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15.2.1 Two-Dimensional Plots

The plot function allows you to create simple x-y plots with linear axes. For example,

x = -10:0.1:10;
plot (x, sin (x));

displays a sine wave shown in Figure 15.1. On most systems, this command will open a separate plot window to display the graph.

plot

Figure 15.1: Simple Two-Dimensional Plot.

Function File: plot (y)
Function File: plot (x, y)
Function File: plot (x, y, fmt)
Function File: plot (…, property, value, …)
Function File: plot (x1, y1, …, xn, yn)
Function File: plot (hax, …)
Function File: h = plot (…)

Produce 2-D plots.

Many different combinations of arguments are possible. The simplest form is

plot (y)

where the argument is taken as the set of y coordinates and the x coordinates are taken to be the range 1:numel (y).

If more than one argument is given, they are interpreted as

plot (y, property, value, …)

or

plot (x, y, property, value, …)

or

plot (x, y, fmt, …)

and so on. Any number of argument sets may appear. The x and y values are interpreted as follows:

Multiple property-value pairs may be specified, but they must appear in pairs. These arguments are applied to the line objects drawn by plot. Useful properties to modify are "linestyle", "linewidth", "color", "marker", "markersize", "markeredgecolor", "markerfacecolor".

The fmt format argument can also be used to control the plot style. The format is composed of three parts: linestyle, markerstyle, color. When a markerstyle is specified, but no linestyle, only the markers are plotted. Similarly, if a linestyle is specified, but no markerstyle, then only lines are drawn. If both are specified then lines and markers will be plotted. If no fmt and no property/value pairs are given, then the default plot style is solid lines with no markers and the color determined by the "colororder" property of the current axes.

Format arguments:

linestyle
-Use solid lines (default).
--Use dashed lines.
:Use dotted lines.
-.Use dash-dotted lines.
markerstyle
+crosshair
ocircle
*star
.point
xcross
ssquare
ddiamond
^upward-facing triangle
vdownward-facing triangle
>right-facing triangle
<left-facing triangle
ppentagram
hhexagram
color
kblacK
rRed
gGreen
bBlue
mMagenta
cCyan
wWhite
";key;"

Here "key" is the label to use for the plot legend.

The fmt argument may also be used to assign legend keys. To do so, include the desired label between semicolons after the formatting sequence described above, e.g., "+b;Key Title;". Note that the last semicolon is required and Octave will generate an error if it is left out.

Here are some plot examples:

plot (x, y, "or", x, y2, x, y3, "m", x, y4, "+")

This command will plot y with red circles, y2 with solid lines, y3 with solid magenta lines, and y4 with points displayed as ‘+’.

plot (b, "*", "markersize", 10)

This command will plot the data in the variable b, with points displayed as ‘*’ and a marker size of 10.

t = 0:0.1:6.3;
plot (t, cos(t), "-;cos(t);", t, sin(t), "-b;sin(t);");

This will plot the cosine and sine functions and label them accordingly in the legend.

If the first argument hax is an axes handle, then plot into this axis, rather than the current axes returned by gca.

The optional return value h is a vector of graphics handles to the created line objects.

To save a plot, in one of several image formats such as PostScript or PNG, use the print command.

See also: axis, box, grid, hold, legend, title, xlabel, ylabel, xlim, ylim, ezplot, errorbar, fplot, line, plot3, polar, loglog, semilogx, semilogy, subplot.

The plotyy function may be used to create a plot with two independent y axes.

Function File: plotyy (x1, y1, x2, y2)
Function File: plotyy (…, fun)
Function File: plotyy (…, fun1, fun2)
Function File: plotyy (hax, …)
Function File: [ax, h1, h2] = plotyy (…)

Plot two sets of data with independent y-axes.

The arguments x1 and y1 define the arguments for the first plot and x1 and y2 for the second.

By default the arguments are evaluated with feval (@plot, x, y). However the type of plot can be modified with the fun argument, in which case the plots are generated by feval (fun, x, y). fun can be a function handle, an inline function, or a string of a function name.

The function to use for each of the plots can be independently defined with fun1 and fun2.

If the first argument hax is an axes handle, then it defines the principal axis in which to plot the x1 and y1 data.

The return value ax is a vector with the axis handles of the two y axes. h1 and h2 are handles to the objects generated by the plot commands.

x = 0:0.1:2*pi;
y1 = sin (x);
y2 = exp (x - 1);
ax = plotyy (x, y1, x - 1, y2, @plot, @semilogy);
xlabel ("X");
ylabel (ax(1), "Axis 1");
ylabel (ax(2), "Axis 2");

See also: plot.

The functions semilogx, semilogy, and loglog are similar to the plot function, but produce plots in which one or both of the axes use log scales.

Function File: semilogx (y)
Function File: semilogx (x, y)
Function File: semilogx (x, y, property, value, …)
Function File: semilogx (x, y, fmt)
Function File: semilogx (hax, …)
Function File: h = semilogx (…)

Produce a 2-D plot using a logarithmic scale for the x-axis.

See the documentation of plot for a description of the arguments that semilogx will accept.

If the first argument hax is an axes handle, then plot into this axis, rather than the current axes returned by gca.

The optional return value h is a graphics handle to the created plot.

See also: plot, semilogy, loglog.

Function File: semilogy (y)
Function File: semilogy (x, y)
Function File: semilogy (x, y, property, value, …)
Function File: semilogy (x, y, fmt)
Function File: semilogy (h, …)
Function File: h = semilogy (…)

Produce a 2-D plot using a logarithmic scale for the y-axis.

See the documentation of plot for a description of the arguments that semilogy will accept.

If the first argument hax is an axes handle, then plot into this axis, rather than the current axes returned by gca.

The optional return value h is a graphics handle to the created plot.

See also: plot, semilogx, loglog.

Function File: loglog (y)
Function File: loglog (x, y)
Function File: loglog (x, y, prop, value, …)
Function File: loglog (x, y, fmt)
Function File: loglog (hax, …)
Function File: h = loglog (…)

Produce a 2-D plot using logarithmic scales for both axes.

See the documentation of plot for a description of the arguments that loglog will accept.

If the first argument hax is an axes handle, then plot into this axis, rather than the current axes returned by gca.

The optional return value h is a graphics handle to the created plot.

See also: plot, semilogx, semilogy.

The functions bar, barh, stairs, and stem are useful for displaying discrete data. For example,

hist (randn (10000, 1), 30);

produces the histogram of 10,000 normally distributed random numbers shown in Figure 15.2.

hist

Figure 15.2: Histogram.

Function File: bar (y)
Function File: bar (x, y)
Function File: bar (…, w)
Function File: bar (…, style)
Function File: bar (…, prop, val, …)
Function File: bar (hax, …)
Function File: h = bar (…, prop, val, …)

Produce a bar graph from two vectors of X-Y data.

If only one argument is given, y, it is taken as a vector of Y values and the X coordinates are the range 1:numel (y).

The optional input w controls the width of the bars. A value of 1.0 will cause each bar to exactly touch any adjacent bars. The default width is 0.8.

If y is a matrix, then each column of y is taken to be a separate bar graph plotted on the same graph. By default the columns are plotted side-by-side. This behavior can be changed by the style argument which can take the following values:

"grouped" (default)

Side-by-side bars with a gap between bars and centered over the X-coordinate.

"stacked"

Bars are stacked so that each X value has a single bar composed of multiple segments.

"hist"

Side-by-side bars with no gap between bars and centered over the X-coordinate.

"histc"

Side-by-side bars with no gap between bars and left-aligned to the X-coordinate.

Optional property/value pairs are passed directly to the underlying patch objects.

If the first argument hax is an axes handle, then plot into this axis, rather than the current axes returned by gca.

The optional return value h is a vector of handles to the created "bar series" hggroups with one handle per column of the variable y. This series makes it possible to change a common element in one bar series object and have the change reflected in the other "bar series". For example,

h = bar (rand (5, 10));
set (h(1), "basevalue", 0.5);

changes the position on the base of all of the bar series.

The following example modifies the face and edge colors using property/value pairs.

bar (randn (1, 100), "facecolor", "r", "edgecolor", "b");

The color of the bars is taken from the figure’s colormap, such that

bar (rand (10, 3));
colormap (summer (64));

will change the colors used for the bars. The color of bars can also be set manually using the "facecolor" property as shown below.

h = bar (rand (10, 3));
set (h(1), "facecolor", "r")
set (h(2), "facecolor", "g")
set (h(3), "facecolor", "b")

See also: barh, hist, pie, plot, patch.

Function File: barh (y)
Function File: barh (x, y)
Function File: barh (…, w)
Function File: barh (…, style)
Function File: barh (…, prop, val, …)
Function File: barh (hax, …)
Function File: h = barh (…, prop, val, …)

Produce a horizontal bar graph from two vectors of X-Y data.

If only one argument is given, it is taken as a vector of Y values and the X coordinates are the range 1:numel (y).

The optional input w controls the width of the bars. A value of 1.0 will cause each bar to exactly touch any adjacent bars. The default width is 0.8.

If y is a matrix, then each column of y is taken to be a separate bar graph plotted on the same graph. By default the columns are plotted side-by-side. This behavior can be changed by the style argument which can take the following values:

"grouped" (default)

Side-by-side bars with a gap between bars and centered over the Y-coordinate.

"stacked"

Bars are stacked so that each Y value has a single bar composed of multiple segments.

"hist"

Side-by-side bars with no gap between bars and centered over the Y-coordinate.

"histc"

Side-by-side bars with no gap between bars and left-aligned to the Y-coordinate.

Optional property/value pairs are passed directly to the underlying patch objects.

If the first argument hax is an axes handle, then plot into this axis, rather than the current axes returned by gca.

The optional return value h is a graphics handle to the created bar series hggroup. For a description of the use of the bar series, see bar.

See also: bar, hist, pie, plot, patch.

Function File: hist (y)
Function File: hist (y, x)
Function File: hist (y, nbins)
Function File: hist (y, x, norm)
Function File: hist (…, prop, val, …)
Function File: hist (hax, …)
Function File: [nn, xx] = hist (…)

Produce histogram counts or plots.

With one vector input argument, y, plot a histogram of the values with 10 bins. The range of the histogram bins is determined by the range of the data. With one matrix input argument, y, plot a histogram where each bin contains a bar per input column.

Given a second vector argument, x, use that as the centers of the bins, with the width of the bins determined from the adjacent values in the vector.

If scalar, the second argument, nbins, defines the number of bins.

If a third argument is provided, the histogram is normalized such that the sum of the bars is equal to norm.

Extreme values are lumped into the first and last bins.

The histogram’s appearance may be modified by specifying property/value pairs. For example the face and edge color may be modified.

hist (randn (1, 100), 25, "facecolor", "r", "edgecolor", "b");

The histogram’s colors also depend upon the current colormap.

hist (rand (10, 3));
colormap (summer ());

If the first argument hax is an axes handle, then plot into this axis, rather than the current axes returned by gca.

With two output arguments, produce the values nn (numbers of elements) and xx (bin centers) such that bar (xx, nn) will plot the histogram.

See also: histc, bar, pie, rose.

Function File: stemleaf (x, caption)
Function File: stemleaf (x, caption, stem_sz)
Function File: plotstr = stemleaf (…)

Compute and display a stem and leaf plot of the vector x.

The input x should be a vector of integers. Any non-integer values will be converted to integer by x = fix (x). By default each element of x will be plotted with the last digit of the element as a leaf value and the remaining digits as the stem. For example, 123 will be plotted with the stem ‘12’ and the leaf ‘3’. The second argument, caption, should be a character array which provides a description of the data. It is included as a heading for the output.

The optional input stem_sz sets the width of each stem. The stem width is determined by 10^(stem_sz + 1). The default stem width is 10.

The output of stemleaf is composed of two parts: a "Fenced Letter Display," followed by the stem-and-leaf plot itself. The Fenced Letter Display is described in Exploratory Data Analysis. Briefly, the entries are as shown:

        Fenced Letter Display
#% nx|___________________     nx = numel (x)
M% mi|       md         |     mi median index, md median
H% hi|hl              hu| hs  hi lower hinge index, hl,hu hinges,
1    |x(1)         x(nx)|     hs h_spreadx(1), x(nx) first 
           _______            and last data value.
     ______|step |_______     step 1.5*h_spread
    f|ifl            ifh|     inner fence, lower and higher
     |nfl            nfh|     no.\ of data points within fences
    F|ofl            ofh|     outer fence, lower and higher
     |nFl            nFh|     no.\ of data points outside outer
                              fences

The stem-and-leaf plot shows on each line the stem value followed by the string made up of the leaf digits. If the stem_sz is not 1 the successive leaf values are separated by ",".

With no return argument, the plot is immediately displayed. If an output argument is provided, the plot is returned as an array of strings.

The leaf digits are not sorted. If sorted leaf values are desired, use xs = sort (x) before calling stemleaf (xs).

The stem and leaf plot and associated displays are described in: Ch. 3, Exploratory Data Analysis by J. W. Tukey, Addison-Wesley, 1977.

See also: hist, printd.

Function File: printd (obj, filename)
Function File: out_file = printd (…)

Convert any object acceptable to disp into the format selected by the suffix of filename. If the return argument out_file is given, the name of the created file is returned.

This function is intended to facilitate manipulation of the output of functions such as stemleaf.

See also: stemleaf.

Function File: stairs (y)
Function File: stairs (x, y)
Function File: stairs (…, style)
Function File: stairs (…, prop, val, …)
Function File: stairs (hax, …)
Function File: h = stairs (…)
Function File: [xstep, ystep] = stairs (…)

Produce a stairstep plot.

The arguments x and y may be vectors or matrices. If only one argument is given, it is taken as a vector of Y values and the X coordinates are taken to be the indices of the elements.

The style to use for the plot can be defined with a line style style of the same format as the plot command.

Multiple property/value pairs may be specified, but they must appear in pairs.

If the first argument hax is an axis handle, then plot into this axis, rather than the current axis handle returned by gca.

If one output argument is requested, return a graphics handle to the created plot. If two output arguments are specified, the data are generated but not plotted. For example,

stairs (x, y);

and

[xs, ys] = stairs (x, y);
plot (xs, ys);

are equivalent.

See also: bar, hist, plot, stem.

Function File: stem (y)
Function File: stem (x, y)
Function File: stem (…, linespec)
Function File: stem (…, "filled")
Function File: stem (…, prop, val, …)
Function File: stem (hax, …)
Function File: h = stem (…)

Plot a 2-D stem graph.

If only one argument is given, it is taken as the y-values and the x-coordinates are taken from the indices of the elements.

If y is a matrix, then each column of the matrix is plotted as a separate stem graph. In this case x can either be a vector, the same length as the number of rows in y, or it can be a matrix of the same size as y.

The default color is "b" (blue), the default line style is "-", and the default marker is "o". The line style can be altered by the linespec argument in the same manner as the plot command. If the "filled" argument is present the markers at the top of the stems will be filled in. For example,

x = 1:10;
y = 2*x;
stem (x, y, "r");

plots 10 stems with heights from 2 to 20 in red;

Optional property/value pairs may be specified to control the appearance of the plot.

If the first argument hax is an axes handle, then plot into this axis, rather than the current axes returned by gca.

The optional return value h is a handle to a "stem series" hggroup. The single hggroup handle has all of the graphical elements comprising the plot as its children; This allows the properties of multiple graphics objects to be changed by modifying just a single property of the "stem series" hggroup.

For example,

x = [0:10]';
y = [sin(x), cos(x)]
h = stem (x, y);
set (h(2), "color", "g");
set (h(1), "basevalue", -1)

changes the color of the second "stem series" and moves the base line of the first.

Stem Series Properties

linestyle

The linestyle of the stem. (Default: "-")

linewidth

The width of the stem. (Default: 0.5)

color

The color of the stem, and if not separately specified, the marker. (Default: "b" [blue])

marker

The marker symbol to use at the top of each stem. (Default: "o")

markeredgecolor

The edge color of the marker. (Default: "color" property)

markerfacecolor

The color to use for "filling" the marker. (Default: "none" [unfilled])

markersize

The size of the marker. (Default: 6)

baseline

The handle of the line object which implements the baseline. Use set with the returned handle to change graphic properties of the baseline.

basevalue

The y-value where the baseline is drawn. (Default: 0)

See also: stem3, bar, hist, plot, stairs.

Function File: stem3 (x, y, z)
Function File: stem3 (…, linespec)
Function File: stem3 (…, "filled")
Function File: stem3 (…, prop, val, …)
Function File: stem3 (hax, …)
Function File: h = stem3 (…)

Plot a 3-D stem graph.

Stems are drawn from the height z to the location in the x-y plane determined by x and y. The default color is "b" (blue), the default line style is "-", and the default marker is "o".

The line style can be altered by the linespec argument in the same manner as the plot command. If the "filled" argument is present the markers at the top of the stems will be filled in.

Optional property/value pairs may be specified to control the appearance of the plot.

If the first argument hax is an axes handle, then plot into this axis, rather than the current axes returned by gca.

The optional return value h is a handle to the "stem series" hggroup containing the line and marker objects used for the plot. See stem, for a description of the "stem series" object.

Example:

theta = 0:0.2:6;
stem3 (cos (theta), sin (theta), theta);

plots 31 stems with heights from 0 to 6 lying on a circle.

Implementation Note: Color definitions with RGB-triples are not valid.

See also: stem, bar, hist, plot.

Function File: scatter (x, y)
Function File: scatter (x, y, s)
Function File: scatter (x, y, s, c)
Function File: scatter (…, style)
Function File: scatter (…, "filled")
Function File: scatter (…, prop, val, …)
Function File: scatter (hax, …)
Function File: h = scatter (…)

Draw a 2-D scatter plot.

A marker is plotted at each point defined by the coordinates in the vectors x and y.

The size of the markers is determined by s, which can be a scalar or a vector of the same length as x and y. If s is not given, or is an empty matrix, then a default value of 8 points is used.

The color of the markers is determined by c, which can be a string defining a fixed color; a 3-element vector giving the red, green, and blue components of the color; a vector of the same length as x that gives a scaled index into the current colormap; or an Nx3 matrix defining the RGB color of each marker individually.

The marker to use can be changed with the style argument, that is a string defining a marker in the same manner as the plot command. If no marker is specified it defaults to "o" or circles. If the argument "filled" is given then the markers are filled.

Additional property/value pairs are passed directly to the underlying patch object.

If the first argument hax is an axes handle, then plot into this axis, rather than the current axes returned by gca.

The optional return value h is a graphics handle to the created patch object.

Example:

x = randn (100, 1);
y = randn (100, 1);
scatter (x, y, [], sqrt (x.^2 + y.^2));

See also: scatter3, patch, plot.

Function File: plotmatrix (x, y)
Function File: plotmatrix (x)
Function File: plotmatrix (…, style)
Function File: plotmatrix (hax, …)
Function File: [h, ax, bigax, p, pax] = plotmatrix (…)

Scatter plot of the columns of one matrix against another.

Given the arguments x and y, that have a matching number of rows, plotmatrix plots a set of axes corresponding to

plot (x(:, i), y(:, j))

Given a single argument x this is equivalent to

plotmatrix (x, x)

except that the diagonal of the set of axes will be replaced with the histogram hist (x(:, i)).

The marker to use can be changed with the style argument, that is a string defining a marker in the same manner as the plot command.

If the first argument hax is an axes handle, then plot into this axis, rather than the current axes returned by gca.

The optional return value h provides handles to the individual graphics objects in the scatter plots, whereas ax returns the handles to the scatter plot axis objects. bigax is a hidden axis object that surrounds the other axes, such that the commands xlabel, title, etc., will be associated with this hidden axis. Finally, p returns the graphics objects associated with the histogram and pax the corresponding axes objects.

Example:

plotmatrix (randn (100, 3), "g+")

See also: scatter, plot.

Function File: pareto (y)
Function File: pareto (y, x)
Function File: pareto (hax, …)
Function File: h = pareto (…)

Draw a Pareto chart.

A Pareto chart is a bar graph that arranges information in such a way that priorities for process improvement can be established; It organizes and displays information to show the relative importance of data. The chart is similar to the histogram or bar chart, except that the bars are arranged in decreasing magnitude from left to right along the x-axis.

The fundamental idea (Pareto principle) behind the use of Pareto diagrams is that the majority of an effect is due to a small subset of the causes. For quality improvement, the first few contributing causes (leftmost bars as presented on the diagram) to a problem usually account for the majority of the result. Thus, targeting these "major causes" for elimination results in the most cost-effective improvement scheme.

Typically only the magnitude data y is present in which case x is taken to be the range 1 : length (y). If x is given it may be a string array, a cell array of strings, or a numerical vector.

If the first argument hax is an axes handle, then plot into this axis, rather than the current axes returned by gca.

The optional return value h is a 2-element vector with a graphics handle for the created bar plot and a second handle for the created line plot.

An example of the use of pareto is

Cheese = {"Cheddar", "Swiss", "Camembert", ...
          "Munster", "Stilton", "Blue"};
Sold = [105, 30, 70, 10, 15, 20];
pareto (Sold, Cheese);

See also: bar, barh, hist, pie, plot.

Function File: rose (th)
Function File: rose (th, nbins)
Function File: rose (th, bins)
Function File: rose (hax, …)
Function File: h = rose (…)
Function File: [thout rout] = rose (…)

Plot an angular histogram.

With one vector argument, th, plot the histogram with 20 angular bins. If th is a matrix then each column of th produces a separate histogram.

If nbins is given and is a scalar, then the histogram is produced with nbin bins. If bins is a vector, then the center of each bin is defined by the values of bins and the number of bins is given by the number of elements in bins.

If the first argument hax is an axes handle, then plot into this axis, rather than the current axes returned by gca.

The optional return value h is a vector of graphics handles to the line objects representing each histogram.

If two output arguments are requested then no plot is made and the polar vectors necessary to plot the histogram are returned instead.

[th, r] = rose ([2*randn(1e5,1), pi + 2*randn(1e5,1)]);
polar (th, r);

See also: hist, polar.

The contour, contourf and contourc functions produce two-dimensional contour plots from three-dimensional data.

Function File: contour (z)
Function File: contour (z, vn)
Function File: contour (x, y, z)
Function File: contour (x, y, z, vn)
Function File: contour (…, style)
Function File: contour (hax, …)
Function File: [c, h] = contour (…)

Create a 2-D contour plot.

Plot level curves (contour lines) of the matrix z, using the contour matrix c computed by contourc from the same arguments; see the latter for their interpretation.

The appearance of contour lines can be defined with a line style style in the same manner as plot. Only line style and color are used; Any markers defined by style are ignored.

If the first argument hax is an axes handle, then plot into this axis, rather than the current axes returned by gca.

The optional output c are the contour levels in contourc format.

The optional return value h is a graphics handle to the hggroup comprising the contour lines.

Example:

x = 0:2;
y = x;
z = x' * y;
contour (x, y, z, 2:3)

See also: ezcontour, contourc, contourf, contour3, clabel, meshc, surfc, caxis, colormap, plot.

Function File: contourf (z)
Function File: contourf (z, vn)
Function File: contourf (x, y, z)
Function File: contourf (x, y, z, vn)
Function File: contourf (…, style)
Function File: contourf (hax, …)
Function File: [c, h] = contourf (…)

Create a 2-D contour plot with filled intervals.

Plot level curves (contour lines) of the matrix z and fill the region between lines with colors from the current colormap.

The level curves are taken from the contour matrix c computed by contourc for the same arguments; see the latter for their interpretation.

The appearance of contour lines can be defined with a line style style in the same manner as plot. Only line style and color are used; Any markers defined by style are ignored.

If the first argument hax is an axes handle, then plot into this axis, rather than the current axes returned by gca.

The optional output c are the contour levels in contourc format.

The optional return value h is a graphics handle to the hggroup comprising the contour lines.

The following example plots filled contours of the peaks function.

[x, y, z] = peaks (50);
contourf (x, y, z, -7:9)

See also: ezcontourf, contour, contourc, contour3, clabel, meshc, surfc, caxis, colormap, plot.

Function File: [c, lev] = contourc (z)
Function File: [c, lev] = contourc (z, vn)
Function File: [c, lev] = contourc (x, y, z)
Function File: [c, lev] = contourc (x, y, z, vn)

Compute contour lines (isolines of constant Z value).

The matrix z contains height values above the rectangular grid determined by x and y. If only a single input z is provided then x is taken to be 1:rows (z) and y is taken to be 1:columns (z).

The optional input vn is either a scalar denoting the number of contour lines to compute or a vector containing the Z values where lines will be computed. When vn is a vector the number of contour lines is numel (vn). However, to compute a single contour line at a given value use vn = [val, val]. If vn is omitted it defaults to 10.

The return value c is a 2xn matrix containing the contour lines in the following format

c = [lev1, x1, x2, …, levn, x1, x2, ...
     len1, y1, y2, …, lenn, y1, y2, …]

in which contour line n has a level (height) of levn and length of lenn.

The optional return value lev is a vector with the Z values of of the contour levels.

Example:

x = 0:2;
y = x;
z = x' * y;
contourc (x, y, z, 2:3)
   ⇒   2.0000   2.0000   1.0000   3.0000   1.5000   2.0000
        2.0000   1.0000   2.0000   2.0000   2.0000   1.5000

See also: contour, contourf, contour3, clabel.

Function File: contour3 (z)
Function File: contour3 (z, vn)
Function File: contour3 (x, y, z)
Function File: contour3 (x, y, z, vn)
Function File: contour3 (…, style)
Function File: contour3 (hax, …)
Function File: [c, h] = contour3 (…)

Create a 3-D contour plot.

contour3 plots level curves (contour lines) of the matrix z at a Z level corresponding to each contour. This is in contrast to contour which plots all of the contour lines at the same Z level and produces a 2-D plot.

The level curves are taken from the contour matrix c computed by contourc for the same arguments; see the latter for their interpretation.

The appearance of contour lines can be defined with a line style style in the same manner as plot. Only line style and color are used; Any markers defined by style are ignored.

If the first argument hax is an axes handle, then plot into this axis, rather than the current axes returned by gca.

The optional output c are the contour levels in contourc format.

The optional return value h is a graphics handle to the hggroup comprising the contour lines.

Example:

contour3 (peaks (19));
colormap cool;
hold on;
surf (peaks (19), "facecolor", "none", "edgecolor", "black");

See also: contour, contourc, contourf, clabel, meshc, surfc, caxis, colormap, plot.

The errorbar, semilogxerr, semilogyerr, and loglogerr functions produce plots with error bar markers. For example,

x = 0:0.1:10;
y = sin (x);
yp =  0.1 .* randn (size (x));
ym = -0.1 .* randn (size (x));
errorbar (x, sin (x), ym, yp);

produces the figure shown in Figure 15.3.

errorbar

Figure 15.3: Errorbar plot.

Function File: errorbar (args)
Function File: errorbar (hax, …)
Function File: h = errorbar (…)

Create a 2-D with errorbars.

Many different combinations of arguments are possible. The simplest form is

errorbar (y, ey)

where the first argument is taken as the set of y coordinates and the second argument ey is taken as the errors of the y values. x coordinates are taken to be the indices of the elements, starting with 1.

If more than two arguments are given, they are interpreted as

errorbar (x, y, …, fmt, …)

where after x and y there can be up to four error parameters such as ey, ex, ly, uy, etc., depending on the plot type. Any number of argument sets may appear, as long as they are separated with a format string fmt.

If y is a matrix, x and error parameters must also be matrices having same dimensions. The columns of y are plotted versus the corresponding columns of x and errorbars are drawn from the corresponding columns of error parameters.

If fmt is missing, yerrorbars ("~") plot style is assumed.

If the fmt argument is supplied, it is interpreted as in normal plots. In addition, fmt may include an errorbar style which must precede the line and marker format. The following plot styles are supported by errorbar:

~

Set yerrorbars plot style (default).

>

Set xerrorbars plot style.

~>

Set xyerrorbars plot style.

#

Set boxes plot style.

#~

Set boxerrorbars plot style.

#~>

Set boxxyerrorbars plot style.

If the first argument hax is an axes handle, then plot into this axis, rather than the current axes returned by gca.

The optional return value h is a handle to the hggroup object representing the data plot and errorbars.

Examples:

errorbar (x, y, ex, ">")

produces an xerrorbar plot of y versus x with x errorbars drawn from x-ex to x+ex.

errorbar (x, y1, ey, "~",
          x, y2, ly, uy)

produces yerrorbar plots with y1 and y2 versus x. Errorbars for y1 are drawn from y1-ey to y1+ey, errorbars for y2 from y2-ly to y2+uy.

errorbar (x, y, lx, ux,
          ly, uy, "~>")

produces an xyerrorbar plot of y versus x in which x errorbars are drawn from x-lx to x+ux and y errorbars from y-ly to y+uy.

See also: semilogxerr, semilogyerr, loglogerr, plot.

Function File: semilogxerr (args)
Function File: semilogxerr (hax, args)
Function File: h = semilogxerr (args)

Produce 2-D plots using a logarithmic scale for the x-axis and errorbars at each data point.

Many different combinations of arguments are possible. The most common form is

semilogxerr (x, y, ey, fmt)

which produces a semi-logarithmic plot of y versus x with errors in the y-scale defined by ey and the plot format defined by fmt. See errorbar, for available formats and additional information.

If the first argument hax is an axes handle, then plot into this axis, rather than the current axes returned by gca.

See also: errorbar, semilogyerr, loglogerr.

Function File: semilogyerr (args)
Function File: semilogyerr (hax, args)
Function File: h = semilogyerr (args)

Produce 2-D plots using a logarithmic scale for the y-axis and errorbars at each data point.

Many different combinations of arguments are possible. The most common form is

semilogyerr (x, y, ey, fmt)

which produces a semi-logarithmic plot of y versus x with errors in the y-scale defined by ey and the plot format defined by fmt. See errorbar, for available formats and additional information.

If the first argument hax is an axes handle, then plot into this axis, rather than the current axes returned by gca.

See also: errorbar, semilogxerr, loglogerr.

Function File: loglogerr (args)
Function File: loglogerr (hax, …)
Function File: h = loglogerr (…)

Produce 2-D plots on a double logarithm axis with errorbars.

Many different combinations of arguments are possible. The most common form is

loglogerr (x, y, ey, fmt)

which produces a double logarithm plot of y versus x with errors in the y-scale defined by ey and the plot format defined by fmt. See errorbar, for available formats and additional information.

If the first argument hax is an axes handle, then plot into this axis, rather than the current axes returned by gca.

See also: errorbar, semilogxerr, semilogyerr.

Finally, the polar function allows you to easily plot data in polar coordinates. However, the display coordinates remain rectangular and linear. For example,

polar (0:0.1:10*pi, 0:0.1:10*pi);

produces the spiral plot shown in Figure 15.4.

polar

Figure 15.4: Polar plot.

Function File: polar (theta, rho)
Function File: polar (theta, rho, fmt)
Function File: polar (cplx)
Function File: polar (cplx, fmt)
Function File: polar (hax, …)
Function File: h = polar (…)

Create a 2-D plot from polar coordinates theta and rho.

If a single complex input cplx is given then the real part is used for theta and the imaginary part is used for rho.

The optional argument fmt specifies the line format in the same way as plot.

If the first argument hax is an axes handle, then plot into this axis, rather than the current axes returned by gca.

The optional return value h is a graphics handle to the created plot.

See also: rose, compass, plot.

Function File: pie (x)
Function File: pie (…, explode)
Function File: pie (…, labels)
Function File: pie (hax, …);
Function File: h = pie (…);

Plot a 2-D pie chart.

When called with a single vector argument, produce a pie chart of the elements in x. The size of the ith slice is the percentage that the element xi represents of the total sum of x: pct = x(i) / sum (x).

The optional input explode is a vector of the same length as x that, if non-zero, "explodes" the slice from the pie chart.

The optional input labels is a cell array of strings of the same length as x specifying the label for each slice.

If the first argument hax is an axes handle, then plot into this axis, rather than the current axes returned by gca.

The optional return value h is a list of handles to the patch and text objects generating the plot.

Note: If sum (x) ≤ 1 then the elements of x are interpreted as percentages directly and are not normalized by sum (x). Furthermore, if the sum is less than 1 then there will be a missing slice in the pie plot to represent the missing, unspecified percentage.

See also: pie3, bar, hist, rose.

Function File: pie3 (x)
Function File: pie3 (…, explode)
Function File: pie3 (…, labels)
Function File: pie3 (hax, …);
Function File: h = pie3 (…);

Plot a 3-D pie chart.

Called with a single vector argument, produces a 3-D pie chart of the elements in x. The size of the ith slice is the percentage that the element xi represents of the total sum of x: pct = x(i) / sum (x).

The optional input explode is a vector of the same length as x that, if non-zero, "explodes" the slice from the pie chart.

The optional input labels is a cell array of strings of the same length as x specifying the label for each slice.

If the first argument hax is an axes handle, then plot into this axis, rather than the current axes returned by gca.

The optional return value h is a list of graphics handles to the patch, surface, and text objects generating the plot.

Note: If sum (x) ≤ 1 then the elements of x are interpreted as percentages directly and are not normalized by sum (x). Furthermore, if the sum is less than 1 then there will be a missing slice in the pie plot to represent the missing, unspecified percentage.

See also: pie, bar, hist, rose.

Function File: quiver (u, v)
Function File: quiver (x, y, u, v)
Function File: quiver (…, s)
Function File: quiver (…, style)
Function File: quiver (…, "filled")
Function File: quiver (hax, …)
Function File: h = quiver (…)

Plot the (u, v) components of a vector field in an (x, y) meshgrid. If the grid is uniform, you can specify x and y as vectors.

If x and y are undefined they are assumed to be (1:m, 1:n) where [m, n] = size (u).

The variable s is a scalar defining a scaling factor to use for the arrows of the field relative to the mesh spacing. A value of 0 disables all scaling. The default value is 0.9.

The style to use for the plot can be defined with a line style style of the same format as the plot command. If a marker is specified then markers at the grid points of the vectors are drawn rather than arrows. If the argument "filled" is given then the markers are filled.

If the first argument hax is an axes handle, then plot into this axis, rather than the current axes returned by gca.

The optional return value h is a graphics handle to a quiver object. A quiver object regroups the components of the quiver plot (body, arrow, and marker), and allows them to be changed together.

Example:

[x, y] = meshgrid (1:2:20);
h = quiver (x, y, sin (2*pi*x/10), sin (2*pi*y/10));
set (h, "maxheadsize", 0.33);

See also: quiver3, compass, feather, plot.

Function File: quiver3 (u, v, w)
Function File: quiver3 (x, y, z, u, v, w)
Function File: quiver3 (…, s)
Function File: quiver3 (…, style)
Function File: quiver3 (…, "filled")
Function File: quiver3 (hax, …)
Function File: h = quiver3 (…)

Plot the (u, v, w) components of a vector field in an (x, y, z) meshgrid. If the grid is uniform, you can specify x, y, and z as vectors.

If x, y, and z are undefined they are assumed to be (1:m, 1:n, 1:p) where [m, n] = size (u) and p = max (size (w)).

The variable s is a scalar defining a scaling factor to use for the arrows of the field relative to the mesh spacing. A value of 0 disables all scaling. The default value is 0.9.

The style to use for the plot can be defined with a line style style of the same format as the plot command. If a marker is specified then markers at the grid points of the vectors are drawn rather than arrows. If the argument "filled" is given then the markers are filled.

If the first argument hax is an axes handle, then plot into this axis, rather than the current axes returned by gca.

The optional return value h is a graphics handle to a quiver object. A quiver object regroups the components of the quiver plot (body, arrow, and marker), and allows them to be changed together.

[x, y, z] = peaks (25);
surf (x, y, z);
hold on;
[u, v, w] = surfnorm (x, y, z / 10);
h = quiver3 (x, y, z, u, v, w);
set (h, "maxheadsize", 0.33);

See also: quiver, compass, feather, plot.

Function File: compass (u, v)
Function File: compass (z)
Function File: compass (…, style)
Function File: compass (hax, …)
Function File: h = compass (…)

Plot the (u, v) components of a vector field emanating from the origin of a polar plot.

The arrow representing each vector has one end at the origin and the tip at [u(i), v(i)]. If a single complex argument z is given, then u = real (z) and v = imag (z).

The style to use for the plot can be defined with a line style style of the same format as the plot command.

If the first argument hax is an axes handle, then plot into this axis, rather than the current axes returned by gca.

The optional return value h is a vector of graphics handles to the line objects representing the drawn vectors.

a = toeplitz ([1;randn(9,1)], [1,randn(1,9)]);
compass (eig (a));

See also: polar, feather, quiver, rose, plot.

Function File: feather (u, v)
Function File: feather (z)
Function File: feather (…, style)
Function File: feather (hax, …)
Function File: h = feather (…)

Plot the (u, v) components of a vector field emanating from equidistant points on the x-axis.

If a single complex argument z is given, then u = real (z) and v = imag (z).

The style to use for the plot can be defined with a line style style of the same format as the plot command.

If the first argument hax is an axes handle, then plot into this axis, rather than the current axes returned by gca.

The optional return value h is a vector of graphics handles to the line objects representing the drawn vectors.

phi = [0 : 15 : 360] * pi/180;
feather (sin (phi), cos (phi));

See also: plot, quiver, compass.

Function File: pcolor (x, y, c)
Function File: pcolor (c)
Function File: pcolor (hax, …)
Function File: h = pcolor (…)

Produce a 2-D density plot.

A pcolor plot draws rectangles with colors from the matrix c over the two-dimensional region represented by the matrices x and y. x and y are the coordinates of the mesh’s vertices and are typically the output of meshgrid. If x and y are vectors, then a typical vertex is (x(j), y(i), c(i,j)). Thus, columns of c correspond to different x values and rows of c correspond to different y values.

The values in c are scaled to span the range of the current colormap. Limits may be placed on the color axis by the command caxis, or by setting the clim property of the parent axis.

The face color of each cell of the mesh is determined by interpolating the values of c for each of the cell’s vertices; Contrast this with imagesc which renders one cell for each element of c.

shading modifies an attribute determining the manner by which the face color of each cell is interpolated from the values of c, and the visibility of the cells’ edges. By default the attribute is "faceted", which renders a single color for each cell’s face with the edge visible.

If the first argument hax is an axes handle, then plot into this axis, rather than the current axes returned by gca.

The optional return value h is a graphics handle to the created surface object.

See also: caxis, shading, meshgrid, contour, imagesc.

Function File: area (y)
Function File: area (x, y)
Function File: area (…, lvl)
Function File: area (…, prop, val, …)
Function File: area (hax, …)
Function File: h = area (…)

Area plot of the columns of y.

This plot shows the contributions of each column value to the row sum. It is functionally similar to plot (x, cumsum (y, 2)), except that the area under the curve is shaded.

If the x argument is omitted it defaults to 1:rows (y). A value lvl can be defined that determines where the base level of the shading under the curve should be defined. The default level is 0.

Additional property/value pairs are passed directly to the underlying patch object.

If the first argument hax is an axes handle, then plot into this axis, rather than the current axes returned by gca.

The optional return value h is a graphics handle to the hggroup object comprising the area patch objects. The "BaseValue" property of the hggroup can be used to adjust the level where shading begins.

Example: Verify identity sin^2 + cos^2 = 1

t = linspace (0, 2*pi, 100)';
y = [sin(t).^2, cos(t).^2)];
area (t, y);
legend ("sin^2", "cos^2", "location", "NorthEastOutside");

See also: plot, patch.

Function File: comet (y)
Function File: comet (x, y)
Function File: comet (x, y, p)
Function File: comet (hax, …)

Produce a simple comet style animation along the trajectory provided by the input coordinate vectors (x, y). If x is not specified it defaults to the indices of y.

The speed of the comet may be controlled by p, which represents the time each point is displayed before moving to the next one. The default for p is 0.1 seconds.

If the first argument hax is an axes handle, then plot into this axis, rather than the current axes returned by gca.

See also: comet3.

Function File: comet3 (z)
Function File: comet3 (x, y, z)
Function File: comet3 (x, y, z, p)
Function File: comet3 (hax, …)

Produce a simple comet style animation along the trajectory provided by the input coordinate vectors (x, y, z). If only z is specified then x, y default to the indices of z.

The speed of the comet may be controlled by p, which represents the time each point is displayed before moving to the next one. The default for p is 0.1 seconds.

If the first argument hax is an axes handle, then plot into this axis, rather than the current axes returned by gca.

See also: comet.


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