this License. You may not convey a covered work if you are a party to an arrangement with a third party that is in the business of distributing software, under which you make payment to the third party based on the extent of your activity of conveying the work, and under which the third party grants, to any of the parties who would receive the covered work from you, a discriminatory patent license (a) in connection with copies of the covered work conveyed by you (or copies made from those copies), or (b) primarily for and in connection with specific products or compilations that contain the covered work, unless you entered into that arrangement, or that patent license was granted, prior to 28 March 2007.
Nothing in this License shall be construed as excluding or limiting any implied license or other defenses to infringement that may otherwise be available to you under applicable patent law.
If conditions are imposed on you (whether by court order, agreement or otherwise) that contradict the conditions of this License, they do not excuse you from the conditions of this License. If you cannot convey a covered work so as to satisfy simultaneously your obligations under this License and any other pertinent obligations, then as a consequence you may not convey it at all. For example, if you agree to terms that obligate you to collect a royalty for further conveying from those to whom you convey the Program, the only way you could satisfy both those terms and this License would be to refrain entirely from conveying the Program.
Notwithstanding any other provision of this License, you have permission to link or combine any covered work with a work licensed under version 3 of the GNU Affero General Public License into a single combined work, and to convey the resulting work. The terms of this License will continue to apply to the part which is the covered work, but the special requirements of the GNU Affero General Public License, section 13, concerning interaction through a network will apply to the combination as such.
The Free Software Foundation may publish revised and/or new versions of the GNU General Public License from time to time. Such new versions will be similar in spirit to the present version, but may differ in detail to address new problems or concerns.
Each version is given a distinguishing version number. If the Program specifies that a certain numbered version of the GNU General Public License “or any later version” applies to it, you have the option of following the terms and conditions either of that numbered version or of any later version published by the Free Software Foundation. If the Program does not specify a version number of the GNU General Public License, you may choose any version ever published by the Free Software Foundation.
If the Program specifies that a proxy can decide which future versions of the GNU General Public License can be used, that proxy’s public statement of acceptance of a version permanently authorizes you to choose that version for the Program.
Later license versions may give you additional or different permissions. However, no additional obligations are imposed on any author or copyright holder as a result of your choosing to follow a later version.
THERE IS NO WARRANTY FOR THE PROGRAM, TO THE EXTENT PERMITTED BY APPLICABLE LAW. EXCEPT WHEN OTHERWISE STATED IN WRITING THE COPYRIGHT HOLDERS AND/OR OTHER PARTIES PROVIDE THE PROGRAM “AS IS” WITHOUT WARRANTY OF ANY KIND, EITHER EXPRESSED OR IMPLIED, INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO, THE IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY AND FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE. THE ENTIRE RISK AS TO THE QUALITY AND PERFORMANCE OF THE PROGRAM IS WITH YOU. SHOULD THE PROGRAM PROVE DEFECTIVE, YOU ASSUME THE COST OF ALL NECESSARY SERVICING, REPAIR OR CORRECTION.
IN NO EVENT UNLESS REQUIRED BY APPLICABLE LAW OR AGREED TO IN WRITING WILL ANY COPYRIGHT HOLDER, OR ANY OTHER PARTY WHO MODIFIES AND/OR CONVEYS THE PROGRAM AS PERMITTED ABOVE, BE LIABLE TO YOU FOR DAMAGES, INCLUDING ANY GENERAL, SPECIAL, INCIDENTAL OR CONSEQUENTIAL DAMAGES ARISING OUT OF THE USE OR INABILITY TO USE THE PROGRAM (INCLUDING BUT NOT LIMITED TO LOSS OF DATA OR DATA BEING RENDERED INACCURATE OR LOSSES SUSTAINED BY YOU OR THIRD PARTIES OR A FAILURE OF THE PROGRAM TO OPERATE WITH ANY OTHER PROGRAMS), EVEN IF SUCH HOLDER OR OTHER PARTY HAS BEEN ADVISED OF THE POSSIBILITY OF SUCH DAMAGES.
If the disclaimer of warranty and limitation of liability provided above cannot be given local legal effect according to their terms, reviewing courts shall apply local law that most closely approximates an absolute waiver of all civil liability in connection with the Program, unless a warranty or assumption of liability accompanies a copy of the Program in return for a fee.
If you develop a new program, and you want it to be of the greatest possible use to the public, the best way to achieve this is to make it free software which everyone can redistribute and change under these terms.
To do so, attach the following notices to the program. It is safest to attach them to the start of each source file to most effectively state the exclusion of warranty; and each file should have at least the “copyright” line and a pointer to where the full notice is found.
one line to give the program's name and a brief idea of what it does. Copyright (C) year name of author This program is free software: you can redistribute it and/or modify it under the terms of the GNU General Public License as published by the Free Software Foundation, either version 3 of the License, or (at your option) any later version. This program is distributed in the hope that it will be useful, but WITHOUT ANY WARRANTY; without even the implied warranty of MERCHANTABILITY or FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE. See the GNU General Public License for more details. You should have received a copy of the GNU General Public License along with this program. If not, see http://www.gnu.org/licenses/.
Also add information on how to contact you by electronic and paper mail.
If the program does terminal interaction, make it output a short notice like this when it starts in an interactive mode:
program Copyright (C) year name of author This program comes with ABSOLUTELY NO WARRANTY; for details type ‘show w’. This is free software, and you are welcome to redistribute it under certain conditions; type ‘show c’ for details.
The hypothetical commands ‘show w’ and ‘show c’ should show the appropriate parts of the General Public License. Of course, your program’s commands might be different; for a GUI interface, you would use an “about box”.
You should also get your employer (if you work as a programmer) or school, if any, to sign a “copyright disclaimer” for the program, if necessary. For more information on this, and how to apply and follow the GNU GPL, see http://www.gnu.org/licenses/.
The GNU General Public License does not permit incorporating your program into proprietary programs. If your program is a subroutine library, you may consider it more useful to permit linking proprietary applications with the library. If this is what you want to do, use the GNU Lesser General Public License instead of this License. But first, please read http://www.gnu.org/philosophy/why-not-lgpl.html.
GNU Typist is an interactive typing tutor program. It uses an input file to create a series of typing tutorials, drills, and speed tests. It is intended to be used on raw terminals without graphics. It has been compiled and used on GNU/Linux and Unix (OpenBSD, AIX, Solaris) and also on Windows.
The program reads lessons written in an easy-to-learn scripting language. It is distributed with several complete and good lessons. You can use them, modify them or create new lessons (see Create new lessons and see Script file commands).
If a script file is not specified on the command line, a default file gtypist.typ will be used. (See details about the path in the section see Environment Variables).
The top line of the screen displays a banner. The bottom line of the screen displays a message line, queries, and other status information. The lines in between are used for the tutorials, drills, and speed tests.
There are two types of typing exercises: drills and speed tests.
In a drill, gtypist displays text in every other line on the screen, and waits for the user to correctly type the exact same text in the intermediate lines. Typing errors are indicated with an inverse ‘^’, or ‘>’ if the character is a newline and at the end of the exercise it calculates the real and effective rate in Words Per Minute (WPM). If there were too many errors, it will re-run the drill.
Backward deleting of previously typed characters to correct errors is not allowed.
In a speed test, gtypist displays text on the screen, and waits for the user to correctly over-type the exact same text. It indicates typing errors, and at the end of the test it calculates the real and effective rate in WPM. If there were too many errors, it will re-run the speed test. Backward deleting of previously typed characters to correct errors is permitted, but errors still accumulate.
If you already made too many mistakes, then you can use ESC to give up and start again. You can also skip a lesson by pressing ESC twice. Once you complete a lesson, you will be asked whether you want to repeat it.
There are also “practice only” exercises (of both drills and speed tests) which you won’t have to repeat at all. But we won’t tell you when this is the case, so you’ll have to give your best anyway ;-)
In typing speed reports, a word is deemed to be five characters, so the raw (gross) WPM is the number of characters in the test passage, divided by five, then divided again by the number of minutes elapsed in typing the passage. The adjusted WPM factors in the errors; each error is counted as a mistyped word.
If preferred, speeds can be displayed in Characters Per Minute (CPM). This can be done by specifying “–scoring=cpm” at the command line.
The syntax to invoke GNU Typist is:
gtypist [ Options... ] [ script_file ]
gtypist will keep track of your personal best typing speeds and tell you when you’ve beaten them. Best typing speeds are saved in a “bestlog” in the user’s home directory.
Specifies the default maximum error percentage. The default value is 3.0 and it must be between 0.0 and 100.0. There is a corresponding script file command (see Script file commands) which only overrides this if it is stricter (smaller). This value is ignored for “practice only” drills.
gtypist will display the typing speeds in WPM after both drills and speed tests. However, the lessons appear to be written for a program that only does this for speed tests. To make gtypist behave in a manner that matches the lessons, that is, to sup WPM reports on drills, use -n or --notimer.
gtypist creates its own flashing block cursor on the screen, to help distinguish between the cursor and reverse video error indications. Setting -t or --term-cursor suppresses this, and forces the program to use the terminal’s cursor instead.
Sets the block cursor flash period in tenths of a second. A value of 0 indicates no cursor flashing. The default is 10, and the maximum is 512. This option is ignored if -t or --term-cursor has been set.
In normal operation, gtypist uses only normal and reverse video attributes in monochrome mode. This option may be used to specify the foreground and background colours on terminals that support colours. The colours are specified as two integers, in the range 0 to 7, separated by commas, setting the foreground and background colours. The colour codes 0 to 7 indicate black, red, green, yellow, blue, magenta, cyan, and white respectively. The default colours string is 7,0 - white on black. The option is ignored if the terminal does not support colours.
When gtypist detects a typing error, it will beep the terminal. Use this option to silence the beep.
Same as -s or --silent.
Specifies the label in the script file at which gtypist begins executing (see script files and commands below for information on labels). If this option is not used, gtypist begins execution at the first line of the file.
With this option, gtypist will try to mimic a word processor in certain ways when executing an exercise. It will treat space at the end of a line as a correctly typed character, and word wrap. It will treat return at the end of a line as a signal to move to the start of the next paragraph if applicable. It will compress multiple spaces into a single space. And it will skip over hyphens found at the end of a line.
Prohibit the user from skipping lessons or exiting from lessons via ESC ESC.
Highlight errors with reverse video.
Skips confirmation questions.
Change the color of the banner at the top of the screen. Color values are the same as for the –colo[u]rs command. The default value is 0,6,5,1 - black foreground, cyan background, magenta program name and red version name.
Change the scoring mode. WPM and CPM modes are available, with the default being WPM.
You also have to set the environment variable
LANG if you want
to run gtypist in your native language. See Environment Variables.
In some languages like French, some interface messages are longer than in English. Therefore, you may need to make your terminal larger before invoking the tool. Otherwise, the text on the lower left may overlap with the string on the lower right.
To run the default lessons of lesson gtypist.typ:
To run the lesson in Spanish:
To instruct gtypist to look for lesson bar.typ in a non
standard directory /home/foo:
To run the lessons in the file test.typ of directory
/tmp, starting at label
TEST1, using the terminal’s
cursor, and running silently:
gtypist -t -q -l TEST1
The following lessons are supplied with GNU Typist :
Quick QWERTY course in English
Long QWERTY course in English
QWERTY touch typing in English
Yet Another QWERTY in English
QWERTY Review in English
Dvorak touch typing in English
Colemak touch typing in English
Typing drills in English
Speed drills in English
Calculator keypad in English
Compendium of all previous lessons in English
Lessons in Czech
QWERTY course in Spanish
Lessons in Russian
These lessons are the standard lessons from Ktouch 1.6, which have been converted to gtypist’s file format with the included script, tools/ktouch2typ.pl.
The files are: ktbg.typ (bulgarian.ktouch.xml), ktbg_long.typ (bulgarian_long.ktouch.xml), ktde.typ (german.ktouch.xml), ktde2.typ (german3.ktouch.xml), ktde_neo.typ (german.neo.ktouch.xml), ktde_number.typ (german.number.ktouch.xml), ktdk.typ (danish.ktouch.xml), ktdk2.typ (danish2.ktouch.xml), ktdvorak.typ (dvorak.ktouch.xml), ktdvorak_es.typ (dvorak_es.ktouch.xml), ktdvorak_abcd.typ (dvorak_ABCD.ktouch.xml), kten.typ (english.ktouch.xml), ktes.typ (spanish.ktouch.xml), ktes_cat.typ (catalan.ktouch.xml), ktfi.typ (finnish.ktouch.xml), ktfi_kids.typ (finnish_for_kids.ktouch.xml), ktfr.typ (french.ktouch.xml), ktfr2.typ (french2.ktouch.xml), kthu.typ (hungarian.ktouch.xml), kthu_expert.typ (hungarian_expert.ktouch.xml), ktit.typ (italian.ktouch.xml), ktnl.typ (nederlands.ktouch.xml), ktnl_junior.typ (nederlands_junior.ktouch.xml), ktno.typ (norwegian.ktouch.xml), ktpl.typ (polish.ktouch.xml), ktru.typ (russian.ktouch.xml), ktru_long.typ (russian_long.ktouch.xml), ktru_slava.typ (russian_slava.ktouch.xml), ktsi.typ (slovenian.ktouch.xml), kttr.typ (tr.ktouch.xml),
german2.ktouch.xml has not been included because it is from the same source as ttde.typ and ttde.typ contains more information.
This is the German lesson of tipptrainer 0.6.0, which has been converted using tools/tt2typ.pl. It is quite extensive and has good explanations along the way.
If you find errors in these lessons, if you modify any of them or if you write a new lesson, please release it with a free license and tell us about it, by writing an email to email@example.com.
typefortune lets you practice with text from
SYNTAX: typefortune [-dslh] [-n count] [-o <gtypist_opts>]
D: instead of
Run fortune with
Run fortune with
Practice <count> fortunes.
Pass options to gtypist, in the form option (boolean option,
-o word-processor), option,value (option with
-o e,1.0) where
option is the name of the
option (short or long) with all leading dashes removed. You need to
quote the argument to -o if you are specifying more than one
typefortune -n 3 -o 'silent e,5 word-processor'.
GNU Typist reads in the data for its typing lessons from a script file. With the exception of comments and blank lines, each line in the file is of the format
command_char : command_data
command_char is a single character code that defines an
action for gtypist to take, and
command_data is data for that
command_char is a space character, this indicates
that the line is a continuation of the preceding non-space
command. The ‘:’ separator must be in column two of the line.
Comment lines are lines beginning with a ‘#’ character, and are ignored, as are blank lines. Comment lines may have any format provided that they begin with ‘#’; other lines must have the above format.
You should read the introduction so that you are familiar with the basics: See Introduction.
The following is a list of valid
This command clears the complete screen. If any
present, it is displayed in the one-line banner at the top of the
screen, and remains in place until the next
B command. This
command may not be continued on the following line; it is a single
This presents a tutorial, and is a multi-line command, up to the limit of the screen length. Each line in the command is simply printed to the screen. This command clears the screen beneath the top banner line. After the display is done, the program waits before proceeding.
This indicates a label in the file. The label may be the target of a
F command. Labels may contain
any character except space (this restriction was added in gtypist
2.9), and are a single line command. Labels must be unique within
lesson files. White-space at the end of labels is ignored.
I command can display some brief instructions above a drill
or a speed test. Only two lines or less are permitted. Unlike the
T command, it does not wait for any further key-presses before
proceeding. So it should really always be followed by an exercise.
It clears the whole screen exercise area, so in this respect it’s just
like a two-line
This command is the new way to create menus (since gtypist 2.7). Here is the syntax:
M: [UP=RETURN_LABEL|_EXIT] "title" :LABEL1 "item1" :LABEL2 "item2" ...
This will display a convenient menu made from the specified items and
let the user to choose from them. If an item was selected, gtypist
will continue script execution from the corresponding label. If the
Escape key was pressed and
UP label is defined, gtypist will go
UP label likewise, or quit from, if there is
``_EXIT'' in the place of the label. If the
UP label is
not defined, gtypist will try to return to the previous menu and jump
to the last label met in the script before previous
If there is no such label and some menu was displayed before the
current one, gtypist will just go to the beginning of the script. If
none of the previous conditions were met, gtypist will just exit from
The above details make it natural to create menu hierarchies without
The title and all descriptions must be wrapped in quotes ("").
Additionally, there must be at least one space between
and "title" and between the labels and the corresponding descriptions.
This command was introduced as an easy way to arrange various parts of
lesson files into single menu hierarchy which can be easily navigated,
as well as a replacement for ancient
F-key menus. See the
existing lesson-files for examples.
This command is called drill, and it is one of two types of typing exercises.
It is a multi-line command. The text is displayed in every second line, and you type in the intermediate lines. Because of this, you cannot use more than 11 lines of drill content.
This type of exercise is supposed to be used for finger training (i.e. jfjfjjf), but may also contain complete words and sentences if they are used to practice something (i.e. a letter/syllable/"grip"), and aren’t real texts.
The lowercase version
d is a “practice only” drill - the user
will not have not repeat this drill if he/she made too many mistakes.
This is the second type of typing exercise: the speed test.
It is a multi-line command. It displays its text on the screen, and prompts the user to type on top of it. That’s why you can use up to 22 lines of text for one speed test. In a speed test you can correct your mistakes, but this will not decrease the error-count.
Speed tests should be used for typing (mostly) complete sentences, texts or files (i.e. a letter, texinfo/html/tex files).
The lowercase version
s is a practice only speed test:
the user will not have not repeat this drill if (s)he made too many
This causes gtypist to go to the label in
continue execution of the script there. This is a single line command.
This command command prompts its text on the message line, and waits for a Y or an N before proceeding. Other characters are ignored.
As a side effect, you can hit an F-key if it is bound (a deprecated way to create the prompt for menus).
This is like
G, except that the goto is executed only if the
result of the last
Q command was Y.
This is like
G, except that the goto is executed only if the
result of the last
Q command was N.
This command is deprecated in favor of M: This binds a function
key to a label. The format of the data line following this command
fkey_number is a
function key number in the range 1 to 12, and
label is a label
to go to when this key is pressed. A value of NULL for label removes
any label binding from the key.
If function keys are not available on the terminal other keys can be used: 1 to 9 to replace F1 to F9, 0 to replace F10, A for F11 and S for F12.
Other alternatives for the keys F1 to F12 are the combinations: Ctrl-Q, Ctrl-W, Ctrl-E, Ctrl-R, Ctrl-T, Ctrl-Z, Ctrl-U, Ctrl-I, Ctrl-O, Ctrl-P, Ctrl-A and Ctrl-S.
This is also useful where function keys are intercepted by other programs (for example by a window manager).
This command is used to set the highest error-rate permitted for the
next drill (
E:<value>%) or for all following drills until the
If --max-error/-e is specified then this command will only have an effect if it is stricter than the value specified on the command-line.
command_data consists of the value (between 0.0 and 100.0),
followed by ‘%’ (this is required so that scripts are more
readable). A special value of
the error-max value back to the default.
This command (“set on-failure label”) is used to set the label (in
command_data) where the user will have to go to if (s)he fails
Usually, this command only applies to the next exercise, but you can
make it persistent by putting a ‘*’ at the end of
If label is NULL then this resets the label.
This command causes gtypist to exit. It is a single line command. Any
command_data is ignored. The program also exits if the end of
the file is found (so you could also place a label there and just
G to it)
Here is a tiny example script to demonstrate the available commands (tinydemo.typ lesson file):
# Minimal demonstration B: Typing tutor demonstration *:LOOP K:1:QDONE T:This is a small example tutor script. A better :example may be found in the demo.typ file that :accompanies GNU Typist I:Here is an example of a drill: D:asdf ghjkl; I:And here is an example of a speed test: S:qwe rt yu iop *:QDONE Q:Seen enough yet? [Y/N] N:LOOP X:
This section provides guidelines and hints for creating new lessons (or improving existing ones).
A very easy way to write lessons is to write them in the format that
ktouch 1.0 uses, and then convert it to a gtypist
tools/ktouchOLD2typ.pl. This will take care of
writing “jump-tables”, a menu and a bit more.
The ktouch-1.0-format consists only of lessons, which are preceded by their names, and separated by blank lines and/or comments (‘#’ at the beginning of the line). So the first non-blank, non-comment line in the file is the name of the first lesson, and the first lesson consists of all the lines up to the next comment or blank line. After the separator (comment or blank line) the name of the second lesson follows and so on.
This is an example of a three-lesson ktouch file (excerpts from the first three lessons of german.ktouch):
# # Deutsche Training-Datei für KTouch # Grundstellung f f f f f f fff fff fff f f f f f f fff fff fff f f f f f f f fff j j j j j j jjj jjj jjj j j j j j j jjj jjj jjj j j j j j j j jjj fff jjj fff jjj jjj fff jjj fff fjf fjf fjf jfj jfj jfj fjf jfjfj Grundstellung fff jjj ddd kkk aaa ööö fff jjj ddd kkk aaa ööö fff jjj ddd kkkff fda jkö fda jkö fda jkö fda jkö fda jkö fda jkö fda jkö fda jköfd s s s s s s sss sss sss s s s s s s sss sss sss s s s s s s s sss #Zwei wichtige Vokale: e und i e und i asdf ölkj fdsa jklö asdf ölkj fdsa jklö asdf ölkj fdsa jklö asdfö das dass lös fad dass lös als dass las lös fad dass als dass dass ded ded ded dej dek del deö ded deö del dek dej ded dej dek delde
Once you are done, use
tools/ktouchOLD2typ.pl to convert the
file: ‘ktouchOLD2typ.pl lesson.ktouch’ converts
lesson.ktouch to lesson.typ. It is important that the
input file ends in ‘.ktouch’, otherwise
ktouchOLD2typ.pl will skip it. Warning: this will overwrite
lesson.typ without asking you !
You can customize the number of lines that
uses for each drill by modifying the relevant variable in
Obviously, the disadvantage of this is that you cannot make use of all of gtypist’s features (but the output file is very readable, so you can edit it to use more of gtypist’s features).
If you prefer, you can use the new ktouch 1.6 XML file format, which looks like this (from english.ktouch.xml:
<KTouchLecture> <Title>SAMPLE TITLE</Title> <Comment>SAMPLE COMMENT</Comment> <Levels> <Level> <NewCharacters>jf</NewCharacters> <Line>ff jjj jf jfj j jff fjjf ff jfj j jff ff jjj fjj fjj fjf jfj jjj</Line> <Line>f fjjf jjj fjjf jfj fjjf f j fjj jff j fjj jf jjj fjjf f f fjf</Line> <Line>fjjf jff jjj ff jf fjjf fjjf f fjj fjj jf fjf j jj f j fjj jj jjj</Line> <Line>...</Line> </Level> <Level> <NewCharacters>kd</NewCharacters> <Line>jjd fdfj rd djd jk jd k dd fjk fd fk k jfkd dkkf fk dkd dd jk k</Line> <Line>dfj djd fkkk fk dff d dkkf fd fk fdfj fk k dkkf djd dff dkd dff</Line> <Line>dkd kdk k dkkf k jk fkkk jd k jfkd fk fk jd k d dkd jd k dd rd dffd</Line> <Line>...</Line> </Level> </Levels> </KTouchLecture>
In this format, the content of the <NewCharacters> tag acts as a title for the following drill. You can convert *.ktouch.xml to *.typ with ‘ktouch2typ.pl lesson.ktouch.xml’, which will create lesson.ktouch.typ (again, this may overwrite without asking you).
Using gtypist-mode.el you can quickly create lessons with text
from the program
fortune (or the Emacs-internal
fortune isn’t available, as is usually the
case on Windows).
Once you installed gtypist-mode.el (see Emacs mode), you
can open a file with the ‘.typ’ extension and run C-c C-f
to create a drill (
D: by default, use C-u or C-u
C-u prefix to change).
s:) (possibly mixed with “real” exercises) followed by a “final test”. esp.typ uses this scheme.
I:Use your J-finger for the H key. *:_T_R_L23 D:jjj jhj jjj jhj jjj jhj
The tools/findwords script in the GNU Typist sources is there to assist you in creating new lessons.
In the beginning when you are creating a new tutorial from scratch, it’s not very easy to form words and even sentences while the range of letters you can use is restricted. Sometimes you want to insert some paragraph “targeted” at some special combination of two or three letters. This is even harder.
For this purpose we created findwords. It uses the dictionaries from the aspell database (free multilingual spellchecker).
You will need the aspell and aspell-LG packages, where LG is the ISO language code for the language you want to use.
After a successful installation, you will have to make a little change in your configuration so that aspell’s master database is the one of your language. This can be done two different ways:
In the above, LG means ISO language code (eg. ‘en’, ‘fr’, ‘cs’) and LANGUAGE means name of the database in /usr/lib/aspell (eg. ‘english.multi’, ‘french’, ‘czech’).
You can try if it works by typing:
aspell dump master | less
The syntax is as follows:
./findwords letters [combination]
In the mandatory letters argument you must list the letters that you want use without any spaces. You may use the dot (‘.’) to say ‘all letters’. The second argument combination is optional and you can specify there what combination of letters are you searching for.
./findwords asdfjkleruio sa
./findwords . col
gtypist now comes with an Emacs major-mode which does syntax-highlighting, indentation and has some convenient commands for counting labels, a goto-label-command, inserting properly centered banners, special comments and a bit more.
Copy this file from tools/gtypist-mode.el to wherever you put your local elisp files (e.g. ~/elisp) and put this in your ~/.emacs (adapt path!):
(autoload 'gtypist-mode "~/elisp/gtypist-mode")
or put it in
load-path (‘make install’ in the sources
should take care of this for GNU Emacs, or if you are using the Debian
package, it installs it here for you) and use this instead:
(autoload 'gtypist-mode "gtypist-mode")
and add this to your ~/.emacs:
(setq auto-mode-alist (cons '("\\.typ\\'" . gtypist-mode) auto-mode-alist))
All this is also mentioned in the README-section of tools/gtypist-mode.el.
Here are the commands along with the keybindings:
This shows gtypist’s texinfo-documentation, starting at node “Script file commands” (see Script file commands). With prefix, start at the top-node.
Query for a label to go to (with completion).
This command inserts the next label in a numbered sequence of labels. For example, if you insert
and hit C-c C-l then gtypist-mode will insert
This command inserts a centered
B: command. It’s centered on 66
columns because “gtypist <version>” is in the right corner (prompts
Inserts a horizontal rule (comment) consisting of dashes.
Insert the comments (header) and a label to start a new lesson (prompts for name).
Insert a drill (
D:) with text from
fortune isn’t available). Use C-u
prefix to get
S:, and C-u C-u to get
Run C-h m for a complete list of commands and their keybindings.
If you find bugs or if you think there’s something else this mode could do, please write to firstname.lastname@example.org.
File tools/gtypist.vim provides vim syntax highlighting for gtypist lesson files (vim 5.x, 6.x and 7.x (and higher)).
To install it for version 5.x (or any version on Windows), copy the file to where the syntax-files go (for example /usr/share/vim/vim56/syntax/ for Vim 5.6; if everything else fails you can search for e.g. xml.vim) and add this to ~/.vimrc ($HOME/_vimrc on Windows):
autocmd BufNewFile,BufRead *.typ set ft=gtypist
Installation for Vim >= 6.x is simpler: first create ~/.vim/syntax/:
mkdir -p ~/.vim/syntax and put tools/gtypist.vim in there.
Finally add this to ~/.vimrc:
autocmd BufNewFile,BufRead *.typ setf gtypist
In case you are using the debian package, gtypist.vim will already be installed for you, but you need to enable it explicitly:
sudo apt-get install vim-addon-manager vim-addons install gtypist
In any case, make sure that the vimrc file has the following
command at the top ahead of all other
autocmd! " Remove ALL autocommands for the current group
(which avoids problems if vimrc is sourced more than once). And if you haven\’t done it already, you need to enable syntax highlighting (this may need to be before the autocmd ... gtypist).
syntax on " turn on syntax highlighting
You can verify that tools/gtypist.vim is active by running
:set ft? in vim, which should return filetype=gtypist.
All of this is also mentioned in the README-section of tools/gtypist.vim.
GNU Typist uses the following environment variables:
GNU Typist offers Native Language Support (NLS) with support of the
gettext library, this means that if your system supports it, the
language of the messages shown by gtypist can be chosen. By now
gtypist is distributed with messages in English, Czech, Finnish,
French, German and Spanish. To use a particular NLS use the
environment variable LANG and set it to the appropriate ‘LL_CC’
combination where ‘LL’ is an ISO 639 two-letter language code and
‘CC’ is an ISO 3166 two-letter country code (e.g. ‘es_ES’
for Spain and
de_DE for Germany). In some systems it will be
also necessary to set the environment variable LANGUAGE to the same
If you want to translate messages to a different language (or if you want to correct a message), please communicate it to email@example.com.
Lists the directories that the program will look in for script files.
It has the standard format for paths, that is, a list of directories
separated by ‘:’s. To open a script, gtypist will try the
following paths: (1) to use the script name alone (2) it will append
each one of the directories specified in the variable
GTYPIST_PATH and (3) it will append the directory used during
the installation process (e.g. /usr/local/share/gtypist or
Used by curses to manage the display.
This may need to be set if the path to the
terminfo database is
different between the system the binary was compiled on and the one it
is being run on. For example, in older Slackware systems, the terminfo
database resides in /usr/lib/terminfo. On RedHat Linux, it is
in /usr/share/terminfo. If the program complains about the
terminal type, and the value of
TERM is correct, check into
GNU Typist does not go to much effort to minimize terminal output. In particular, the flashing block cursor can cause a lot of cursor movement. Using the terminal’s own cursor will help if this becomes a problem.
In speed tests, the program does not allow backspacing or deletion past the beginning of the screen line, or back through Tab characters. This is purely to simplify screen updating.
Colour curses modes do not seem to work well with UnixWare. In particular, reverse video is not always rendered correctly on some terminal types, and xterms.
Please see the TODO file in the source distribution for more things that need to be fixed.
Copyright © 2000,2001,2002 Free Software Foundation, Inc. 51 Franklin St, Fifth Floor, Boston, MA 02110-1301, USA Everyone is permitted to copy and distribute verbatim copies of this license document, but changing it is not allowed.
The purpose of this License is to make a manual, textbook, or other functional and useful document free in the sense of freedom: to assure everyone the effective freedom to copy and redistribute it, with or without modifying it, either commercially or noncommercially. Secondarily, this License preserves for the author and publisher a way to get credit for their work, while not being considered responsible for modifications made by others.
This License is a kind of “copyleft”, which means that derivative works of the document must themselves be free in the same sense. It complements the GNU General Public License, which is a copyleft license designed for free software.
We have designed this License in order to use it for manuals for free software, because free software needs free documentation: a free program should come with manuals providing the same freedoms that the software does. But this License is not limited to software manuals; it can be used for any textual work, regardless of subject matter or whether it is published as a printed book. We recommend this License principally for works whose purpose is instruction or reference.
This License applies to any manual or other work, in any medium, that contains a notice placed by the copyright holder saying it can be distributed under the terms of this License. Such a notice grants a world-wide, royalty-free license, unlimited in duration, to use that work under the conditions stated herein. The “Document”, below, refers to any such manual or work. Any member of the public is a licensee, and is addressed as “you”. You accept the license if you copy, modify or distribute the work in a way requiring permission under copyright law.
A “Modified Version” of the Document means any work containing the Document or a portion of it, either copied verbatim, or with modifications and/or translated into another language.
A “Secondary Section” is a named appendix or a front-matter section of the Document that deals exclusively with the relationship of the publishers or authors of the Document to the Document’s overall subject (or to related matters) and contains nothing that could fall directly within that overall subject. (Thus, if the Document is in part a textbook of mathematics, a Secondary Section may not explain any mathematics.) The relationship could be a matter of historical connection with the subject or with related matters, or of legal, commercial, philosophical, ethical or political position regarding them.
The “Invariant Sections” are certain Secondary Sections whose titles are designated, as being those of Invariant Sections, in the notice that says that the Document is released under this License. If a section does not fit the above definition of Secondary then it is not allowed to be designated as Invariant. The Document may contain zero Invariant Sections. If the Document does not identify any Invariant Sections then there are none.
The “Cover Texts” are certain short passages of text that are listed, as Front-Cover Texts or Back-Cover Texts, in the notice that says that the Document is released under this License. A Front-Cover Text may be at most 5 words, and a Back-Cover Text may be at most 25 words.
A “Transparent” copy of the Document means a machine-readable copy, represented in a format whose specification is available to the general public, that is suitable for revising the document straightforwardly with generic text editors or (for images composed of pixels) generic paint programs or (for drawings) some widely available drawing editor, and that is suitable for input to text formatters or for automatic translation to a variety of formats suitable for input to text formatters. A copy made in an otherwise Transparent file format whose markup, or absence of markup, has been arranged to thwart or discourage subsequent modification by readers is not Transparent. An image format is not Transparent if used for any substantial amount of text. A copy that is not “Transparent” is called “Opaque”.
Examples of suitable formats for Transparent copies include plain ASCII without markup, Texinfo input format, LaTeX input format, SGML or XML using a publicly available DTD, and standard-conforming simple HTML, PostScript or PDF designed for human modification. Examples of transparent image formats include PNG, XCF and JPG. Opaque formats include proprietary formats that can be read and edited only by proprietary word processors, SGML or XML for which the DTD and/or processing tools are not generally available, and the machine-generated HTML, PostScript or PDF produced by some word processors for output purposes only.
The “Title Page” means, for a printed book, the title page itself, plus such following pages as are needed to hold, legibly, the material this License requires to appear in the title page. For works in formats which do not have any title page as such, “Title Page” means the text near the most prominent appearance of the work’s title, preceding the beginning of the body of the text.
A section “Entitled XYZ” means a named subunit of the Document whose title either is precisely XYZ or contains XYZ in parentheses following text that translates XYZ in another language. (Here XYZ stands for a specific section name mentioned below, such as “Acknowledgements”, “Dedications”, “Endorsements”, or “History”.) To “Preserve the Title” of such a section when you modify the Document means that it remains a section “Entitled XYZ” according to this definition.
The Document may include Warranty Disclaimers next to the notice which states that this License applies to the Document. These Warranty Disclaimers are considered to be included by reference in this License, but only as regards disclaiming warranties: any other implication that these Warranty Disclaimers may have is void and has no effect on the meaning of this License.
You may copy and distribute the Document in any medium, either commercially or noncommercially, provided that this License, the copyright notices, and the license notice saying this License applies to the Document are reproduced in all copies, and that you add no other conditions whatsoever to those of this License. You may not use technical measures to obstruct or control the reading or further copying of the copies you make or distribute. However, you may accept compensation in exchange for copies. If you distribute a large enough number of copies you must also follow the conditions in section 3.
You may also lend copies, under the same conditions stated above, and you may publicly display copies.
If you publish printed copies (or copies in media that commonly have printed covers) of the Document, numbering more than 100, and the Document’s license notice requires Cover Texts, you must enclose the copies in covers that carry, clearly and legibly, all these Cover Texts: Front-Cover Texts on the front cover, and Back-Cover Texts on the back cover. Both covers must also clearly and legibly identify you as the publisher of these copies. The front cover must present the full title with all words of the title equally prominent and visible. You may add other material on the covers in addition. Copying with changes limited to the covers, as long as they preserve the title of the Document and satisfy these conditions, can be treated as verbatim copying in other respects.
If the required texts for either cover are too voluminous to fit legibly, you should put the first ones listed (as many as fit reasonably) on the actual cover, and continue the rest onto adjacent pages.
If you publish or distribute Opaque copies of the Document numbering more than 100, you must either include a machine-readable Transparent copy along with each Opaque copy, or state in or with each Opaque copy a computer-network location from which the general network-using public has access to download using public-standard network protocols a complete Transparent copy of the Document, free of added material. If you use the latter option, you must take reasonably prudent steps, when you begin distribution of Opaque copies in quantity, to ensure that this Transparent copy will remain thus accessible at the stated location until at least one year after the last time you distribute an Opaque copy (directly or through your agents or retailers) of that edition to the public.
It is requested, but not required, that you contact the authors of the Document well before redistributing any large number of copies, to give them a chance to provide you with an updated version of the Document.
You may copy and distribute a Modified Version of the Document under the conditions of sections 2 and 3 above, provided that you release the Modified Version under precisely this License, with the Modified Version filling the role of the Document, thus licensing distribution and modification of the Modified Version to whoever possesses a copy of it. In addition, you must do these things in the Modified Version:
If the Modified Version includes new front-matter sections or appendices that qualify as Secondary Sections and contain no material copied from the Document, you may at your option designate some or all of these sections as invariant. To do this, add their titles to the list of Invariant Sections in the Modified Version’s license notice. These titles must be distinct from any other section titles.
You may add a section Entitled “Endorsements”, provided it contains nothing but endorsements of your Modified Version by various parties—for example, statements of peer review or that the text has been approved by an organization as the authoritative definition of a standard.
You may add a passage of up to five words as a Front-Cover Text, and a passage of up to 25 words as a Back-Cover Text, to the end of the list of Cover Texts in the Modified Version. Only one passage of Front-Cover Text and one of Back-Cover Text may be added by (or through arrangements made by) any one entity. If the Document already includes a cover text for the same cover, previously added by you or by arrangement made by the same entity you are acting on behalf of, you may not add another; but you may replace the old one, on explicit permission from the previous publisher that added the old one.
The author(s) and publisher(s) of the Document do not by this License give permission to use their names for publicity for or to assert or imply endorsement of any Modified Version.
You may combine the Document with other documents released under this License, under the terms defined in section 4 above for modified versions, provided that you include in the combination all of the Invariant Sections of all of the original documents, unmodified, and list them all as Invariant Sections of your combined work in its license notice, and that you preserve all their Warranty Disclaimers.
The combined work need only contain one copy of this License, and multiple identical Invariant Sections may be replaced with a single copy. If there are multiple Invariant Sections with the same name but different contents, make the title of each such section unique by adding at the end of it, in parentheses, the name of the original author or publisher of that section if known, or else a unique number. Make the same adjustment to the section titles in the list of Invariant Sections in the license notice of the combined work.
In the combination, you must combine any sections Entitled “History” in the various original documents, forming one section Entitled “History”; likewise combine any sections Entitled “Acknowledgements”, and any sections Entitled “Dedications”. You must delete all sections Entitled “Endorsements.”
You may make a collection consisting of the Document and other documents released under this License, and replace the individual copies of this License in the various documents with a single copy that is included in the collection, provided that you follow the rules of this License for verbatim copying of each of the documents in all other respects.
You may extract a single document from such a collection, and distribute it individually under this License, provided you insert a copy of this License into the extracted document, and follow this License in all other respects regarding verbatim copying of that document.
A compilation of the Document or its derivatives with other separate and independent documents or works, in or on a volume of a storage or distribution medium, is called an “aggregate” if the copyright resulting from the compilation is not used to limit the legal rights of the compilation’s users beyond what the individual works permit. When the Document is included in an aggregate, this License does not apply to the other works in the aggregate which are not themselves derivative works of the Document.
If the Cover Text requirement of section 3 is applicable to these copies of the Document, then if the Document is less than one half of the entire aggregate, the Document’s Cover Texts may be placed on covers that bracket the Document within the aggregate, or the electronic equivalent of covers if the Document is in electronic form. Otherwise they must appear on printed covers that bracket the whole aggregate.
Translation is considered a kind of modification, so you may distribute translations of the Document under the terms of section 4. Replacing Invariant Sections with translations requires special permission from their copyright holders, but you may include translations of some or all Invariant Sections in addition to the original versions of these Invariant Sections. You may include a translation of this License, and all the license notices in the Document, and any Warranty Disclaimers, provided that you also include the original English version of this License and the original versions of those notices and disclaimers. In case of a disagreement between the translation and the original version of this License or a notice or disclaimer, the original version will prevail.
If a section in the Document is Entitled “Acknowledgements”, “Dedications”, or “History”, the requirement (section 4) to Preserve its Title (section 1) will typically require changing the actual title.
You may not copy, modify, sublicense, or distribute the Document except as expressly provided for under this License. Any other attempt to copy, modify, sublicense or distribute the Document is void, and will automatically terminate your rights under this License. However, parties who have received copies, or rights, from you under this License will not have their licenses terminated so long as such parties remain in full compliance.
The Free Software Foundation may publish new, revised versions of the GNU Free Documentation License from time to time. Such new versions will be similar in spirit to the present version, but may differ in detail to address new problems or concerns. See http://www.gnu.org/copyleft/.
Each version of the License is given a distinguishing version number. If the Document specifies that a particular numbered version of this License “or any later version” applies to it, you have the option of following the terms and conditions either of that specified version or of any later version that has been published (not as a draft) by the Free Software Foundation. If the Document does not specify a version number of this License, you may choose any version ever published (not as a draft) by the Free Software Foundation.
To use this License in a document you have written, include a copy of the License in the document and put the following copyright and license notices just after the title page:
Copyright (C) year your name. Permission is granted to copy, distribute and/or modify this document under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License, Version 1.2 or any later version published by the Free Software Foundation; with no Invariant Sections, no Front-Cover Texts, and no Back-Cover Texts. A copy of the license is included in the section entitled ``GNU Free Documentation License''.
If you have Invariant Sections, Front-Cover Texts and Back-Cover Texts, replace the “with…Texts.” line with this:
with the Invariant Sections being list their titles, with the Front-Cover Texts being list, and with the Back-Cover Texts being list.
If you have Invariant Sections without Cover Texts, or some other combination of the three, merge those two alternatives to suit the situation.
If your document contains nontrivial examples of program code, we recommend releasing these examples in parallel under your choice of free software license, such as the GNU General Public License, to permit their use in free software.