English [en]   čeština [cs]   Español [es]  

Příručka pro GTypist

Table of Contents

GNU Typist - psaní všemi deseti

Toto je manuál pro GNU Typist (verze 2.9.3, 17 December 2012), program určený k výuce psaní na klávesnici pro několik jazyků a různé klávesové rozložení.

Copyright © 1998, 1999, 2000, 2001, 2002, 2003, 2004, 2008, 2011, 2012 Free Software Foundation, Inc.

Permission is granted to copy, distribute and/or modify this document under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License, Version 1.3 or any later version published by the Free Software Foundation; with no Invariant Sections, with no Front-Cover Texts, and with no Back-Cover Texts. A copy of the license is included in the section entitled “GNU Free Documentation License”.

GNU Typist je interaktivní výukový program, který vám pomůže osvojit si principy správného psaní na klávesnici všemi deseti prsty. Obsahuje několik lekcí pro různé typy klávesnic a různé jazyky. (Mezi nimi nechybí ani čeština.) Lekce pro gtypist jsou napsány ve snadno pochopitelném skriptovacím jazyku, takže je mohou uživatelé modifkovat či vytvářet nové. Pokud zadáte parametr cs.typ, spustíte lekce v češtině zaměřené na českou klávesnici.


GNU Typist (či gtypist) je svobodný software; to znamená, že jej může za určitých podmínek každý svobodně používat a dále redistribuovat. Přesné podmínky můžete nalézt v GNU General Public Lincense, kterou jste obdrželi s tímto programem a která následuje tuto sekci.

GNU Typist můžete získat od přítele nebo z Internetu:

Hlavní distribuční web:


Domovská stránka


On-line manuál (aktualizace mezi vydáním jednotlivých verzí)


Stránka vývojářů (CVS repozitář, úlohy, podpora...)


Stažení GNU Typist (zdrojové kódy, binární verze, tutoriály)





Version 3, 29 June 2007
Copyright © 2007 Free Software Foundation, Inc. http://fsf.org/

Everyone is permitted to copy and distribute verbatim copies of this
license document, but changing it is not allowed.


The GNU General Public License is a free, copyleft license for software and other kinds of works.

The licenses for most software and other practical works are designed to take away your freedom to share and change the works. By contrast, the GNU General Public License is intended to guarantee your freedom to share and change all versions of a program—to make sure it remains free software for all its users. We, the Free Software Foundation, use the GNU General Public License for most of our software; it applies also to any other work released this way by its authors. You can apply it to your programs, too.

When we speak of free software, we are referring to freedom, not price. Our General Public Licenses are designed to make sure that you have the freedom to distribute copies of free software (and charge for them if you wish), that you receive source code or can get it if you want it, that you can change the software or use pieces of it in new free programs, and that you know you can do these things.

To protect your rights, we need to prevent others from denying you these rights or asking you to surrender the rights. Therefore, you have certain responsibilities if you distribute copies of the software, or if you modify it: responsibilities to respect the freedom of others.

For example, if you distribute copies of such a program, whether gratis or for a fee, you must pass on to the recipients the same freedoms that you received. You must make sure that they, too, receive or can get the source code. And you must show them these terms so they know their rights.

Developers that use the GNU GPL protect your rights with two steps: (1) assert copyright on the software, and (2) offer you this License giving you legal permission to copy, distribute and/or modify it.

For the developers’ and authors’ protection, the GPL clearly explains that there is no warranty for this free software. For both users’ and authors’ sake, the GPL requires that modified versions be marked as changed, so that their problems will not be attributed erroneously to authors of previous versions.

Some devices are designed to deny users access to install or run modified versions of the software inside them, although the manufacturer can do so. This is fundamentally incompatible with the aim of protecting users’ freedom to change the software. The systematic pattern of such abuse occurs in the area of products for individuals to use, which is precisely where it is most unacceptable. Therefore, we have designed this version of the GPL to prohibit the practice for those products. If such problems arise substantially in other domains, we stand ready to extend this provision to those domains in future versions of the GPL, as needed to protect the freedom of users.

Finally, every program is threatened constantly by software patents. States should not allow patents to restrict development and use of software on general-purpose computers, but in those that do, we wish to avoid the special danger that patents applied to a free program could make it effectively proprietary. To prevent this, the GPL assures that patents cannot be used to render the program non-free.

The precise terms and conditions for copying, distribution and modification follow.


  1. Definitions.

    “This License” refers to version 3 of the GNU General Public License.

    “Copyright” also means copyright-like laws that apply to other kinds of works, such as semiconductor masks.

    “The Program” refers to any copyrightable work licensed under this License. Each licensee is addressed as “you”. “Licensees” and “recipients” may be individuals or organizations.

    To “modify” a work means to copy from or adapt all or part of the work in a fashion requiring copyright permission, other than the making of an exact copy. The resulting work is called a “modified version” of the earlier work or a work “based on” the earlier work.

    A “covered work” means either the unmodified Program or a work based on the Program.

    To “propagate” a work means to do anything with it that, without permission, would make you directly or secondarily liable for infringement under applicable copyright law, except executing it on a computer or modifying a private copy. Propagation includes copying, distribution (with or without modification), making available to the public, and in some countries other activities as well.

    To “convey” a work means any kind of propagation that enables other parties to make or receive copies. Mere interaction with a user through a computer network, with no transfer of a copy, is not conveying.

    An interactive user interface displays “Appropriate Legal Notices” to the extent that it includes a convenient and prominently visible feature that (1) displays an appropriate copyright notice, and (2) tells the user that there is no warranty for the work (except to the extent that warranties are provided), that licensees may convey the work under this License, and how to view a copy of this License. If the interface presents a list of user commands or options, such as a menu, a prominent item in the list meets this criterion.

  2. Source Code.

    The “source code” for a work means the preferred form of the work for making modifications to it. “Object code” means any non-source form of a work.

    A “Standard Interface” means an interface that either is an official standard defined by a recognized standards body, or, in the case of interfaces specified for a particular programming language, one that is widely used among developers working in that language.

    The “System Libraries” of an executable work include anything, other than the work as a whole, that (a) is included in the normal form of packaging a Major Component, but which is not part of that Major Component, and (b) serves only to enable use of the work with that Major Component, or to implement a Standard Interface for which an implementation is available to the public in source code form. A “Major Component”, in this context, means a major essential component (kernel, window system, and so on) of the specific operating system (if any) on which the executable work runs, or a compiler used to produce the work, or an object code interpreter used to run it.

    The “Corresponding Source” for a work in object code form means all the source code needed to generate, install, and (for an executable work) run the object code and to modify the work, including scripts to control those activities. However, it does not include the work’s System Libraries, or general-purpose tools or generally available free programs which are used unmodified in performing those activities but which are not part of the work. For example, Corresponding Source includes interface definition files associated with source files for the work, and the source code for shared libraries and dynamically linked subprograms that the work is specifically designed to require, such as by intimate data communication or control flow between those subprograms and other parts of the work.

    The Corresponding Source need not include anything that users can regenerate automatically from other parts of the Corresponding Source.

    The Corresponding Source for a work in source code form is that same work.

  3. Basic Permissions.

    All rights granted under this License are granted for the term of copyright on the Program, and are irrevocable provided the stated conditions are met. This License explicitly affirms your unlimited permission to run the unmodified Program. The output from running a covered work is covered by this License only if the output, given its content, constitutes a covered work. This License acknowledges your rights of fair use or other equivalent, as provided by copyright law.

    You may make, run and propagate covered works that you do not convey, without conditions so long as your license otherwise remains in force. You may convey covered works to others for the sole purpose of having them make modifications exclusively for you, or provide you with facilities for running those works, provided that you comply with the terms of this License in conveying all material for which you do not control copyright. Those thus making or running the covered works for you must do so exclusively on your behalf, under your direction and control, on terms that prohibit them from making any copies of your copyrighted material outside their relationship with you.

    Conveying under any other circumstances is permitted solely under the conditions stated below. Sublicensing is not allowed; section 10 makes it unnecessary.

  4. Protecting Users’ Legal Rights From Anti-Circumvention Law.

    No covered work shall be deemed part of an effective technological measure under any applicable law fulfilling obligations under article 11 of the WIPO copyright treaty adopted on 20 December 1996, or similar laws prohibiting or restricting circumvention of such measures.

    When you convey a covered work, you waive any legal power to forbid circumvention of technological measures to the extent such circumvention is effected by exercising rights under this License with respect to the covered work, and you disclaim any intention to limit operation or modification of the work as a means of enforcing, against the work’s users, your or third parties’ legal rights to forbid circumvention of technological measures.

  5. Conveying Verbatim Copies.

    You may convey verbatim copies of the Program’s source code as you receive it, in any medium, provided that you conspicuously and appropriately publish on each copy an appropriate copyright notice; keep intact all notices stating that this License and any non-permissive terms added in accord with section 7 apply to the code; keep intact all notices of the absence of any warranty; and give all recipients a copy of this License along with the Program.

    You may charge any price or no price for each copy that you convey, and you may offer support or warranty protection for a fee.

  6. Conveying Modified Source Versions.

    You may convey a work based on the Program, or the modifications to produce it from the Program, in the form of source code under the terms of section 4, provided that you also meet all of these conditions:

    1. The work must carry prominent notices stating that you modified it, and giving a relevant date.
    2. The work must carry prominent notices stating that it is released under this License and any conditions added under section 7. This requirement modifies the requirement in section 4 to “keep intact all notices”.
    3. You must license the entire work, as a whole, under this License to anyone who comes into possession of a copy. This License will therefore apply, along with any applicable section 7 additional terms, to the whole of the work, and all its parts, regardless of how they are packaged. This License gives no permission to license the work in any other way, but it does not invalidate such permission if you have separately received it.
    4. If the work has interactive user interfaces, each must display Appropriate Legal Notices; however, if the Program has interactive interfaces that do not display Appropriate Legal Notices, your work need not make them do so.

    A compilation of a covered work with other separate and independent works, which are not by their nature extensions of the covered work, and which are not combined with it such as to form a larger program, in or on a volume of a storage or distribution medium, is called an “aggregate” if the compilation and its resulting copyright are not used to limit the access or legal rights of the compilation’s users beyond what the individual works permit. Inclusion of a covered work in an aggregate does not cause this License to apply to the other parts of the aggregate.

  7. Conveying Non-Source Forms.

    You may convey a covered work in object code form under the terms of sections 4 and 5, provided that you also convey the machine-readable Corresponding Source under the terms of this License, in one of these ways:

    1. Convey the object code in, or embodied in, a physical product (including a physical distribution medium), accompanied by the Corresponding Source fixed on a durable physical medium customarily used for software interchange.
    2. Convey the object code in, or embodied in, a physical product (including a physical distribution medium), accompanied by a written offer, valid for at least three years and valid for as long as you offer spare parts or customer support for that product model, to give anyone who possesses the object code either (1) a copy of the Corresponding Source for all the software in the product that is covered by this License, on a durable physical medium customarily used for software interchange, for a price no more than your reasonable cost of physically performing this conveying of source, or (2) access to copy the Corresponding Source from a network server at no charge.
    3. Convey individual copies of the object code with a copy of the written offer to provide the Corresponding Source. This alternative is allowed only occasionally and noncommercially, and only if you received the object code with such an offer, in accord with subsection 6b.
    4. Convey the object code by offering access from a designated place (gratis or for a charge), and offer equivalent access to the Corresponding Source in the same way through the same place at no further charge. You need not require recipients to copy the Corresponding Source along with the object code. If the place to copy the object code is a network server, the Corresponding Source may be on a different server (operated by you or a third party) that supports equivalent copying facilities, provided you maintain clear directions next to the object code saying where to find the Corresponding Source. Regardless of what server hosts the Corresponding Source, you remain obligated to ensure that it is available for as long as needed to satisfy these requirements.
    5. Convey the object code using peer-to-peer transmission, provided you inform other peers where the object code and Corresponding Source of the work are being offered to the general public at no charge under subsection 6d.

    A separable portion of the object code, whose source code is excluded from the Corresponding Source as a System Library, need not be included in conveying the object code work.

    A “User Product” is either (1) a “consumer product”, which means any tangible personal property which is normally used for personal, family, or household purposes, or (2) anything designed or sold for incorporation into a dwelling. In determining whether a product is a consumer product, doubtful cases shall be resolved in favor of coverage. For a particular product received by a particular user, “normally used” refers to a typical or common use of that class of product, regardless of the status of the particular user or of the way in which the particular user actually uses, or expects or is expected to use, the product. A product is a consumer product regardless of whether the product has substantial commercial, industrial or non-consumer uses, unless such uses represent the only significant mode of use of the product.

    “Installation Information” for a User Product means any methods, procedures, authorization keys, or other information required to install and execute modified versions of a covered work in that User Product from a modified version of its Corresponding Source. The information must suffice to ensure that the continued functioning of the modified object code is in no case prevented or interfered with solely because modification has been made.

    If you convey an object code work under this section in, or with, or specifically for use in, a User Product, and the conveying occurs as part of a transaction in which the right of possession and use of the User Product is transferred to the recipient in perpetuity or for a fixed term (regardless of how the transaction is characterized), the Corresponding Source conveyed under this section must be accompanied by the Installation Information. But this requirement does not apply if neither you nor any third party retains the ability to install modified object code on the User Product (for example, the work has been installed in ROM).

    The requirement to provide Installation Information does not include a requirement to continue to provide support service, warranty, or updates for a work that has been modified or installed by the recipient, or for the User Product in which it has been modified or installed. Access to a network may be denied when the modification itself materially and adversely affects the operation of the network or violates the rules and protocols for communication across the network.

    Corresponding Source conveyed, and Installation Information provided, in accord with this section must be in a format that is publicly documented (and with an implementation available to the public in source code form), and must require no special password or key for unpacking, reading or copying.

  8. Additional Terms.

    “Additional permissions” are terms that supplement the terms of this License by making exceptions from one or more of its conditions. Additional permissions that are applicable to the entire Program shall be treated as though they were included in this License, to the extent that they are valid under applicable law. If additional permissions apply only to part of the Program, that part may be used separately under those permissions, but the entire Program remains governed by this License without regard to the additional permissions.

    When you convey a copy of a covered work, you may at your option remove any additional permissions from that copy, or from any part of it. (Additional permissions may be written to require their own removal in certain cases when you modify the work.) You may place additional permissions on material, added by you to a covered work, for which you have or can give appropriate copyright permission.

    Notwithstanding any other provision of this License, for material you add to a covered work, you may (if authorized by the copyright holders of that material) supplement the terms of this License with terms:

    1. Disclaiming warranty or limiting liability differently from the terms of sections 15 and 16 of this License; or
    2. Requiring preservation of specified reasonable legal notices or author attributions in that material or in the Appropriate Legal Notices displayed by works containing it; or
    3. Prohibiting misrepresentation of the origin of that material, or requiring that modified versions of such material be marked in reasonable ways as different from the original version; or
    4. Limiting the use for publicity purposes of names of licensors or authors of the material; or
    5. Declining to grant rights under trademark law for use of some trade names, trademarks, or service marks; or
    6. Requiring indemnification of licensors and authors of that material by anyone who conveys the material (or modified versions of it) with contractual assumptions of liability to the recipient, for any liability that these contractual assumptions directly impose on those licensors and authors.

    All other non-permissive additional terms are considered “further restrictions” within the meaning of section 10. If the Program as you received it, or any part of it, contains a notice stating that it is governed by this License along with a term that is a further restriction, you may remove that term. If a license document contains a further restriction but permits relicensing or conveying under this License, you may add to a covered work material governed by the terms of that license document, provided that the further restriction does not survive such relicensing or conveying.

    If you add terms to a covered work in accord with this section, you must place, in the relevant source files, a statement of the additional terms that apply to those files, or a notice indicating where to find the applicable terms.

    Additional terms, permissive or non-permissive, may be stated in the form of a separately written license, or stated as exceptions; the above requirements apply either way.

  9. Termination.

    You may not propagate or modify a covered work except as expressly provided under this License. Any attempt otherwise to propagate or modify it is void, and will automatically terminate your rights under this License (including any patent licenses granted under the third paragraph of section 11).

    However, if you cease all violation of this License, then your license from a particular copyright holder is reinstated (a) provisionally, unless and until the copyright holder explicitly and finally terminates your license, and (b) permanently, if the copyright holder fails to notify you of the violation by some reasonable means prior to 60 days after the cessation.

    Moreover, your license from a particular copyright holder is reinstated permanently if the copyright holder notifies you of the violation by some reasonable means, this is the first time you have received notice of violation of this License (for any work) from that copyright holder, and you cure the violation prior to 30 days after your receipt of the notice.

    Termination of your rights under this section does not terminate the licenses of parties who have received copies or rights from you under this License. If your rights have been terminated and not permanently reinstated, you do not qualify to receive new licenses for the same material under section 10.

  10. Acceptance Not Required for Having Copies.

    You are not required to accept this License in order to receive or run a copy of the Program. Ancillary propagation of a covered work occurring solely as a consequence of using peer-to-peer transmission to receive a copy likewise does not require acceptance. However, nothing other than this License grants you permission to propagate or modify any covered work. These actions infringe copyright if you do not accept this License. Therefore, by modifying or propagating a covered work, you indicate your acceptance of this License to do so.

  11. Automatic Licensing of Downstream Recipients.

    Each time you convey a covered work, the recipient automatically receives a license from the original licensors, to run, modify and propagate that work, subject to this License. You are not responsible for enforcing compliance by third parties with this License.

    An “entity transaction” is a transaction transferring control of an organization, or substantially all assets of one, or subdividing an organization, or merging organizations. If propagation of a covered work results from an entity transaction, each party to that transaction who receives a copy of the work also receives whatever licenses to the work the party’s predecessor in interest had or could give under the previous paragraph, plus a right to possession of the Corresponding Source of the work from the predecessor in interest, if the predecessor has it or can get it with reasonable efforts.

    You may not impose any further restrictions on the exercise of the rights granted or affirmed under this License. For example, you may not impose a license fee, royalty, or other charge for exercise of rights granted under this License, and you may not initiate litigation (including a cross-claim or counterclaim in a lawsuit) alleging that any patent claim is infringed by making, using, selling, offering for sale, or importing the Program or any portion of it.

  12. Patents.

    A “contributor” is a copyright holder who authorizes use under this License of the Program or a work on which the Program is based. The work thus licensed is called the contributor’s “contributor version”.

    A contributor’s “essential patent claims” are all patent claims owned or controlled by the contributor, whether already acquired or hereafter acquired, that would be infringed by some manner, permitted by this License, of making, using, or selling its contributor version, but do not include claims that would be infringed only as a consequence of further modification of the contributor version. For purposes of this definition, “control” includes the right to grant patent sublicenses in a manner consistent with the requirements of this License.

    Each contributor grants you a non-exclusive, worldwide, royalty-free patent license under the contributor’s essential patent claims, to make, use, sell, offer for sale, import and otherwise run, modify and propagate the contents of its contributor version.

    In the following three paragraphs, a “patent license” is any express agreement or commitment, however denominated, not to enforce a patent (such as an express permission to practice a patent or covenant not to sue for patent infringement). To “grant” such a patent license to a party means to make such an agreement or commitment not to enforce a patent against the party.

    If you convey a covered work, knowingly relying on a patent license, and the Corresponding Source of the work is not available for anyone to copy, free of charge and under the terms of this License, through a publicly available network server or other readily accessible means, then you must either (1) cause the Corresponding Source to be so available, or (2) arrange to deprive yourself of the benefit of the patent license for this particular work, or (3) arrange, in a manner consistent with the requirements of this License, to extend the patent license to downstream recipients. “Knowingly relying” means you have actual knowledge that, but for the patent license, your conveying the covered work in a country, or your recipient’s use of the covered work in a country, would infringe one or more identifiable patents in that country that you have reason to believe are valid.

    If, pursuant to or in connection with a single transaction or arrangement, you convey, or propagate by procuring conveyance of, a covered work, and grant a patent license to some of the parties receiving the covered work authorizing them to use, propagate, modify or convey a specific copy of the covered work, then the patent license you grant is automatically extended to all recipients of the covered work and works based on it.

    A patent license is “discriminatory” if it does not include within the scope of its coverage, prohibits the exercise of, or is conditioned on the non-exercise of one or more of the rights that are specifically granted under this License. You may not convey a covered work if you are a party to an arrangement with a third party that is in the business of distributing software, under which you make payment to the third party based on the extent of your activity of conveying the work, and under which the third party grants, to any of the parties who would receive the covered work from you, a discriminatory patent license (a) in connection with copies of the covered work conveyed by you (or copies made from those copies), or (b) primarily for and in connection with specific products or compilations that contain the covered work, unless you entered into that arrangement, or that patent license was granted, prior to 28 March 2007.

    Nothing in this License shall be construed as excluding or limiting any implied license or other defenses to infringement that may otherwise be available to you under applicable patent law.

  13. No Surrender of Others’ Freedom.

    If conditions are imposed on you (whether by court order, agreement or otherwise) that contradict the conditions of this License, they do not excuse you from the conditions of this License. If you cannot convey a covered work so as to satisfy simultaneously your obligations under this License and any other pertinent obligations, then as a consequence you may not convey it at all. For example, if you agree to terms that obligate you to collect a royalty for further conveying from those to whom you convey the Program, the only way you could satisfy both those terms and this License would be to refrain entirely from conveying the Program.

  14. Use with the GNU Affero General Public License.

    Notwithstanding any other provision of this License, you have permission to link or combine any covered work with a work licensed under version 3 of the GNU Affero General Public License into a single combined work, and to convey the resulting work. The terms of this License will continue to apply to the part which is the covered work, but the special requirements of the GNU Affero General Public License, section 13, concerning interaction through a network will apply to the combination as such.

  15. Revised Versions of this License.

    The Free Software Foundation may publish revised and/or new versions of the GNU General Public License from time to time. Such new versions will be similar in spirit to the present version, but may differ in detail to address new problems or concerns.

    Each version is given a distinguishing version number. If the Program specifies that a certain numbered version of the GNU General Public License “or any later version” applies to it, you have the option of following the terms and conditions either of that numbered version or of any later version published by the Free Software Foundation. If the Program does not specify a version number of the GNU General Public License, you may choose any version ever published by the Free Software Foundation.

    If the Program specifies that a proxy can decide which future versions of the GNU General Public License can be used, that proxy’s public statement of acceptance of a version permanently authorizes you to choose that version for the Program.

    Later license versions may give you additional or different permissions. However, no additional obligations are imposed on any author or copyright holder as a result of your choosing to follow a later version.

  16. Disclaimer of Warranty.


  17. Limitation of Liability.


  18. Interpretation of Sections 15 and 16.

    If the disclaimer of warranty and limitation of liability provided above cannot be given local legal effect according to their terms, reviewing courts shall apply local law that most closely approximates an absolute waiver of all civil liability in connection with the Program, unless a warranty or assumption of liability accompanies a copy of the Program in return for a fee.


How to Apply These Terms to Your New Programs

If you develop a new program, and you want it to be of the greatest possible use to the public, the best way to achieve this is to make it free software which everyone can redistribute and change under these terms.

To do so, attach the following notices to the program. It is safest to attach them to the start of each source file to most effectively state the exclusion of warranty; and each file should have at least the “copyright” line and a pointer to where the full notice is found.

one line to give the program's name and a brief idea of what it does.
Copyright (C) year name of author

This program is free software: you can redistribute it and/or modify
it under the terms of the GNU General Public License as published by
the Free Software Foundation, either version 3 of the License, or (at
your option) any later version.

This program is distributed in the hope that it will be useful, but
WITHOUT ANY WARRANTY; without even the implied warranty of
General Public License for more details.

You should have received a copy of the GNU General Public License
along with this program.  If not, see http://www.gnu.org/licenses/.

Also add information on how to contact you by electronic and paper mail.

If the program does terminal interaction, make it output a short notice like this when it starts in an interactive mode:

program Copyright (C) year name of author
This program comes with ABSOLUTELY NO WARRANTY; for details type ‘show w’.
This is free software, and you are welcome to redistribute it
under certain conditions; type ‘show c’ for details.

The hypothetical commands ‘show w’ and ‘show c’ should show the appropriate parts of the General Public License. Of course, your program’s commands might be different; for a GUI interface, you would use an “about box”.

You should also get your employer (if you work as a programmer) or school, if any, to sign a “copyright disclaimer” for the program, if necessary. For more information on this, and how to apply and follow the GNU GPL, see http://www.gnu.org/licenses/.

The GNU General Public License does not permit incorporating your program into proprietary programs. If your program is a subroutine library, you may consider it more useful to permit linking proprietary applications with the library. If this is what you want to do, use the GNU Lesser General Public License instead of this License. But first, please read http://www.gnu.org/philosophy/why-not-lgpl.html.

1 Úvod

GNU Typist je interaktivní program pro výuku psaní na klávesnici všemi deseti prsty. Obsahuje výukové lekce, cvičení i rychlostní testy. Program je určen pro používání na terminálech bez grafiky. Byl zkompilován na GNU/Linuxu, Unixech (Aix, OpenBSD) a také na DOS/Windows (DOS 6.22, Windows 98, Windows NT).

Program načítá lekce vytvořené ve snadno pochopitelném skritpovacím jazyku. Je distribuován spolu s několika dobrými a kompletními lekcemi, které můžete používat, modifikovat, nebo psát nové. (see Vytvořte nové lekce see Příkazy skriptovacího jazyka).

Pokud nespecifikujete příslušný soubor lekcí na příkazové řádce, bude použit gtypist.typ. (Podrobnosti o cestě k souborům naleznete v sekci see Proměnné prostředí).

Na horní řádce obrazovky naleznete banner programu. Na nejspodnější řádce se potom nalézají různé zprávy, dotazy a další informace o stavu. Řádky mezi tím jsou používány pro tutoriály, cvičení a rychlostní testy.

V programu jsou dva typy cvičení: drilové a rychlostní testy.

V drilových vám gtypist zobrazí text v každé druhé řádce obrazovky a počká, až uživatel správně opíše text do zbývajících prázdných řádek. Chybně zadaná písmena jsou indikována obráceným ^, nebo >, pokud je špatně zadaným znakem konec řádky. Na konci cvičení program spočítá skutečnou a užitečnou rychlost v jednotkách slov za minutu. Pokud jste udělali příliš mnoho chyb, cvičení se spustí znova.

Není dovoleno zpětně opravovat špatně zadané znaky.

V rychlostních testech zobrazuje gtypist text na obrazovce a čeká, až ho uživatel přepíše tím samým. Chyby se zobrazují a na konci testu se spočítá opravdová a užitečná rychlost ve WPM (words per minute – slova za minutu). Pokud se vyskytlo příliš mnoho chyb, test se spustí znovu. Opravování chyb je povoleno, ale takto opravené chyby budou stejně započítány do hodnocení.

Jestli jste již udělali příliš mnoho chyb, můžete použít ESC a test se spustí znovu. Kdykoliv dokončíte lekci, butete dotázáni, zda ji chcete opakovat.

GNU Typist obsahuje i cvičení zaměřené pouze na procvičování (jak drilová cvičení, tak rychlostní testy), která možná nebudete muset vůbec opakovat. Nechceme ale říkat, zda se to týká zrovna vás, takže se stejně budete muset snažit, jak nejlépe umíte ;-)

Ve výsledcích rychlosti znamená jedno slovo pět znaků, takže hrubé WPM je počet znaků v testovací oblasti dělené pěti a znovu dělené počtem uplynulých minut. Co se týče faktoru chyby, který WPM ovlivňuje, každá chyba je počítaná za špatné slovo.

2 Spouštění

Syntaxe pro spuštění GNU Typist je:

gtypist [ parametry... ] [ script_file ]

Podporované parametry jsou popsány níže (pozor, dlouhé tvary nejsou v DOSu podporovány).

-e, --error-max

Udává maximální procento chybovosti při zadávání textu. Defaultní hodnota je 3,0. Musí být mezi 0,0 a 100,0. Existuje i příkaz skriptovacího jazyka (see Příkazy skriptovacího jazyka), který to může změnit, pokud je zadané číslo menší. Pro procvičovací lekce je tato hodnota ale ignorována.

-n, --notimer

Normálně GNU Typist zobrazuje rychlost ve WPM (slova za minutu) jak po drilových cvičeních, tak po rychlostních zkouškách. Lekce jsou ale zřejmě napsané pro program, který zobrazoval rychlost pouze při rychlostních testech. Abyste gtypist přinutili k takovémuto chování odpovídajícímu lekcím, tedy aby nezobrazoval počet slov za minutu u drilových testů, použijte tento parametr.

-t, --term-cursor

gtypist si vytváří vlastní obdélníčkový kurzor, aby pomohl uživateli rozlišit mezi kurzorem a označením chyb v inverzních barvách. Tímto parametrem takové chování potlačíme a donutíme program používat standardní kurzor terminálu.

-f, --curs-flash

Hodnota tohoto parametru nastavuje blikání obdélníkového kurzoru v desetinách sekund. Hodnota 0 znamená, že kurzor nebude blikat. Standardní hodnota je 10, maximální 512. Toto je ignorováno, pokud bylo nastaveno -t nebo –term-cursor.

-c, --colo[u]rs

Normálně používá gtypist pouze normální a převrácené monochromatické barvy. Tímto parametrem můžete nastavit barvu popředí a pozadí na terminálech, které podporují barevný výstup. Barvy jsou specifikovány jako dvě čísla mezi 0 a 7. Kódy barev od 0 do 7 znamenají barvu černou, červenou, zelenou, žlutou, modrou, magenta a modrozelenou a bílou. Defalutní nastavení je 7,0 – bílá na černém pozadí. Toto nastavení je ignorováno pokud terminál nepodporuje barvy.

-s, --silent

Kdykoliv narazí gtypist na chybu, zapípá. Tímto nastavením můžete zvukový signál potlačit.

-q, --quiet

To samé jako -s, –silent.

-w, --wpmode

Tímto donutíte gtypist určitým způsobem napodobovat textový procesor, kdykoliv spouští nějaké cvičení. Mezeru na konci řádku bude brát jako korektní znak a přejde na další řádku. Pokud stisknete na konci řádky ENTER, přesune vás na následující odstavec. Vícenádobné mezery stlačí na jedinou a bude přeskakovat rozdělovací čárky na konci řádek.

-l, --start-label

Tento parametr udává návěstí ve skriptovém souboru, kde gtyping začne (pro informace o návěstí viz níže skriptovací jazyk). Pokud není start_label definováno, začne se od začátku souboru.

-k, --no-skip

Zakáže uživateli přeskakovat lekce nebo z nich utíkat pomocí ESC ESC.

Pokud chcete spouštět gtypist ve svém rodném jazyce, musíte také vhodně nastavit proměnnou prostředí LANG See Proměnné prostředí.


Ke spuštění standardního anglického souboru lekcí gtypist.typ:

Ke spuštění českých lekcí:
gtypist cs.typ

Donutíme gtypist, aby hledal lekci bar.typ v nestandardním adresáři /home/foo:
export GTYPIST_PATH="/home/foo" gtypist bar.typ

Abychom mohli spustit lekci test.typ v adresáři /tmp, a začít na návěstí TEST1, v tichém módu, za použití standardního kurzoru terminálu, zadáme toto:
gtypist -t -q -l TEST1 /tmp/test.typ

3 Dostupné lekce

S GNU Typist jsou dodávány tyto lekce :


Soubor QWERTY kurzů v češtině (+ numerická klávesnice)


Rychlý QWERTY kurz v angličtině


Dlouhý QWERTY kurz v angličtině


QWERTY výuka v angličtině


Ještě další QWERTY v angličtině


QWERTY opakování v angličtině


Výuka klávesnice Dvorak v angličtině


Drilová cvičení v angličtině


Rychlostní testy v angličtině


Numerická klávesnice v angličtině


Soubor všech předchozích anglických lekcí


Kurz QWERTY ve španělštině


Toto jsou standardní lekce z Ktouch 1.0 (http://ktouch.sourceforge.net), které byly do formátu gtypistu zkonvertovány s použitím tools/ktouch2typ.pl.

Tyto soubory jsou ktde.typ (german.ktouch), kten.typ (english.ktouch), ktfr.typ (french.ktouch), ktlecten.typ (lecture_en.ktouch), ktno.typ (norwegian.ktouch) and ktnumber.typ (number.ktouch).


To je německá lekce pro tipptrainer (http://www.pingos.schulnetz.org/tipptrainer), která byla zkonvertována s pomocí tools/tt2typ.pl.

Pokud v těchto lekcích najdete chyby, pokud nějakou upravíte, nebo pokud napíšete lekci novou, prosím vydejte ji pod svobodnou licencí a řekněte nám o tom – můžete nám napsat mail na bug-gtypist@gnu.org.

4 Používání typefortune

‘typefortune’ vám dovolí cvičit s textem z ‘fortune’.

SYNTAX: typefortune [-dslh] [-n počet] [-o <parametry_gtp>]


Použije D: místo S:.


Spustí fortune s -s.


Spustí fortune s -l.

-n <počet>

Cvičení <počet> fortunes.

-o <gtypist_options>

Předej gtypistu nastavení ve formě option (nastavení přepínače, např. -o word-processor), option,value (nastavení hodnoty, např. -o e,1.0) kde option je jméno nastavení (zkrácené či dlouhé) s tím, že všechny úvodní pomlčky jsou odstraněny. Pokud uvádíte více než jeden parametr, musíte je uvést v apostrofech: typefortune -n 3 -o 'silent e,5 word-processor'.

5 Příkazy skriptovacího jazyka

GNU Typist načítá data pro jednotlivé lekce ze skriptového souboru. Každá řádka s výjimkou komentářů a prázdných řádek má následující formát

znak_příkazu : data_příkazu

Znak příkazu je jeden znak, který určuje, co bude gtypist dělat, a data_příkazu jsou data, se kterými bude operovat. Pokud je znak_příkazu mezera, znamená to, že řádka je pokračováním předchozího příkazu. Oddělovač ’:’ musí být vždy v druhém sloupci řádky.

Řádky komentářů jsou řádky začínající znakem ’#’ a stejně jako prázdné řádky jsou ignorovány. Komentáře mohou mít jakýkoliv formát, jediným požadavkem je, aby začínaly ’#’. Všechny ostatní řádky musí mít výše uvedený formát.

Abyste se seznámili se základy, měli byste si přečíst See Úvod.

Následující výčet je seznamem platných hodnot znaků_příkazu:


Tento příkaz smaže celou obrazovku. Pokud má nějaká data_příkazu, ta jsou zobrazena v horním jednořádkovém banneru a zůstanou tam až do zavolání následujícího příkazu B. Tento příkaz nesmí pokračovat na následující řádce.


T znamená tutoriál. Příkaz může zpracovávat více řádek a to až do zaplnění obrazovky. Každá řádka příkazu je prostě vytištěna na obrazovku. Příkaz smaže obrazovku pod horním jednořádkovým bannerem. Když je zobrazování hotovo, program čeká na uživatelský vstup. Toho je také využíváno pro tisk položek menu.


Hvědička znamená návěstí v souboru. Návěstí může být cílem pro příkazy G, Y, N nebo F. Návěstí mohou zahrnovat jakékoliv znaky včetně mezer a jsou jednořádkovým příkazem. Mezery na konci návěstí jsou ignorovány.


Tento příkaz zobrazí stručné instrukce k drilovému či rychlostnímu testu. Je dovoleno použít pouze dvou řádek. Narozdíl od příkazu T se před pokračováním nečeká na stisk klávesy. Značka by tedy měla být vždy následována cvičením. Maže plochu obrazovky pro cvičení, v tomto ohledu se chová jako dvouřádkové T.


Tento příkaz je nový způsob, jak vytvářet menu (od gtypistu 2.7) Zde je jeho syntax:

M: [UP=(LABEL|_EXIT)] "název"
 :LABEL1 "popis1"
 :LABEL2 "popis2"

UP-label označuje návěstí otcovského uzlu, které definuje poslední položku menu (pokud je to _EXIT, pak ,,Konec”, jinak bude poslední položka v menu ,,Zpět” skákat na zadaný uzel). Tento argument je volitelný. Pokud není přítomen, použije se defaultní _EXIT.

Název, stejně jako ostatní popis, musí být v uvozovkách (""). Navíc musí mezi UP=XXX a "název" či mezi návěstími a jejich popisem být alespoň jedna mezera.

Příklady hledejte v existujících lekcích.


Tento příkaz se nazývá ,,drill” a je jedním ze dvou typů cvičení.

Je to víceřádkový příkaz. Text je zobrazován v každé druhé řádce a uživatel jej opisuje do prostoru mezi nimi. To je důvod, proč nemůžete použít více jak 11 řádek obsahu.

Tento typ cvičení by měl být používán pouze pro cvičení prstů (např. jfjfjjf), ale může obsahovat i celá slova a věty, když jsou využívány k procvičování (písmeno, slabika) a nejedná se o opravdové texty.

Verze s malým písmenem d znamená ,,pouze procvičování”, uživatel nebude muset cvičení opakovat ani pokud udělal příliš mnoho chyb.


To je druhý typ cvičení: ,,rychlostní test”.

Jedná se o víceřádkový příkaz. Zobrazuje svůj obsah na obrazovce a čeká, až jej uživatel přepíše tím samým textem. Proto můžete na jeden rychlostní test použít až 22 řádek. V tomto druhu testu můžete své chyby opravovat, počítadlo ve statistice je ale stále bude počítat jako chyby.

Rychlostní testy by měly být používány pro opisování kompletních vět, textů a souborů (např. dopis, texinfo, html či tex soubor).

Verze s malým písmenem s je rychlostní test ,,pouze k procvičování”, což znamená, že ani uživatel, který udělá příliš mnoho chyb, jej nebude muset opakovat.


Toto přinutí gtypist přeskočit na návěstí v datech_příkazu a pokračovat ve vyvolávání skriptu odtud. Jde o jednořádkový příkaz.


Tento příkaz vypíše svůj text na stavové řádce a před pokračováním čeká na klávesu Y nebo N. Ostatní znaky jsou ignorovány.

Jako vedlejší efekt můžete také stisknout F-klávesu, pokud je potřeba (nyní by již neměl být tento příkaz používán pro vytváření promptu pro menu – použijte raději příkaz M).


Y Je podobné G, s výjimkou toho, že příkaz skoku je vyvolán pouze pokud odpověď na předchozí otázku Q byla Y.


N je podobné G, s výjimkou toho, že příkaz skoku je vyvolán pouze pokud odpověď na předchozí otázku Q byla N.


Tento příkaz by již neměl být používán, použijte M Váže funkční klávesu na návěstí. Formát dat následujících tento příkaz musí být Fklávesa:návěstí, kde Fklávesa je číslo funkční klávesy mezi 1 a 12 a návěstí je místo, kam se přesunout po stisku této klávesy. Hodnota návěstí NULL klávesu znefunkční.

Pokud na terminálu nejsou dostupné funkční klávesy, mohou být místo jich použity klávesy 19 pro F1F9, 0 pro F10, A pro F11 a S pro F12.

Jinou alternativou pro F1F12 jsou kombinace: Ctrl-Q, Ctrl-W, Ctrl-E, Ctrl-R, Ctrl-T, Ctrl-Z, Ctrl-U, Ctrl-I, Ctrl-O, Ctrl-P, Ctrl-A a Ctrl-S.

To je také užitečné, pokud jsou funkční klávesy odchytávány jinými programy (například window managery).


Tento příkaz je používán pro nastavení nejvyššího procenta chyb dovoleného pro úspěšné absolvování následující lekce (E:<value>%) či pro všechny lekce až do dalšího výskytu E (E:<value>%*).

Pokud je nastaveno --error-max/-e, tak bute tento příkaz platit pouze tehdy, pokud je přísnější než hodnota specifikovaná na příkazové řádce.

data_příkazu se skládají z hodnoty (mezi 0.0 a 100.0) následované znakem ’%’ (toto je požadováno, aby byly skripty lépe čitelné). Existuje speciální hodnota default nebo Default, která nastavuje maximální procento chyb zpět na defaultní hodnotu.


Tento příkaz může být použit k nastavení návěstí (v data_příkazu), kam bude uživatel muset jít, pokud úspěšně neprojde cvičením.

Tento příkaz se většinou vztahuje pouze k následujícímu cvičení, ale pokud na konec dat_příkazu vložíte ’*’, můžete jej tak učinit trvale platným.

Pokud je návěstí NULL, pak příkaz návěstí resetuje.


Tento příkaz přinutí gtypist vyskočit. Je to jednořádkový příkaz. Jakékoliv data_příkazu jsou ignorována. Jiný způsob, jakým může dojít k opuštění programu, je když gtypist dojde na konec souboru (takže tam můžete také umístit návěstí a odkazovat na něj příkazem G)

Prohlédněte si malý příklad skriptu, který demonstruje dostupné příkazy (soubor lekce tinydemo.typ):

# Malý příklad
B: Demonstrace tutoriálu
T:Zde je malý příklad skriptu pro lekci.
 :Lepší příklad můžete nalézt v souboru
 :demo.typ, který je dodáván s GNU Typist.
I:Tady je drilové cvičení: 
D:asdf ghjkl;
I:A tady je zas rychlostní test: 
S:qwe rt yu iop
Q:Stačilo to již? [Y/N] 

6 Vytvořte nové lekce

This section provides guidelines and hints for creating new lessons (or improving existing ones).

6.1 Ktouch lessons

A very easy way to write lessons is to write them in the format that ktouch uses, and then convert it to a gtypist lesson using tools/ktouch2typ.pl. This will take care of writing “jump-tables”, a menu and a bit more.

The ktouch-format consists only of lessons, which are preceded by their names, and separated by blank lines and/or comments (# at the beginning of the line). So the first non-blank, non-comment line in the file is the name of the first lesson, and the first lesson consists of all the lines up to the next comment or blank line. After the separator (comment or blank line) the name of the second lesson follows and so on.

This is an example of a three-lesson ktouch file (excerpts from the first three lessons of german.ktouch):

# Deutsche Training-Datei für KTouch

f f f f f f fff fff fff f f f f f f fff fff fff f f f f f f f fff
j j j j j j jjj jjj jjj j j j j j j jjj jjj jjj j j j j j j j jjj
fff jjj fff jjj jjj fff jjj fff fjf fjf fjf jfj jfj jfj fjf jfjfj

fff jjj ddd kkk aaa ööö fff jjj ddd kkk aaa ööö fff jjj ddd kkkff
fda jkö fda jkö fda jkö fda jkö fda jkö fda jkö fda jkö fda jköfd
s s s s s s sss sss sss s s s s s s sss sss sss s s s s s s s sss

#Zwei wichtige Vokale: e und i
e und i
asdf ölkj fdsa jklö asdf ölkj fdsa jklö asdf ölkj fdsa jklö asdfö
das dass lös fad dass lös als dass las lös fad dass als dass dass
ded ded ded dej dek del deö ded deö del dek dej ded dej dek delde

Once you are done, use tools/ktouch2typ.pl to convert the file: ‘ktouch2typ.pl lesson.ktouch’ converts lesson.ktouch to lesson.typ. It is important that the input file ends in “.ktouch”, otherwise ktouch2typ.pl will skip it. Warning: this will overwrite lesson.typ without asking you !

You can customize the number of lines that ktouch2typ.pl uses for each drill by modifying the relevant variable in tools/ktouch2typ.pl.

Obviously, the disadvantage of this is that you cannot make use of all of gtypist’s features (but the output file is very readable, so you can edit it to use more of gtypist’s features).

6.2 Exercises from fortune

Using gtypist-mode.el you can quickly create lessons with text from the program fortune (or the emacs-internal yow if fortune isn’t available, as is usually the case on Windows).

Once you installed gtypist-mode.el (see Mód Emacsu), you can open a file with it “.typ” extension and run C-c C-f to create a drill (D: by default, use C-u or C-u C-u prefix to change).

6.3 Design patterns for lessons

6.3.1 Structure of lesson files

6.3.2 Patterns for exercises

7 Mód Emacsu

gtypist now comes with an Emacs major-mode which does syntax-highlighting, indentation and has some convenient commands for counting labels, a goto-label-command, inserting properly centered banners, special comments and a bit more.

Copy this file from tools/gtypist-mode.el to wherever you put your local elisp files (e.g. ~/elisp) and put this in your ~/.emacs (adapt path!):

(autoload 'gtypist-mode "~/elisp/gtypist-mode")

or put it in load-path (‘make install’ in the sources should take care of this for GNU Emacs, or if you are using the Debian package, it installs it here for you) and use this instead:

(autoload 'gtypist-mode "gtypist-mode")

and add this to your ~/.emacs:

(setq auto-mode-alist       
      (cons '("\\.typ\\'" . gtypist-mode) auto-mode-alist))

All this is also mentioned in the README-section of tools/gtypist-mode.el.

Here are the commands along with the keybindings:

C-c C-i, M-x gtypist-mode-info

This shows gtypist’s texinfo-documentation, starting at node “Script file commands” (see Příkazy skriptovacího jazyka). With prefix, start at the top-node.

C-c M-g, M-x gtypist-mode-goto-label

Query for a label to go to (with completion).

C-c C-l, M-x gtypist-mode-next-label

This command inserts the next label in a numbered sequence of labels. For example, if you insert


and hit C-c C-l then gtypist-mode will insert

C-c C-b, M-x gtypist-mode-insert-banner

This command inserts a centered B: command. It’s centered on 66 columns because “gtypist <version>” is in the right corner (prompts for content).

C-c C-r, M-x gtypist-mode-insert-hrule

Inserts a horizontal rule (comment) consisting of dashes.

C-c C-n, M-x gtypist-mode-new-lesson

Insert the comments (header) and a label to start a new lesson (prompts for name).

C-c C-f, M-x gtypist-mode-fortune-to-drill

Insert a drill (D:) with text from fortune (or yow if fortune isn’t available). Use C-u prefix to get S:, and C-u C-u to get d:.

Run C-h m for a complete list of commands and their keybindings.

If you find bugs or if you think there’s something else this mode could do, please write to bug-gtypist@gnu.org.

7.1 Proměnné prostředí

GNU Typist používá tyto proměnné prostředí:


GNU Typist nabízí Native Language Support (NLS) s podporou knihovny gettext. To znamená, že pokud to váš systém podoruje, můžete si vybrat jazyk, ve kterém chcete zobrazovat hlášky gtypistu. Momentálně jsou k dispozici angličtina, španělština, němčina, finština a čeština. K použití konkrétní NLS je třeba nastavit proměnnou prostředí LANG na odpovídající LL_CC kombinaci, kde LL je dvouznakový kód jazyka podle ISO 639 a CC je dvoupísmenný znak země podle ISO 3166 (např. es_ES pro Španělsko nebo de_DE pro Německo). Na některých systémech budete muset asi nastavit na tu samou hodnotu i proměnnou LANGUAGE.

Pokud chcete přeložit zprávy do nějakého jiného jazyka, nebo pokud chcete něco opravit, ozvěte se prosím na bug-gtypist@gnu.org.


Seznam adresářů, kde bude program hledovat skriptovací soubory. Dodržuje standardní způsob specifikace adresářů, to znamená seznam adresářů oddělených znaky ’:’. GNU Typist se při spuštění nejprve pokusí skript spustit z aktuálního adresáře a poté bude hledat v adresářích specifikovaných proměnnou GTYPIST_PATH. Nakonec se podívá do adresáře vytvořeného při instalaci. (Např. /usr/local/share/gtypist nebo /usr/share/gtypist).


Tuto proměnnou používá knihovna curses k určení obrazovky.


Tento parametr budete muset změnit, pokud jsou adresáře s terminfo rozdílné na systému, kde byl gtypist kompilován a na systému, kde má fungovat. Například na starších distribucích Slackware je terminfo umístěno v /usr/lib/terminfo. Na RedHat Linuxu je v /usr/share/terminfo. Pokud si program stěžuje na typ terminálu a má správně nastavenou hodnotu TERM, zkuste toto.

7.2 Chyby a opominutí

GNU Typist se nijak nesnaží minimalizovat výstup na terminál. Speciálně blikající kurzor může působit hodně pohybu. Pokud by to byl problém, použijte kurzor terminálu.

V rychlostních testech není možné používat backspace a delete za začátkem nové řádky nebo po klávese TAB. To je kvůli zjednodušení aktualizace obrazovky.

Barevné módy zřejmě nepracují dobře s UnixWare. Někdy nejsou správně zobrazeny převrácené barvy. To se týká některých typů terminálů a xterminálů.

Appendix A Historie GNU Typist

Appendix B GNU Free Documentation License

Version 1.2, November 2002
Copyright © 2000,2001,2002 Free Software Foundation, Inc.
51 Franklin St, Fifth Floor, Boston, MA  02110-1301, USA

Everyone is permitted to copy and distribute verbatim copies
of this license document, but changing it is not allowed.

    The purpose of this License is to make a manual, textbook, or other functional and useful document free in the sense of freedom: to assure everyone the effective freedom to copy and redistribute it, with or without modifying it, either commercially or noncommercially. Secondarily, this License preserves for the author and publisher a way to get credit for their work, while not being considered responsible for modifications made by others.

    This License is a kind of “copyleft”, which means that derivative works of the document must themselves be free in the same sense. It complements the GNU General Public License, which is a copyleft license designed for free software.

    We have designed this License in order to use it for manuals for free software, because free software needs free documentation: a free program should come with manuals providing the same freedoms that the software does. But this License is not limited to software manuals; it can be used for any textual work, regardless of subject matter or whether it is published as a printed book. We recommend this License principally for works whose purpose is instruction or reference.


    This License applies to any manual or other work, in any medium, that contains a notice placed by the copyright holder saying it can be distributed under the terms of this License. Such a notice grants a world-wide, royalty-free license, unlimited in duration, to use that work under the conditions stated herein. The “Document”, below, refers to any such manual or work. Any member of the public is a licensee, and is addressed as “you”. You accept the license if you copy, modify or distribute the work in a way requiring permission under copyright law.

    A “Modified Version” of the Document means any work containing the Document or a portion of it, either copied verbatim, or with modifications and/or translated into another language.

    A “Secondary Section” is a named appendix or a front-matter section of the Document that deals exclusively with the relationship of the publishers or authors of the Document to the Document’s overall subject (or to related matters) and contains nothing that could fall directly within that overall subject. (Thus, if the Document is in part a textbook of mathematics, a Secondary Section may not explain any mathematics.) The relationship could be a matter of historical connection with the subject or with related matters, or of legal, commercial, philosophical, ethical or political position regarding them.

    The “Invariant Sections” are certain Secondary Sections whose titles are designated, as being those of Invariant Sections, in the notice that says that the Document is released under this License. If a section does not fit the above definition of Secondary then it is not allowed to be designated as Invariant. The Document may contain zero Invariant Sections. If the Document does not identify any Invariant Sections then there are none.

    The “Cover Texts” are certain short passages of text that are listed, as Front-Cover Texts or Back-Cover Texts, in the notice that says that the Document is released under this License. A Front-Cover Text may be at most 5 words, and a Back-Cover Text may be at most 25 words.

    A “Transparent” copy of the Document means a machine-readable copy, represented in a format whose specification is available to the general public, that is suitable for revising the document straightforwardly with generic text editors or (for images composed of pixels) generic paint programs or (for drawings) some widely available drawing editor, and that is suitable for input to text formatters or for automatic translation to a variety of formats suitable for input to text formatters. A copy made in an otherwise Transparent file format whose markup, or absence of markup, has been arranged to thwart or discourage subsequent modification by readers is not Transparent. An image format is not Transparent if used for any substantial amount of text. A copy that is not “Transparent” is called “Opaque”.

    Examples of suitable formats for Transparent copies include plain ASCII without markup, Texinfo input format, LaTeX input format, SGML or XML using a publicly available DTD, and standard-conforming simple HTML, PostScript or PDF designed for human modification. Examples of transparent image formats include PNG, XCF and JPG. Opaque formats include proprietary formats that can be read and edited only by proprietary word processors, SGML or XML for which the DTD and/or processing tools are not generally available, and the machine-generated HTML, PostScript or PDF produced by some word processors for output purposes only.

    The “Title Page” means, for a printed book, the title page itself, plus such following pages as are needed to hold, legibly, the material this License requires to appear in the title page. For works in formats which do not have any title page as such, “Title Page” means the text near the most prominent appearance of the work’s title, preceding the beginning of the body of the text.

    A section “Entitled XYZ” means a named subunit of the Document whose title either is precisely XYZ or contains XYZ in parentheses following text that translates XYZ in another language. (Here XYZ stands for a specific section name mentioned below, such as “Acknowledgements”, “Dedications”, “Endorsements”, or “History”.) To “Preserve the Title” of such a section when you modify the Document means that it remains a section “Entitled XYZ” according to this definition.

    The Document may include Warranty Disclaimers next to the notice which states that this License applies to the Document. These Warranty Disclaimers are considered to be included by reference in this License, but only as regards disclaiming warranties: any other implication that these Warranty Disclaimers may have is void and has no effect on the meaning of this License.


    You may copy and distribute the Document in any medium, either commercially or noncommercially, provided that this License, the copyright notices, and the license notice saying this License applies to the Document are reproduced in all copies, and that you add no other conditions whatsoever to those of this License. You may not use technical measures to obstruct or control the reading or further copying of the copies you make or distribute. However, you may accept compensation in exchange for copies. If you distribute a large enough number of copies you must also follow the conditions in section 3.

    You may also lend copies, under the same conditions stated above, and you may publicly display copies.


    If you publish printed copies (or copies in media that commonly have printed covers) of the Document, numbering more than 100, and the Document’s license notice requires Cover Texts, you must enclose the copies in covers that carry, clearly and legibly, all these Cover Texts: Front-Cover Texts on the front cover, and Back-Cover Texts on the back cover. Both covers must also clearly and legibly identify you as the publisher of these copies. The front cover must present the full title with all words of the title equally prominent and visible. You may add other material on the covers in addition. Copying with changes limited to the covers, as long as they preserve the title of the Document and satisfy these conditions, can be treated as verbatim copying in other respects.

    If the required texts for either cover are too voluminous to fit legibly, you should put the first ones listed (as many as fit reasonably) on the actual cover, and continue the rest onto adjacent pages.

    If you publish or distribute Opaque copies of the Document numbering more than 100, you must either include a machine-readable Transparent copy along with each Opaque copy, or state in or with each Opaque copy a computer-network location from which the general network-using public has access to download using public-standard network protocols a complete Transparent copy of the Document, free of added material. If you use the latter option, you must take reasonably prudent steps, when you begin distribution of Opaque copies in quantity, to ensure that this Transparent copy will remain thus accessible at the stated location until at least one year after the last time you distribute an Opaque copy (directly or through your agents or retailers) of that edition to the public.

    It is requested, but not required, that you contact the authors of the Document well before redistributing any large number of copies, to give them a chance to provide you with an updated version of the Document.


    You may copy and distribute a Modified Version of the Document under the conditions of sections 2 and 3 above, provided that you release the Modified Version under precisely this License, with the Modified Version filling the role of the Document, thus licensing distribution and modification of the Modified Version to whoever possesses a copy of it. In addition, you must do these things in the Modified Version:

    1. Use in the Title Page (and on the covers, if any) a title distinct from that of the Document, and from those of previous versions (which should, if there were any, be listed in the History section of the Document). You may use the same title as a previous version if the original publisher of that version gives permission.
    2. List on the Title Page, as authors, one or more persons or entities responsible for authorship of the modifications in the Modified Version, together with at least five of the principal authors of the Document (all of its principal authors, if it has fewer than five), unless they release you from this requirement.
    3. State on the Title page the name of the publisher of the Modified Version, as the publisher.
    4. Preserve all the copyright notices of the Document.
    5. Add an appropriate copyright notice for your modifications adjacent to the other copyright notices.
    6. Include, immediately after the copyright notices, a license notice giving the public permission to use the Modified Version under the terms of this License, in the form shown in the Addendum below.
    7. Preserve in that license notice the full lists of Invariant Sections and required Cover Texts given in the Document’s license notice.
    8. Include an unaltered copy of this License.
    9. Preserve the section Entitled “History”, Preserve its Title, and add to it an item stating at least the title, year, new authors, and publisher of the Modified Version as given on the Title Page. If there is no section Entitled “History” in the Document, create one stating the title, year, authors, and publisher of the Document as given on its Title Page, then add an item describing the Modified Version as stated in the previous sentence.
    10. Preserve the network location, if any, given in the Document for public access to a Transparent copy of the Document, and likewise the network locations given in the Document for previous versions it was based on. These may be placed in the “History” section. You may omit a network location for a work that was published at least four years before the Document itself, or if the original publisher of the version it refers to gives permission.
    11. For any section Entitled “Acknowledgements” or “Dedications”, Preserve the Title of the section, and preserve in the section all the substance and tone of each of the contributor acknowledgements and/or dedications given therein.
    12. Preserve all the Invariant Sections of the Document, unaltered in their text and in their titles. Section numbers or the equivalent are not considered part of the section titles.
    13. Delete any section Entitled “Endorsements”. Such a section may not be included in the Modified Version.
    14. Do not retitle any existing section to be Entitled “Endorsements” or to conflict in title with any Invariant Section.
    15. Preserve any Warranty Disclaimers.

    If the Modified Version includes new front-matter sections or appendices that qualify as Secondary Sections and contain no material copied from the Document, you may at your option designate some or all of these sections as invariant. To do this, add their titles to the list of Invariant Sections in the Modified Version’s license notice. These titles must be distinct from any other section titles.

    You may add a section Entitled “Endorsements”, provided it contains nothing but endorsements of your Modified Version by various parties—for example, statements of peer review or that the text has been approved by an organization as the authoritative definition of a standard.

    You may add a passage of up to five words as a Front-Cover Text, and a passage of up to 25 words as a Back-Cover Text, to the end of the list of Cover Texts in the Modified Version. Only one passage of Front-Cover Text and one of Back-Cover Text may be added by (or through arrangements made by) any one entity. If the Document already includes a cover text for the same cover, previously added by you or by arrangement made by the same entity you are acting on behalf of, you may not add another; but you may replace the old one, on explicit permission from the previous publisher that added the old one.

    The author(s) and publisher(s) of the Document do not by this License give permission to use their names for publicity for or to assert or imply endorsement of any Modified Version.


    You may combine the Document with other documents released under this License, under the terms defined in section 4 above for modified versions, provided that you include in the combination all of the Invariant Sections of all of the original documents, unmodified, and list them all as Invariant Sections of your combined work in its license notice, and that you preserve all their Warranty Disclaimers.

    The combined work need only contain one copy of this License, and multiple identical Invariant Sections may be replaced with a single copy. If there are multiple Invariant Sections with the same name but different contents, make the title of each such section unique by adding at the end of it, in parentheses, the name of the original author or publisher of that section if known, or else a unique number. Make the same adjustment to the section titles in the list of Invariant Sections in the license notice of the combined work.

    In the combination, you must combine any sections Entitled “History” in the various original documents, forming one section Entitled “History”; likewise combine any sections Entitled “Acknowledgements”, and any sections Entitled “Dedications”. You must delete all sections Entitled “Endorsements.”


    You may make a collection consisting of the Document and other documents released under this License, and replace the individual copies of this License in the various documents with a single copy that is included in the collection, provided that you follow the rules of this License for verbatim copying of each of the documents in all other respects.

    You may extract a single document from such a collection, and distribute it individually under this License, provided you insert a copy of this License into the extracted document, and follow this License in all other respects regarding verbatim copying of that document.


    A compilation of the Document or its derivatives with other separate and independent documents or works, in or on a volume of a storage or distribution medium, is called an “aggregate” if the copyright resulting from the compilation is not used to limit the legal rights of the compilation’s users beyond what the individual works permit. When the Document is included in an aggregate, this License does not apply to the other works in the aggregate which are not themselves derivative works of the Document.

    If the Cover Text requirement of section 3 is applicable to these copies of the Document, then if the Document is less than one half of the entire aggregate, the Document’s Cover Texts may be placed on covers that bracket the Document within the aggregate, or the electronic equivalent of covers if the Document is in electronic form. Otherwise they must appear on printed covers that bracket the whole aggregate.


    Translation is considered a kind of modification, so you may distribute translations of the Document under the terms of section 4. Replacing Invariant Sections with translations requires special permission from their copyright holders, but you may include translations of some or all Invariant Sections in addition to the original versions of these Invariant Sections. You may include a translation of this License, and all the license notices in the Document, and any Warranty Disclaimers, provided that you also include the original English version of this License and the original versions of those notices and disclaimers. In case of a disagreement between the translation and the original version of this License or a notice or disclaimer, the original version will prevail.

    If a section in the Document is Entitled “Acknowledgements”, “Dedications”, or “History”, the requirement (section 4) to Preserve its Title (section 1) will typically require changing the actual title.


    You may not copy, modify, sublicense, or distribute the Document except as expressly provided for under this License. Any other attempt to copy, modify, sublicense or distribute the Document is void, and will automatically terminate your rights under this License. However, parties who have received copies, or rights, from you under this License will not have their licenses terminated so long as such parties remain in full compliance.


    The Free Software Foundation may publish new, revised versions of the GNU Free Documentation License from time to time. Such new versions will be similar in spirit to the present version, but may differ in detail to address new problems or concerns. See http://www.gnu.org/copyleft/.

    Each version of the License is given a distinguishing version number. If the Document specifies that a particular numbered version of this License “or any later version” applies to it, you have the option of following the terms and conditions either of that specified version or of any later version that has been published (not as a draft) by the Free Software Foundation. If the Document does not specify a version number of this License, you may choose any version ever published (not as a draft) by the Free Software Foundation.

ADDENDUM: How to use this License for your documents

To use this License in a document you have written, include a copy of the License in the document and put the following copyright and license notices just after the title page:

  Copyright (C)  year  your name.
  Permission is granted to copy, distribute and/or modify this document
  under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License, Version 1.2
  or any later version published by the Free Software Foundation;
  with no Invariant Sections, no Front-Cover Texts, and no Back-Cover
  Texts.  A copy of the license is included in the section entitled ``GNU
  Free Documentation License''.

If you have Invariant Sections, Front-Cover Texts and Back-Cover Texts, replace the “with…Texts.” line with this:

    with the Invariant Sections being list their titles, with
    the Front-Cover Texts being list, and with the Back-Cover Texts
    being list.

If you have Invariant Sections without Cover Texts, or some other combination of the three, merge those two alternatives to suit the situation.

If your document contains nontrivial examples of program code, we recommend releasing these examples in parallel under your choice of free software license, such as the GNU General Public License, to permit their use in free software.