The final piece of Guile’s virtual machine is a just-in-time (JIT) compiler from bytecode instructions to native code. It is faster to run a function when its bytecode instructions are compiled to native code, compared to having the VM interpret the instructions.
The JIT compiler runs automatically, triggered by counters associated with each function. The counter increments when functions are called and during each loop iteration. Once a function’s counter passes a certain value, the function gets JIT-compiled. See Instrumentation Instructions, for full details.
Guile’s JIT compiler is what is known as a template JIT. This kind of JIT is very simple: for each instruction in a function, the JIT compiler will emit a generic sequence of machine code corresponding to the instruction kind, specializing that generic template to reference the specific operands of the instruction being compiled.
The strength of a template JIT is principally that it is very fast at emitting code. It doesn’t need to do any time-consuming analysis on the bytecode that it is compiling to do its job.
A template JIT is also very predictable: the native code emitted by a template JIT has the same performance characteristics of the corresponding bytecode, only that it runs faster. In theory you could even generate the template-JIT machine code ahead of time, as it doesn’t depend on any value seen at run-time.
This predictability makes it possible to reason about the performance of a system in terms of bytecode, knowing that the conclusions apply to native code emitted by a template JIT.
Because the machine code corresponding to an instruction always performs the same tasks that the interpreter would do for that instruction, bytecode and a template JIT also allows Guile programmers to debug their programs in terms of the bytecode model. When a Guile programmer sets a breakpoint, Guile will disable the JIT for the thread being debugged, falling back to the interpreter (which has the corresponding code to run the hooks). See VM Hooks.
To emit native code, Guile uses a forked version of GNU Lightning. This "Lightening" effort, spun out as a separate project, aims to build on the back-end support from GNU Lightning, but adapting the API and behavior of the library to match Guile’s needs. This code is included in the Guile source distribution. For more information, see https://gitlab.com/wingo/lightening. As of mid-2019, Lightening supports code generation for the x86-64, ia32, ARMv7, and AArch64 architectures.
The weaknesses of a template JIT are two-fold. Firstly, as a simple back-end that has to run fast, a template JIT doesn’t have time to do analysis that could help it generate better code, notably global register allocation and instruction selection.
However this is a minor weakness compared to the inability to perform
significant, speculative program transformations. For example, Guile
could see that in an expression
(f x), that in practice f
always refers to the same function. An advanced JIT compiler would
speculatively inline f into the call-site, along with a dynamic
check to make sure that the assertion still held. But as a template JIT
doesn’t pay attention to values only known at run-time, it can’t make
This limitation is mitigated in part by Guile’s robust ahead-of-time compiler which can already perform significant optimizations when it can prove they will always be valid, and its low-level bytecode which is able to represent the effect of those optimizations (e.g. elided type-checks). See Compiling to the Virtual Machine, for more on Guile’s compiler.
An ahead-of-time Scheme-to-bytecode strategy, complemented by a template
JIT, also particularly suits the somewhat static nature of Scheme.
Scheme programmers often write code in a way that makes the identity of
free variable references lexically apparent. For example, the
x) expression could appear within a
(let ((f (lambda (x) (1+
x)))) ...) expression, or we could see that
f was imported from
a particular module where we know its binding. Ahead-of-time
compilation techniques can work well for a language like Scheme where
there is little polymorphism and much first-order programming. They do
at run-time and difficult to analyze due to method calls (which are
effectively higher-order calls).
All that said, a template JIT works well for Guile at this point. It’s only a few thousand lines of maintainable code, it speeds up Scheme programs, and it keeps the bulk of the Guile Scheme implementation written in Scheme itself. The next step is probably to add ahead-of-time native code emission to the back-end of the compiler written in Scheme, to take advantage of the opportunity to do global register allocation and instruction selection. Once this is working, it can allow Guile to experiment with speculative optimizations in Scheme as well. See Extending the Compiler, for more on future directions.
Finally, note that there are a few environment variables that can be tweaked to make JIT compilation happen sooner, later, or never. See Environment Variables, for more.