Příručka pro GTypist

Table of Contents

GNU Typist - psaní všemi deseti

Toto je manuál pro GNU Typist (verze 2.9.3, 17 December 2012), program určený k výuce psaní na klávesnici pro několik jazyků a různé klávesové rozložení.

Copyright © 1998, 1999, 2000, 2001, 2002, 2003, 2004, 2008, 2011, 2012 Free Software Foundation, Inc.

Permission is granted to copy, distribute and/or modify this document under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License, Version 1.3 or any later version published by the Free Software Foundation; with no Invariant Sections, with no Front-Cover Texts, and with no Back-Cover Texts. A copy of the license is included in the section entitled “GNU Free Documentation License”.

GNU Typist je interaktivní výukový program, který vám pomůže osvojit si principy správného psaní na klávesnici všemi deseti prsty. Obsahuje několik lekcí pro různé typy klávesnic a různé jazyky. (Mezi nimi nechybí ani čeština.) Lekce pro gtypist jsou napsány ve snadno pochopitelném skriptovacím jazyku, takže je mohou uživatelé modifkovat či vytvářet nové. Pokud zadáte parametr cs.typ, spustíte lekce v češtině zaměřené na českou klávesnici.


Distribuce

GNU Typist (či gtypist) je svobodný software; to znamená, že jej může za určitých podmínek každý svobodně používat a dále redistribuovat. Přesné podmínky můžete nalézt v GNU General Public Lincense, kterou jste obdrželi s tímto programem a která následuje tuto sekci.

GNU Typist můžete získat od přítele nebo z Internetu:

Hlavní distribuční web:

ftp://ftp.gnu.org/gnu/gtypist/

Domovská stránka

http://www.gnu.org/software/gtypist/gtypist.cs.html

On-line manuál (aktualizace mezi vydáním jednotlivých verzí)

http://www.gnu.org/software/gtypist/doc/

Stránka vývojářů (CVS repozitář, úlohy, podpora...)

http://savannah.gnu.org/projects/gtypist/

Stažení GNU Typist (zdrojové kódy, binární verze, tutoriály)

http://gtypist.free.fr/

Obrázky

http://gtypist.free.fr/screenshots/


GNU GENERAL PUBLIC LICENSE

Version 3, 29 June 2007
Copyright © 2007 Free Software Foundation, Inc. http://fsf.org/

Everyone is permitted to copy and distribute verbatim copies of this
license document, but changing it is not allowed.

Preamble

The GNU General Public License is a free, copyleft license for software and other kinds of works.

The licenses for most software and other practical works are designed to take away your freedom to share and change the works. By contrast, the GNU General Public License is intended to guarantee your freedom to share and change all versions of a program—to make sure it remains free software for all its users. We, the Free Software Foundation, use the GNU General Public License for most of our software; it applies also to any other work released this way by its authors. You can apply it to your programs, too.

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  16. Disclaimer of Warranty.

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  18. Interpretation of Sections 15 and 16.

    If the disclaimer of warranty and limitation of liability provided above cannot be given local legal effect according to their terms, reviewing courts shall apply local law that most closely approximates an absolute waiver of all civil liability in connection with the Program, unless a warranty or assumption of liability accompanies a copy of the Program in return for a fee.

END OF TERMS AND CONDITIONS

How to Apply These Terms to Your New Programs

If you develop a new program, and you want it to be of the greatest possible use to the public, the best way to achieve this is to make it free software which everyone can redistribute and change under these terms.

To do so, attach the following notices to the program. It is safest to attach them to the start of each source file to most effectively state the exclusion of warranty; and each file should have at least the “copyright” line and a pointer to where the full notice is found.

one line to give the program's name and a brief idea of what it does.
Copyright (C) year name of author

This program is free software: you can redistribute it and/or modify
it under the terms of the GNU General Public License as published by
the Free Software Foundation, either version 3 of the License, or (at
your option) any later version.

This program is distributed in the hope that it will be useful, but
WITHOUT ANY WARRANTY; without even the implied warranty of
MERCHANTABILITY or FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE.  See the GNU
General Public License for more details.

You should have received a copy of the GNU General Public License
along with this program.  If not, see http://www.gnu.org/licenses/.

Also add information on how to contact you by electronic and paper mail.

If the program does terminal interaction, make it output a short notice like this when it starts in an interactive mode:

program Copyright (C) year name of author
This program comes with ABSOLUTELY NO WARRANTY; for details type ‘show w’.
This is free software, and you are welcome to redistribute it
under certain conditions; type ‘show c’ for details.

The hypothetical commands ‘show w’ and ‘show c’ should show the appropriate parts of the General Public License. Of course, your program’s commands might be different; for a GUI interface, you would use an “about box”.

You should also get your employer (if you work as a programmer) or school, if any, to sign a “copyright disclaimer” for the program, if necessary. For more information on this, and how to apply and follow the GNU GPL, see http://www.gnu.org/licenses/.

The GNU General Public License does not permit incorporating your program into proprietary programs. If your program is a subroutine library, you may consider it more useful to permit linking proprietary applications with the library. If this is what you want to do, use the GNU Lesser General Public License instead of this License. But first, please read http://www.gnu.org/philosophy/why-not-lgpl.html.


1 Úvod

GNU Typist je interaktivní program pro výuku psaní na klávesnici všemi deseti prsty. Obsahuje výukové lekce, cvičení i rychlostní testy. Program je určen pro používání na terminálech bez grafiky. Byl zkompilován na GNU/Linuxu, Unixech (Aix, OpenBSD) a také na DOS/Windows (DOS 6.22, Windows 98, Windows NT).

Program načítá lekce vytvořené ve snadno pochopitelném skritpovacím jazyku. Je distribuován spolu s několika dobrými a kompletními lekcemi, které můžete používat, modifikovat, nebo psát nové. (see Vytvořte nové lekce see Příkazy skriptovacího jazyka).

Pokud nespecifikujete příslušný soubor lekcí na příkazové řádce, bude použit gtypist.typ. (Podrobnosti o cestě k souborům naleznete v sekci see Proměnné prostředí).

Na horní řádce obrazovky naleznete banner programu. Na nejspodnější řádce se potom nalézají různé zprávy, dotazy a další informace o stavu. Řádky mezi tím jsou používány pro tutoriály, cvičení a rychlostní testy.

V programu jsou dva typy cvičení: drilové a rychlostní testy.

V drilových vám gtypist zobrazí text v každé druhé řádce obrazovky a počká, až uživatel správně opíše text do zbývajících prázdných řádek. Chybně zadaná písmena jsou indikována obráceným ^, nebo >, pokud je špatně zadaným znakem konec řádky. Na konci cvičení program spočítá skutečnou a užitečnou rychlost v jednotkách slov za minutu. Pokud jste udělali příliš mnoho chyb, cvičení se spustí znova.

Není dovoleno zpětně opravovat špatně zadané znaky.

V rychlostních testech zobrazuje gtypist text na obrazovce a čeká, až ho uživatel přepíše tím samým. Chyby se zobrazují a na konci testu se spočítá opravdová a užitečná rychlost ve WPM (words per minute – slova za minutu). Pokud se vyskytlo příliš mnoho chyb, test se spustí znovu. Opravování chyb je povoleno, ale takto opravené chyby budou stejně započítány do hodnocení.

Jestli jste již udělali příliš mnoho chyb, můžete použít ESC a test se spustí znovu. Kdykoliv dokončíte lekci, butete dotázáni, zda ji chcete opakovat.

GNU Typist obsahuje i cvičení zaměřené pouze na procvičování (jak drilová cvičení, tak rychlostní testy), která možná nebudete muset vůbec opakovat. Nechceme ale říkat, zda se to týká zrovna vás, takže se stejně budete muset snažit, jak nejlépe umíte ;-)

Ve výsledcích rychlosti znamená jedno slovo pět znaků, takže hrubé WPM je počet znaků v testovací oblasti dělené pěti a znovu dělené počtem uplynulých minut. Co se týče faktoru chyby, který WPM ovlivňuje, každá chyba je počítaná za špatné slovo.


2 Spouštění

Syntaxe pro spuštění GNU Typist je:

gtypist [ parametry... ] [ script_file ]

Podporované parametry jsou popsány níže (pozor, dlouhé tvary nejsou v DOSu podporovány).

-e, --error-max

Udává maximální procento chybovosti při zadávání textu. Defaultní hodnota je 3,0. Musí být mezi 0,0 a 100,0. Existuje i příkaz skriptovacího jazyka (see Příkazy skriptovacího jazyka), který to může změnit, pokud je zadané číslo menší. Pro procvičovací lekce je tato hodnota ale ignorována.

-n, --notimer

Normálně GNU Typist zobrazuje rychlost ve WPM (slova za minutu) jak po drilových cvičeních, tak po rychlostních zkouškách. Lekce jsou ale zřejmě napsané pro program, který zobrazoval rychlost pouze při rychlostních testech. Abyste gtypist přinutili k takovémuto chování odpovídajícímu lekcím, tedy aby nezobrazoval počet slov za minutu u drilových testů, použijte tento parametr.

-t, --term-cursor

gtypist si vytváří vlastní obdélníčkový kurzor, aby pomohl uživateli rozlišit mezi kurzorem a označením chyb v inverzních barvách. Tímto parametrem takové chování potlačíme a donutíme program používat standardní kurzor terminálu.

-f, --curs-flash

Hodnota tohoto parametru nastavuje blikání obdélníkového kurzoru v desetinách sekund. Hodnota 0 znamená, že kurzor nebude blikat. Standardní hodnota je 10, maximální 512. Toto je ignorováno, pokud bylo nastaveno -t nebo –term-cursor.

-c, --colo[u]rs

Normálně používá gtypist pouze normální a převrácené monochromatické barvy. Tímto parametrem můžete nastavit barvu popředí a pozadí na terminálech, které podporují barevný výstup. Barvy jsou specifikovány jako dvě čísla mezi 0 a 7. Kódy barev od 0 do 7 znamenají barvu černou, červenou, zelenou, žlutou, modrou, magenta a modrozelenou a bílou. Defalutní nastavení je 7,0 – bílá na černém pozadí. Toto nastavení je ignorováno pokud terminál nepodporuje barvy.

-s, --silent

Kdykoliv narazí gtypist na chybu, zapípá. Tímto nastavením můžete zvukový signál potlačit.

-q, --quiet

To samé jako -s, –silent.

-w, --wpmode

Tímto donutíte gtypist určitým způsobem napodobovat textový procesor, kdykoliv spouští nějaké cvičení. Mezeru na konci řádku bude brát jako korektní znak a přejde na další řádku. Pokud stisknete na konci řádky ENTER, přesune vás na následující odstavec. Vícenádobné mezery stlačí na jedinou a bude přeskakovat rozdělovací čárky na konci řádek.

-l, --start-label

Tento parametr udává návěstí ve skriptovém souboru, kde gtyping začne (pro informace o návěstí viz níže skriptovací jazyk). Pokud není start_label definováno, začne se od začátku souboru.

-k, --no-skip

Zakáže uživateli přeskakovat lekce nebo z nich utíkat pomocí ESC ESC.

Pokud chcete spouštět gtypist ve svém rodném jazyce, musíte také vhodně nastavit proměnnou prostředí LANG See Proměnné prostředí.

Příklady:

Ke spuštění standardního anglického souboru lekcí gtypist.typ:
gtypist

Ke spuštění českých lekcí:
gtypist cs.typ

Donutíme gtypist, aby hledal lekci bar.typ v nestandardním adresáři /home/foo:
export GTYPIST_PATH="/home/foo" gtypist bar.typ

Abychom mohli spustit lekci test.typ v adresáři /tmp, a začít na návěstí TEST1, v tichém módu, za použití standardního kurzoru terminálu, zadáme toto:
gtypist -t -q -l TEST1 /tmp/test.typ


3 Dostupné lekce

S GNU Typist jsou dodávány tyto lekce :

cs.typ

Soubor QWERTY kurzů v češtině (+ numerická klávesnice)

q.typ

Rychlý QWERTY kurz v angličtině

r.typ

Dlouhý QWERTY kurz v angličtině

t.typ

QWERTY výuka v angličtině

v.typ

Ještě další QWERTY v angličtině

w.typ

QWERTY opakování v angličtině

d.typ

Výuka klávesnice Dvorak v angličtině

m.typ

Drilová cvičení v angličtině

s.typ

Rychlostní testy v angličtině

n.typ

Numerická klávesnice v angličtině

gtypist.typ

Soubor všech předchozích anglických lekcí

esp.typ

Kurz QWERTY ve španělštině

kt*.typ

Toto jsou standardní lekce z Ktouch 1.0 (http://ktouch.sourceforge.net), které byly do formátu gtypistu zkonvertovány s použitím tools/ktouch2typ.pl.

Tyto soubory jsou ktde.typ (german.ktouch), kten.typ (english.ktouch), ktfr.typ (french.ktouch), ktlecten.typ (lecture_en.ktouch), ktno.typ (norwegian.ktouch) and ktnumber.typ (number.ktouch).

ttde.typ

To je německá lekce pro tipptrainer (http://www.pingos.schulnetz.org/tipptrainer), která byla zkonvertována s pomocí tools/tt2typ.pl.

Pokud v těchto lekcích najdete chyby, pokud nějakou upravíte, nebo pokud napíšete lekci novou, prosím vydejte ji pod svobodnou licencí a řekněte nám o tom – můžete nám napsat mail na bug-gtypist@gnu.org.


4 Používání typefortune

‘typefortune’ vám dovolí cvičit s textem z ‘fortune’.

SYNTAX: typefortune [-dslh] [-n počet] [-o <parametry_gtp>]

-d

Použije D: místo S:.

-s

Spustí fortune s -s.

-l

Spustí fortune s -l.

-n <počet>

Cvičení <počet> fortunes.

-o <gtypist_options>

Předej gtypistu nastavení ve formě option (nastavení přepínače, např. -o word-processor), option,value (nastavení hodnoty, např. -o e,1.0) kde option je jméno nastavení (zkrácené či dlouhé) s tím, že všechny úvodní pomlčky jsou odstraněny. Pokud uvádíte více než jeden parametr, musíte je uvést v apostrofech: typefortune -n 3 -o 'silent e,5 word-processor'.


5 Příkazy skriptovacího jazyka

GNU Typist načítá data pro jednotlivé lekce ze skriptového souboru. Každá řádka s výjimkou komentářů a prázdných řádek má následující formát

znak_příkazu : data_příkazu

Znak příkazu je jeden znak, který určuje, co bude gtypist dělat, a data_příkazu jsou data, se kterými bude operovat. Pokud je znak_příkazu mezera, znamená to, že řádka je pokračováním předchozího příkazu. Oddělovač ’:’ musí být vždy v druhém sloupci řádky.

Řádky komentářů jsou řádky začínající znakem ’#’ a stejně jako prázdné řádky jsou ignorovány. Komentáře mohou mít jakýkoliv formát, jediným požadavkem je, aby začínaly ’#’. Všechny ostatní řádky musí mít výše uvedený formát.

Abyste se seznámili se základy, měli byste si přečíst See Úvod.

Následující výčet je seznamem platných hodnot znaků_příkazu:

B

Tento příkaz smaže celou obrazovku. Pokud má nějaká data_příkazu, ta jsou zobrazena v horním jednořádkovém banneru a zůstanou tam až do zavolání následujícího příkazu B. Tento příkaz nesmí pokračovat na následující řádce.

T

T znamená tutoriál. Příkaz může zpracovávat více řádek a to až do zaplnění obrazovky. Každá řádka příkazu je prostě vytištěna na obrazovku. Příkaz smaže obrazovku pod horním jednořádkovým bannerem. Když je zobrazování hotovo, program čeká na uživatelský vstup. Toho je také využíváno pro tisk položek menu.

*

Hvědička znamená návěstí v souboru. Návěstí může být cílem pro příkazy G, Y, N nebo F. Návěstí mohou zahrnovat jakékoliv znaky včetně mezer a jsou jednořádkovým příkazem. Mezery na konci návěstí jsou ignorovány.

I

Tento příkaz zobrazí stručné instrukce k drilovému či rychlostnímu testu. Je dovoleno použít pouze dvou řádek. Narozdíl od příkazu T se před pokračováním nečeká na stisk klávesy. Značka by tedy měla být vždy následována cvičením. Maže plochu obrazovky pro cvičení, v tomto ohledu se chová jako dvouřádkové T.

M

Tento příkaz je nový způsob, jak vytvářet menu (od gtypistu 2.7) Zde je jeho syntax:

M: [UP=(LABEL|_EXIT)] "název"
 :LABEL1 "popis1"
 :LABEL2 "popis2"
 ...

UP-label označuje návěstí otcovského uzlu, které definuje poslední položku menu (pokud je to _EXIT, pak ,,Konec”, jinak bude poslední položka v menu ,,Zpět” skákat na zadaný uzel). Tento argument je volitelný. Pokud není přítomen, použije se defaultní _EXIT.

Název, stejně jako ostatní popis, musí být v uvozovkách (""). Navíc musí mezi UP=XXX a "název" či mezi návěstími a jejich popisem být alespoň jedna mezera.

Příklady hledejte v existujících lekcích.

D,d

Tento příkaz se nazývá ,,drill” a je jedním ze dvou typů cvičení.

Je to víceřádkový příkaz. Text je zobrazován v každé druhé řádce a uživatel jej opisuje do prostoru mezi nimi. To je důvod, proč nemůžete použít více jak 11 řádek obsahu.

Tento typ cvičení by měl být používán pouze pro cvičení prstů (např. jfjfjjf), ale může obsahovat i celá slova a věty, když jsou využívány k procvičování (písmeno, slabika) a nejedná se o opravdové texty.

Verze s malým písmenem d znamená ,,pouze procvičování”, uživatel nebude muset cvičení opakovat ani pokud udělal příliš mnoho chyb.

S,s

To je druhý typ cvičení: ,,rychlostní test”.

Jedná se o víceřádkový příkaz. Zobrazuje svůj obsah na obrazovce a čeká, až jej uživatel přepíše tím samým textem. Proto můžete na jeden rychlostní test použít až 22 řádek. V tomto druhu testu můžete své chyby opravovat, počítadlo ve statistice je ale stále bude počítat jako chyby.

Rychlostní testy by měly být používány pro opisování kompletních vět, textů a souborů (např. dopis, texinfo, html či tex soubor).

Verze s malým písmenem s je rychlostní test ,,pouze k procvičování”, což znamená, že ani uživatel, který udělá příliš mnoho chyb, jej nebude muset opakovat.

G

Toto přinutí gtypist přeskočit na návěstí v datech_příkazu a pokračovat ve vyvolávání skriptu odtud. Jde o jednořádkový příkaz.

Q

Tento příkaz vypíše svůj text na stavové řádce a před pokračováním čeká na klávesu Y nebo N. Ostatní znaky jsou ignorovány.

Jako vedlejší efekt můžete také stisknout F-klávesu, pokud je potřeba (nyní by již neměl být tento příkaz používán pro vytváření promptu pro menu – použijte raději příkaz M).

Y

Y Je podobné G, s výjimkou toho, že příkaz skoku je vyvolán pouze pokud odpověď na předchozí otázku Q byla Y.

N

N je podobné G, s výjimkou toho, že příkaz skoku je vyvolán pouze pokud odpověď na předchozí otázku Q byla N.

K

Tento příkaz by již neměl být používán, použijte M Váže funkční klávesu na návěstí. Formát dat následujících tento příkaz musí být Fklávesa:návěstí, kde Fklávesa je číslo funkční klávesy mezi 1 a 12 a návěstí je místo, kam se přesunout po stisku této klávesy. Hodnota návěstí NULL klávesu znefunkční.

Pokud na terminálu nejsou dostupné funkční klávesy, mohou být místo jich použity klávesy 19 pro F1F9, 0 pro F10, A pro F11 a S pro F12.

Jinou alternativou pro F1F12 jsou kombinace: Ctrl-Q, Ctrl-W, Ctrl-E, Ctrl-R, Ctrl-T, Ctrl-Z, Ctrl-U, Ctrl-I, Ctrl-O, Ctrl-P, Ctrl-A a Ctrl-S.

To je také užitečné, pokud jsou funkční klávesy odchytávány jinými programy (například window managery).

E

Tento příkaz je používán pro nastavení nejvyššího procenta chyb dovoleného pro úspěšné absolvování následující lekce (E:<value>%) či pro všechny lekce až do dalšího výskytu E (E:<value>%*).

Pokud je nastaveno --error-max/-e, tak bute tento příkaz platit pouze tehdy, pokud je přísnější než hodnota specifikovaná na příkazové řádce.

data_příkazu se skládají z hodnoty (mezi 0.0 a 100.0) následované znakem ’%’ (toto je požadováno, aby byly skripty lépe čitelné). Existuje speciální hodnota default nebo Default, která nastavuje maximální procento chyb zpět na defaultní hodnotu.

F

Tento příkaz může být použit k nastavení návěstí (v data_příkazu), kam bude uživatel muset jít, pokud úspěšně neprojde cvičením.

Tento příkaz se většinou vztahuje pouze k následujícímu cvičení, ale pokud na konec dat_příkazu vložíte ’*’, můžete jej tak učinit trvale platným.

Pokud je návěstí NULL, pak příkaz návěstí resetuje.

X

Tento příkaz přinutí gtypist vyskočit. Je to jednořádkový příkaz. Jakékoliv data_příkazu jsou ignorována. Jiný způsob, jakým může dojít k opuštění programu, je když gtypist dojde na konec souboru (takže tam můžete také umístit návěstí a odkazovat na něj příkazem G)

Prohlédněte si malý příklad skriptu, který demonstruje dostupné příkazy (soubor lekce tinydemo.typ):

# Malý příklad
B: Demonstrace tutoriálu
*:LOOP
K:1:QDONE
T:Zde je malý příklad skriptu pro lekci.
 :Lepší příklad můžete nalézt v souboru
 :demo.typ, který je dodáván s GNU Typist.
I:Tady je drilové cvičení: 
D:asdf ghjkl;
I:A tady je zas rychlostní test: 
S:qwe rt yu iop
*:QDONE
Q:Stačilo to již? [Y/N] 
N:LOOP 
X:

6 Vytvořte nové lekce

This section provides guidelines and hints for creating new lessons (or improving existing ones).


6.1 Ktouch lessons

A very easy way to write lessons is to write them in the format that ktouch uses, and then convert it to a gtypist lesson using tools/ktouch2typ.pl. This will take care of writing “jump-tables”, a menu and a bit more.

The ktouch-format consists only of lessons, which are preceded by their names, and separated by blank lines and/or comments (# at the beginning of the line). So the first non-blank, non-comment line in the file is the name of the first lesson, and the first lesson consists of all the lines up to the next comment or blank line. After the separator (comment or blank line) the name of the second lesson follows and so on.

This is an example of a three-lesson ktouch file (excerpts from the first three lessons of german.ktouch):

#
# Deutsche Training-Datei für KTouch
#

Grundstellung
f f f f f f fff fff fff f f f f f f fff fff fff f f f f f f f fff
j j j j j j jjj jjj jjj j j j j j j jjj jjj jjj j j j j j j j jjj
fff jjj fff jjj jjj fff jjj fff fjf fjf fjf jfj jfj jfj fjf jfjfj

Grundstellung
fff jjj ddd kkk aaa ööö fff jjj ddd kkk aaa ööö fff jjj ddd kkkff
fda jkö fda jkö fda jkö fda jkö fda jkö fda jkö fda jkö fda jköfd
s s s s s s sss sss sss s s s s s s sss sss sss s s s s s s s sss

#Zwei wichtige Vokale: e und i
e und i
asdf ölkj fdsa jklö asdf ölkj fdsa jklö asdf ölkj fdsa jklö asdfö
das dass lös fad dass lös als dass las lös fad dass als dass dass
ded ded ded dej dek del deö ded deö del dek dej ded dej dek delde

Once you are done, use tools/ktouch2typ.pl to convert the file: ‘ktouch2typ.pl lesson.ktouch’ converts lesson.ktouch to lesson.typ. It is important that the input file ends in “.ktouch”, otherwise ktouch2typ.pl will skip it. Warning: this will overwrite lesson.typ without asking you !

You can customize the number of lines that ktouch2typ.pl uses for each drill by modifying the relevant variable in tools/ktouch2typ.pl.

Obviously, the disadvantage of this is that you cannot make use of all of gtypist’s features (but the output file is very readable, so you can edit it to use more of gtypist’s features).


6.2 Exercises from fortune

Using gtypist-mode.el you can quickly create lessons with text from the program fortune (or the emacs-internal yow if fortune isn’t available, as is usually the case on Windows).

Once you installed gtypist-mode.el (see Mód Emacsu), you can open a file with it “.typ” extension and run C-c C-f to create a drill (D: by default, use C-u or C-u C-u prefix to change).


6.3 Design patterns for lessons

6.3.1 Structure of lesson files

6.3.2 Patterns for exercises


7 Mód Emacsu

gtypist now comes with an Emacs major-mode which does syntax-highlighting, indentation and has some convenient commands for counting labels, a goto-label-command, inserting properly centered banners, special comments and a bit more.

Copy this file from tools/gtypist-mode.el to wherever you put your local elisp files (e.g. ~/elisp) and put this in your ~/.emacs (adapt path!):

(autoload 'gtypist-mode "~/elisp/gtypist-mode")

or put it in load-path (‘make install’ in the sources should take care of this for GNU Emacs, or if you are using the Debian package, it installs it here for you) and use this instead:

(autoload 'gtypist-mode "gtypist-mode")

and add this to your ~/.emacs:

(setq auto-mode-alist       
      (cons '("\\.typ\\'" . gtypist-mode) auto-mode-alist))

All this is also mentioned in the README-section of tools/gtypist-mode.el.

Here are the commands along with the keybindings:

C-c C-i, M-x gtypist-mode-info

This shows gtypist’s texinfo-documentation, starting at node “Script file commands” (see Příkazy skriptovacího jazyka). With prefix, start at the top-node.

C-c M-g, M-x gtypist-mode-goto-label

Query for a label to go to (with completion).

C-c C-l, M-x gtypist-mode-next-label

This command inserts the next label in a numbered sequence of labels. For example, if you insert

*:SERIES1_L1

and hit C-c C-l then gtypist-mode will insert

*:SERIES1_L2
C-c C-b, M-x gtypist-mode-insert-banner

This command inserts a centered B: command. It’s centered on 66 columns because “gtypist <version>” is in the right corner (prompts for content).

C-c C-r, M-x gtypist-mode-insert-hrule

Inserts a horizontal rule (comment) consisting of dashes.

C-c C-n, M-x gtypist-mode-new-lesson

Insert the comments (header) and a label to start a new lesson (prompts for name).

C-c C-f, M-x gtypist-mode-fortune-to-drill

Insert a drill (D:) with text from fortune (or yow if fortune isn’t available). Use C-u prefix to get S:, and C-u C-u to get d:.

Run C-h m for a complete list of commands and their keybindings.

If you find bugs or if you think there’s something else this mode could do, please write to bug-gtypist@gnu.org.


7.1 Proměnné prostředí

GNU Typist používá tyto proměnné prostředí:

LANG

GNU Typist nabízí Native Language Support (NLS) s podporou knihovny gettext. To znamená, že pokud to váš systém podoruje, můžete si vybrat jazyk, ve kterém chcete zobrazovat hlášky gtypistu. Momentálně jsou k dispozici angličtina, španělština, němčina, finština a čeština. K použití konkrétní NLS je třeba nastavit proměnnou prostředí LANG na odpovídající LL_CC kombinaci, kde LL je dvouznakový kód jazyka podle ISO 639 a CC je dvoupísmenný znak země podle ISO 3166 (např. es_ES pro Španělsko nebo de_DE pro Německo). Na některých systémech budete muset asi nastavit na tu samou hodnotu i proměnnou LANGUAGE.

Pokud chcete přeložit zprávy do nějakého jiného jazyka, nebo pokud chcete něco opravit, ozvěte se prosím na bug-gtypist@gnu.org.

GTYPIST_PATH

Seznam adresářů, kde bude program hledovat skriptovací soubory. Dodržuje standardní způsob specifikace adresářů, to znamená seznam adresářů oddělených znaky ’:’. GNU Typist se při spuštění nejprve pokusí skript spustit z aktuálního adresáře a poté bude hledat v adresářích specifikovaných proměnnou GTYPIST_PATH. Nakonec se podívá do adresáře vytvořeného při instalaci. (Např. /usr/local/share/gtypist nebo /usr/share/gtypist).

TERM

Tuto proměnnou používá knihovna curses k určení obrazovky.

TERMINFO

Tento parametr budete muset změnit, pokud jsou adresáře s terminfo rozdílné na systému, kde byl gtypist kompilován a na systému, kde má fungovat. Například na starších distribucích Slackware je terminfo umístěno v /usr/lib/terminfo. Na RedHat Linuxu je v /usr/share/terminfo. Pokud si program stěžuje na typ terminálu a má správně nastavenou hodnotu TERM, zkuste toto.


7.2 Chyby a opominutí

GNU Typist se nijak nesnaží minimalizovat výstup na terminál. Speciálně blikající kurzor může působit hodně pohybu. Pokud by to byl problém, použijte kurzor terminálu.

V rychlostních testech není možné používat backspace a delete za začátkem nové řádky nebo po klávese TAB. To je kvůli zjednodušení aktualizace obrazovky.

Barevné módy zřejmě nepracují dobře s UnixWare. Někdy nejsou správně zobrazeny převrácené barvy. To se týká některých typů terminálů a xterminálů.


Appendix A Historie GNU Typist


Appendix B GNU Free Documentation License

Version 1.2, November 2002
Copyright © 2000,2001,2002 Free Software Foundation, Inc.
51 Franklin St, Fifth Floor, Boston, MA  02110-1301, USA

Everyone is permitted to copy and distribute verbatim copies
of this license document, but changing it is not allowed.
  1. PREAMBLE

    The purpose of this License is to make a manual, textbook, or other functional and useful document free in the sense of freedom: to assure everyone the effective freedom to copy and redistribute it, with or without modifying it, either commercially or noncommercially. Secondarily, this License preserves for the author and publisher a way to get credit for their work, while not being considered responsible for modifications made by others.

    This License is a kind of “copyleft”, which means that derivative works of the document must themselves be free in the same sense. It complements the GNU General Public License, which is a copyleft license designed for free software.

    We have designed this License in order to use it for manuals for free software, because free software needs free documentation: a free program should come with manuals providing the same freedoms that the software does. But this License is not limited to software manuals; it can be used for any textual work, regardless of subject matter or whether it is published as a printed book. We recommend this License principally for works whose purpose is instruction or reference.

  2. APPLICABILITY AND DEFINITIONS

    This License applies to any manual or other work, in any medium, that contains a notice placed by the copyright holder saying it can be distributed under the terms of this License. Such a notice grants a world-wide, royalty-free license, unlimited in duration, to use that work under the conditions stated herein. The “Document”, below, refers to any such manual or work. Any member of the public is a licensee, and is addressed as “you”. You accept the license if you copy, modify or distribute the work in a way requiring permission under copyright law.

    A “Modified Version” of the Document means any work containing the Document or a portion of it, either copied verbatim, or with modifications and/or translated into another language.

    A “Secondary Section” is a named appendix or a front-matter section of the Document that deals exclusively with the relationship of the publishers or authors of the Document to the Document’s overall subject (or to related matters) and contains nothing that could fall directly within that overall subject. (Thus, if the Document is in part a textbook of mathematics, a Secondary Section may not explain any mathematics.) The relationship could be a matter of historical connection with the subject or with related matters, or of legal, commercial, philosophical, ethical or political position regarding them.

    The “Invariant Sections” are certain Secondary Sections whose titles are designated, as being those of Invariant Sections, in the notice that says that the Document is released under this License. If a section does not fit the above definition of Secondary then it is not allowed to be designated as Invariant. The Document may contain zero Invariant Sections. If the Document does not identify any Invariant Sections then there are none.

    The “Cover Texts” are certain short passages of text that are listed, as Front-Cover Texts or Back-Cover Texts, in the notice that says that the Document is released under this License. A Front-Cover Text may be at most 5 words, and a Back-Cover Text may be at most 25 words.

    A “Transparent” copy of the Document means a machine-readable copy, represented in a format whose specification is available to the general public, that is suitable for revising the document straightforwardly with generic text editors or (for images composed of pixels) generic paint programs or (for drawings) some widely available drawing editor, and that is suitable for input to text formatters or for automatic translation to a variety of formats suitable for input to text formatters. A copy made in an otherwise Transparent file format whose markup, or absence of markup, has been arranged to thwart or discourage subsequent modification by readers is not Transparent. An image format is not Transparent if used for any substantial amount of text. A copy that is not “Transparent” is called “Opaque”.

    Examples of suitable formats for Transparent copies include plain ASCII without markup, Texinfo input format, LaTeX input format, SGML or XML using a publicly available DTD, and standard-conforming simple HTML, PostScript or PDF designed for human modification. Examples of transparent image formats include PNG, XCF and JPG. Opaque formats include proprietary formats that can be read and edited only by proprietary word processors, SGML or XML for which the DTD and/or processing tools are not generally available, and the machine-generated HTML, PostScript or PDF produced by some word processors for output purposes only.

    The “Title Page” means, for a printed book, the title page itself, plus such following pages as are needed to hold, legibly, the material this License requires to appear in the title page. For works in formats which do not have any title page as such, “Title Page” means the text near the most prominent appearance of the work’s title, preceding the beginning of the body of the text.

    A section “Entitled XYZ” means a named subunit of the Document whose title either is precisely XYZ or contains XYZ in parentheses following text that translates XYZ in another language. (Here XYZ stands for a specific section name mentioned below, such as “Acknowledgements”, “Dedications”, “Endorsements”, or “History”.) To “Preserve the Title” of such a section when you modify the Document means that it remains a section “Entitled XYZ” according to this definition.

    The Document may include Warranty Disclaimers next to the notice which states that this License applies to the Document. These Warranty Disclaimers are considered to be included by reference in this License, but only as regards disclaiming warranties: any other implication that these Warranty Disclaimers may have is void and has no effect on the meaning of this License.

  3. VERBATIM COPYING

    You may copy and distribute the Document in any medium, either commercially or noncommercially, provided that this License, the copyright notices, and the license notice saying this License applies to the Document are reproduced in all copies, and that you add no other conditions whatsoever to those of this License. You may not use technical measures to obstruct or control the reading or further copying of the copies you make or distribute. However, you may accept compensation in exchange for copies. If you distribute a large enough number of copies you must also follow the conditions in section 3.

    You may also lend copies, under the same conditions stated above, and you may publicly display copies.

  4. COPYING IN QUANTITY

    If you publish printed copies (or copies in media that commonly have printed covers) of the Document, numbering more than 100, and the Document’s license notice requires Cover Texts, you must enclose the copies in covers that carry, clearly and legibly, all these Cover Texts: Front-Cover Texts on the front cover, and Back-Cover Texts on the back cover. Both covers must also clearly and legibly identify you as the publisher of these copies. The front cover must present the full title with all words of the title equally prominent and visible. You may add other material on the covers in addition. Copying with changes limited to the covers, as long as they preserve the title of the Document and satisfy these conditions, can be treated as verbatim copying in other respects.

    If the required texts for either cover are too voluminous to fit legibly, you should put the first ones listed (as many as fit reasonably) on the actual cover, and continue the rest onto adjacent pages.

    If you publish or distribute Opaque copies of the Document numbering more than 100, you must either include a machine-readable Transparent copy along with each Opaque copy, or state in or with each Opaque copy a computer-network location from which the general network-using public has access to download using public-standard network protocols a complete Transparent copy of the Document, free of added material. If you use the latter option, you must take reasonably prudent steps, when you begin distribution of Opaque copies in quantity, to ensure that this Transparent copy will remain thus accessible at the stated location until at least one year after the last time you distribute an Opaque copy (directly or through your agents or retailers) of that edition to the public.

    It is requested, but not required, that you contact the authors of the Document well before redistributing any large number of copies, to give them a chance to provide you with an updated version of the Document.

  5. MODIFICATIONS

    You may copy and distribute a Modified Version of the Document under the conditions of sections 2 and 3 above, provided that you release the Modified Version under precisely this License, with the Modified Version filling the role of the Document, thus licensing distribution and modification of the Modified Version to whoever possesses a copy of it. In addition, you must do these things in the Modified Version:

    1. Use in the Title Page (and on the covers, if any) a title distinct from that of the Document, and from those of previous versions (which should, if there were any, be listed in the History section of the Document). You may use the same title as a previous version if the original publisher of that version gives permission.
    2. List on the Title Page, as authors, one or more persons or entities responsible for authorship of the modifications in the Modified Version, together with at least five of the principal authors of the Document (all of its principal authors, if it has fewer than five), unless they release you from this requirement.
    3. State on the Title page the name of the publisher of the Modified Version, as the publisher.
    4. Preserve all the copyright notices of the Document.
    5. Add an appropriate copyright notice for your modifications adjacent to the other copyright notices.
    6. Include, immediately after the copyright notices, a license notice giving the public permission to use the Modified Version under the terms of this License, in the form shown in the Addendum below.
    7. Preserve in that license notice the full lists of Invariant Sections and required Cover Texts given in the Document’s license notice.
    8. Include an unaltered copy of this License.
    9. Preserve the section Entitled “History”, Preserve its Title, and add to it an item stating at least the title, year, new authors, and publisher of the Modified Version as given on the Title Page. If there is no section Entitled “History” in the Document, create one stating the title, year, authors, and publisher of the Document as given on its Title Page, then add an item describing the Modified Version as stated in the previous sentence.
    10. Preserve the network location, if any, given in the Document for public access to a Transparent copy of the Document, and likewise the network locations given in the Document for previous versions it was based on. These may be placed in the “History” section. You may omit a network location for a work that was published at least four years before the Document itself, or if the original publisher of the version it refers to gives permission.
    11. For any section Entitled “Acknowledgements” or “Dedications”, Preserve the Title of the section, and preserve in the section all the substance and tone of each of the contributor acknowledgements and/or dedications given therein.
    12. Preserve all the Invariant Sections of the Document, unaltered in their text and in their titles. Section numbers or the equivalent are not considered part of the section titles.
    13. Delete any section Entitled “Endorsements”. Such a section may not be included in the Modified Version.
    14. Do not retitle any existing section to be Entitled “Endorsements” or to conflict in title with any Invariant Section.
    15. Preserve any Warranty Disclaimers.

    If the Modified Version includes new front-matter sections or appendices that qualify as Secondary Sections and contain no material copied from the Document, you may at your option designate some or all of these sections as invariant. To do this, add their titles to the list of Invariant Sections in the Modified Version’s license notice. These titles must be distinct from any other section titles.

    You may add a section Entitled “Endorsements”, provided it contains nothing but endorsements of your Modified Version by various parties—for example, statements of peer review or that the text has been approved by an organization as the authoritative definition of a standard.

    You may add a passage of up to five words as a Front-Cover Text, and a passage of up to 25 words as a Back-Cover Text, to the end of the list of Cover Texts in the Modified Version. Only one passage of Front-Cover Text and one of Back-Cover Text may be added by (or through arrangements made by) any one entity. If the Document already includes a cover text for the same cover, previously added by you or by arrangement made by the same entity you are acting on behalf of, you may not add another; but you may replace the old one, on explicit permission from the previous publisher that added the old one.

    The author(s) and publisher(s) of the Document do not by this License give permission to use their names for publicity for or to assert or imply endorsement of any Modified Version.

  6. COMBINING DOCUMENTS

    You may combine the Document with other documents released under this License, under the terms defined in section 4 above for modified versions, provided that you include in the combination all of the Invariant Sections of all of the original documents, unmodified, and list them all as Invariant Sections of your combined work in its license notice, and that you preserve all their Warranty Disclaimers.

    The combined work need only contain one copy of this License, and multiple identical Invariant Sections may be replaced with a single copy. If there are multiple Invariant Sections with the same name but different contents, make the title of each such section unique by adding at the end of it, in parentheses, the name of the original author or publisher of that section if known, or else a unique number. Make the same adjustment to the section titles in the list of Invariant Sections in the license notice of the combined work.

    In the combination, you must combine any sections Entitled “History” in the various original documents, forming one section Entitled “History”; likewise combine any sections Entitled “Acknowledgements”, and any sections Entitled “Dedications”. You must delete all sections Entitled “Endorsements.”

  7. COLLECTIONS OF DOCUMENTS

    You may make a collection consisting of the Document and other documents released under this License, and replace the individual copies of this License in the various documents with a single copy that is included in the collection, provided that you follow the rules of this License for verbatim copying of each of the documents in all other respects.

    You may extract a single document from such a collection, and distribute it individually under this License, provided you insert a copy of this License into the extracted document, and follow this License in all other respects regarding verbatim copying of that document.

  8. AGGREGATION WITH INDEPENDENT WORKS

    A compilation of the Document or its derivatives with other separate and independent documents or works, in or on a volume of a storage or distribution medium, is called an “aggregate” if the copyright resulting from the compilation is not used to limit the legal rights of the compilation’s users beyond what the individual works permit. When the Document is included in an aggregate, this License does not apply to the other works in the aggregate which are not themselves derivative works of the Document.

    If the Cover Text requirement of section 3 is applicable to these copies of the Document, then if the Document is less than one half of the entire aggregate, the Document’s Cover Texts may be placed on covers that bracket the Document within the aggregate, or the electronic equivalent of covers if the Document is in electronic form. Otherwise they must appear on printed covers that bracket the whole aggregate.

  9. TRANSLATION

    Translation is considered a kind of modification, so you may distribute translations of the Document under the terms of section 4. Replacing Invariant Sections with translations requires special permission from their copyright holders, but you may include translations of some or all Invariant Sections in addition to the original versions of these Invariant Sections. You may include a translation of this License, and all the license notices in the Document, and any Warranty Disclaimers, provided that you also include the original English version of this License and the original versions of those notices and disclaimers. In case of a disagreement between the translation and the original version of this License or a notice or disclaimer, the original version will prevail.

    If a section in the Document is Entitled “Acknowledgements”, “Dedications”, or “History”, the requirement (section 4) to Preserve its Title (section 1) will typically require changing the actual title.

  10. TERMINATION

    You may not copy, modify, sublicense, or distribute the Document except as expressly provided for under this License. Any other attempt to copy, modify, sublicense or distribute the Document is void, and will automatically terminate your rights under this License. However, parties who have received copies, or rights, from you under this License will not have their licenses terminated so long as such parties remain in full compliance.

  11. FUTURE REVISIONS OF THIS LICENSE

    The Free Software Foundation may publish new, revised versions of the GNU Free Documentation License from time to time. Such new versions will be similar in spirit to the present version, but may differ in detail to address new problems or concerns. See http://www.gnu.org/copyleft/.

    Each version of the License is given a distinguishing version number. If the Document specifies that a particular numbered version of this License “or any later version” applies to it, you have the option of following the terms and conditions either of that specified version or of any later version that has been published (not as a draft) by the Free Software Foundation. If the Document does not specify a version number of this License, you may choose any version ever published (not as a draft) by the Free Software Foundation.

ADDENDUM: How to use this License for your documents

To use this License in a document you have written, include a copy of the License in the document and put the following copyright and license notices just after the title page:

  Copyright (C)  year  your name.
  Permission is granted to copy, distribute and/or modify this document
  under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License, Version 1.2
  or any later version published by the Free Software Foundation;
  with no Invariant Sections, no Front-Cover Texts, and no Back-Cover
  Texts.  A copy of the license is included in the section entitled ``GNU
  Free Documentation License''.

If you have Invariant Sections, Front-Cover Texts and Back-Cover Texts, replace the “with…Texts.” line with this:

    with the Invariant Sections being list their titles, with
    the Front-Cover Texts being list, and with the Back-Cover Texts
    being list.

If you have Invariant Sections without Cover Texts, or some other combination of the three, merge those two alternatives to suit the situation.

If your document contains nontrivial examples of program code, we recommend releasing these examples in parallel under your choice of free software license, such as the GNU General Public License, to permit their use in free software.