With a good grasp of the frequency domain, we can revisit the problem of convolution on the image edges, see Edges in the spatial domain. When we apply the convolution theorem (see Convolution theorem) to convolve an image, we first take the discrete Fourier transforms (DFT, Discrete Fourier transform) of both the input image and the kernel, then we multiply them with each other and then take the inverse DFT to construct the convolved image. Of course, in order to multiply them with each other in the frequency domain, the two images have to be the same size, so let’s assume that we pad the kernel (it is usually smaller than the input image) with zero valued pixels in both dimensions so it becomes the same size as the input image before the DFT.

Having multiplied the two DFTs, we now apply the inverse DFT which is where the problem is usually created. If the DFT of the kernel only had values of 1 (unrealistic condition!) then there would be no problem and the inverse DFT of the multiplication would be identical with the input. However in real situations, the kernel’s DFT has a maximum of 1 (because the sum of the kernel has to be one, see Convolution process) and decreases something like the hypothetical profile of Figure 6.3. So when multiplied with the input image’s DFT, the coefficients or magnitudes (see Circles and the complex plane) of the smallest frequency (or the sum of the input image pixels) remains unchanged, while the magnitudes of the higher frequencies are significantly reduced.

As we saw in Sampling theorem, the Fourier transform of a discrete input will be infinitely repeated. In the final inverse DFT step, the input is in the frequency domain (the multiplied DFT of the input image and the kernel DFT). So the result (our output convolved image) will be infinitely repeated in the spatial domain. In order to accurately reconstruct the input image, we need all the frequencies with the correct magnitudes. However, when the magnitudes of higher frequencies are decreased, longer periods (shorter frequencies) will dominate in the reconstructed pixel values. Therefore, when constructing a pixel on the edge of the image, the newly empowered longer periods will look beyond the input image edges and will find the repeated input image there. So if you convolve an image in this fashion using the convolution theorem, when a bright object exists on one edge of the image, its blurred wings will be present on the other side of the convolved image. This is often termed as circular convolution or cyclic convolution.

So, as long as we are dealing with convolution in the frequency domain, there is nothing we can do about the image edges.
The least we can do is to eliminate the ghosts of the other side of the image.
So, we add zero valued pixels to both the input image and the kernel in both dimensions so the image that will be convolved has a size equal to the sum of both images in each dimension.
Of course, the effect of this zero-padding is that the sides of the output convolved image will become dark.
To put it another way, the edges are going to drain the flux from nearby objects.
But at least it is consistent across all the edges of the image and is predictable.
In Convolve, you can see the padded images when inspecting the frequency domain convolution steps with the `--viewfreqsteps` option.

GNU Astronomy Utilities 0.22 manual, February 2024.