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MEANS [TABLES =] {var_list} [ BY {var_list} [BY {var_list} [BY {var_list} … ]]] [ /{var_list} [ BY {var_list} [BY {var_list} [BY {var_list} … ]]] ] [/CELLS = [MEAN] [COUNT] [STDDEV] [SEMEAN] [SUM] [MIN] [MAX] [RANGE] [VARIANCE] [KURT] [SEKURT] [SKEW] [SESKEW] [FIRST] [LAST] [HARMONIC] [GEOMETRIC] [DEFAULT] [ALL] [NONE] ] [/MISSING = [TABLE] [INCLUDE] [DEPENDENT]]
You can use the MEANS
command to calculate the arithmetic mean and similar
statistics, either for the dataset as a whole or for categories of data.
The simplest form of the command is
MEANS v.
which calculates the mean, count and standard deviation for v. If you specify a grouping variable, for example
MEANS v BY g.
then the means, counts and standard deviations for v after having been grouped by g will be calculated. Instead of the mean, count and standard deviation, you could specify the statistics in which you are interested:
MEANS x y BY g /CELLS = HARMONIC SUM MIN.
This example calculates the harmonic mean, the sum and the minimum values of x and y grouped by g.
The CELLS
subcommand specifies which statistics to calculate. The available statistics
are:
MEAN
The arithmetic mean.
COUNT
The count of the values.
STDDEV
The standard deviation.
SEMEAN
The standard error of the mean.
SUM
The sum of the values.
MIN
The minimum value.
MAX
The maximum value.
RANGE
The difference between the maximum and minimum values.
VARIANCE
The variance.
FIRST
The first value in the category.
LAST
The last value in the category.
SKEW
The skewness.
SESKEW
The standard error of the skewness.
KURT
The kurtosis
SEKURT
The standard error of the kurtosis.
HARMONIC
The harmonic mean.
GEOMETRIC
The geometric mean.
In addition, three special keywords are recognized:
DEFAULT
This is the same as MEAN
COUNT
STDDEV
.
ALL
All of the above statistics will be calculated.
NONE
No statistics will be calculated (only a summary will be shown).
More than one table can be specified in a single command. Each table is separated by a ‘/’. For example
MEANS TABLES = c d e BY x /a b BY x y /f BY y BY z.
has three tables (the ‘TABLE =’ is optional). The first table has three dependent variables c, d and e and a single categorical variable x. The second table has two dependent variables a and b, and two categorical variables x and y. The third table has a single dependent variables f and a categorical variable formed by the combination of y and z.
By default values are omitted from the analysis only if missing values
(either system missing or user missing)
for any of the variables directly involved in their calculation are
encountered.
This behaviour can be modified with the /MISSING
subcommand.
Three options are possible: TABLE
, INCLUDE
and DEPENDENT
.
/MISSING = TABLE
causes cases to be dropped if any variable is missing
in the table specification currently being processed, regardless of
whether it is needed to calculate the statistic.
/MISSING = INCLUDE
says that user missing values, either in the dependent
variables or in the categorical variables should be taken at their face
value, and not excluded.
/MISSING = DEPENDENT
says that user missing values, in the dependent
variables should be taken at their face value, however cases which
have user missing values for the categorical variables should be omitted
from the calculation.
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