GNU's Bulletin, vol. 1 no. 14, January, 1993
Table of Contents
The GNU's Bulletin is the semi-annual newsletter of the
Free Software Foundation, bringing you news about the GNU Project.
Free Software Foundation, Inc. Telephone: (617) 876-3296
675 Massachusetts Avenue Electronic mail:
Cambridge, MA 02139 USA
Michael Bushnell is working on the GNU operating system and
tar. Jim Blandy is preparing GNU Emacs
19. Roland McGrath is polishing the C library, maintains GNU
make, and helps with the GNU operating system.
Tom Lord is writing a graphics library and working on
Oleo, the GNU spreadsheet. Brian Fox is improving various
programs that he has written including
readline library, and BASH, and is writing the BASH
manual. Jan Brittenson is working on the C interpreter and
finger. Mike Haertel is making GNU
grep POSIX-compliant and beginning work on optical character
recognition. David MacKenzie maintains most of GNU's small
utilities--more programs than nearly everyone else combined.
Melissa Weisshaus is editing documentation and writing
the GNU Utilities manual. Robert J. Chassell, our
Secretary/Treasurer, handles our publishing in addition to many
Noah Friedman is our system ambiguator. Lisa `Opus'
Goldstein continues to run the business end of FSF, with Gena
Lynne Bean assisting in the office. Spike MacPhee assists RMS
with administrative tasks. Charles Hannum works on typesetting
and many other jobs.
Richard Stallman continues as a volunteer who does
countless tasks, such as C compiler maintenance and finishing the
C Library manual.
Volunteer Len Tower remains our on-line JOAT
(jack-of-all-trades), handling mailing lists and gnUSENET, information
Written and Edited by: Melissa Weisshaus, Noah S. Friedman,
Charles Hannum, Robert J. Chassell, Lisa Goldstein,
and Richard Stallman.
Illustrations by: Etienne Suvasa and Jamal Hannah
Japanese Edition by: Mieko Hikichi and Nobuyuki Hikichi
The GNU's Bulletin is published in January and June of each year.
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Copyright (C) 1993 Free Software Foundation, Inc.
This page is licensed under a Creative
Commons Attribution-NoDerivs 3.0 United States License.
What Is the Free Software Foundation?
The Free Software Foundation is dedicated to eliminating
restrictions on people's abilities and rights to copy, redistribute,
understand, and modify computer programs. We do this by promoting the
development and use of free software in all areas of computer use.
Specifically, we are putting together a complete integrated software
system named "GNU" (GNU's Not Unix) that will be upwardly
compatible with Unix. Most parts of this system are already
working, and we are distributing them now.
The word "free" in our name pertains to freedom, not price. You may or
may not pay money to get GNU software. Either way, you have two specific
freedoms once you have the software: first, the freedom to copy the program
and give it away to your friends and co-workers; and second, the freedom to
change the program as you wish, by having full access to source code.
Furthermore, you can study the source and learn how such programs are
written. You may then be able to port it, improve it, and share your
changes with others. If you redistribute GNU software, you may charge a
fee for the physical act of transferring a copy, or you may give away
Other organizations distribute whatever free software happens to be
available. By contrast, the Free Software Foundation concentrates on
development of new free software, working towards a GNU system complete
enough to eliminate the need for you to purchase a proprietary
Besides developing GNU, FSF distributes copies of GNU software and
manuals for a distribution fee, and accepts tax-deductible gifts to
support GNU development. Most of FSF's funds come from its distribution
service. We are tax exempt; you can deduct donations to us on your
U.S. tax returns.
The Board of the Foundation is: Richard M. Stallman, President;
Robert J. Chassell, Secretary/Treasurer; Gerald J. Sussman,
Harold Abelson, and Leonard H. Tower Jr., Directors.
What Is Copyleft?
The simplest way to make a program free is to put it in the public
domain, uncopyrighted. But this allows anyone to copyright and restrict
its use against the author's wishes, thus denying others the right to
access and freely redistribute it. This completely perverts the
To prevent this, we copyright our software and manuals in a novel
manner. Typical software companies use copyrights to take away your
freedoms. We use the copyleft to preserve them. It is a legal
instrument that requires those who pass on the program to include the
rights to further redistribute it, and to see and change the code; the
code and rights become legally inseparable.
The copyleft used by the GNU Project is made from a combination of a
regular copyright notice and the GNU General Public License (GPL).
The GPL is a copying license which basically says (in several pages of
legalese) that you have the freedoms discussed above. An alternate
form, the GNU Library General Public License (LGPL), applies to
certain GNU Libraries. This license permits linking the libraries into
proprietary executables under certain conditions. The appropriate
license is included in all GNU source code distributions and in many of
our manuals. We will also send you a copy. Please send your request to
either address on the front cover.
Note that the library license actually represents a strategic retreat.
We would prefer to insist as much as possible that programs based on GNU
software must themselves be free. However, in the case of
libraries, we found that insisting they be used only in free software
appeared to discourage use of the libraries rather than encouraging
We strongly encourage you to copyleft your programs and documentation,
and we have made it as simple as possible for you to do so. The details
on how to apply either license appear at the end of each license.
libc are covered by the Library
General Public License. Do you use either of these libraries in a
proprietary application under the terms of the LGPL? We would like to
know to help evaluate whether the LGPL is doing the job it was designed
to do. Please send mail to
firstname.lastname@example.org, or to
the postal address on the front cover of this Bulletin.
Free Software Support
The Free Software Foundation does not provide any technical support.
Although we create software, we leave it to others to earn a living
providing support. We see programmers as providing a service, much as
doctors and lawyers now do; both medical and legal knowledge are freely
redistributable entities for which the practitioners charge a
distribution and service fee.
We maintain a list of people who offer support and other consulting
services, called the GNU Service Directory. It is in the file
`etc/SERVICE' in the GNU Emacs distribution, `SERVICE' in the
GCC distribution, and `/pub/gnu/GNUinfo/SERVICE' on
prep.ai.mit.edu. Contact us if you would like a printed copy
or wish to be listed in it.
If you find a deficiency in any GNU software, we want to know. We have
many Internet mailing lists for announcements, bug reports, and
questions. They are also gatewayed into USENET news as the
newsgroups. You can get a list of the mailing lists available by
mailing your request to either address on the front cover.
If you have no Internet access, you can get mail and USENET news via
UUCP. Contact a local UUCP site, or a commercial UUCP site such as:
UUNET Communications Services,
3110 Fairview Park Drive - Suite 570,
Falls Church, VA 22042
Phone: (703) 876-5050
A list of commercial uucp and networking providers is posted
periodically to USENET in newsgroup
Subject: `How to become a USENET site'.
When we receive a bug report, we usually try to fix the problem. While
our bug fixes may seem like individual assistance, they are not. Our
task is so large that we must focus on that which helps the community as
a whole. We do not have the resources to help individuals. We may send
you a patch for a bug that helps us test the fix and ensure its quality.
If your bug report does not evoke a solution from us, you may still get
one from another user who reads our bug report mailing lists.
Otherwise, use the Service Directory.
So, please do not ask us to help you install the software or figure out
how to use it--but do tell us how an installation script does not work
or where the documentation is unclear.
Free Software Support Far From Home
Here are some free software support companies that we have not mentioned
before. We urge you to employ support service companies such as these,
because you help the industry as well as yourself by getting your pick
of support vendors. The FSF is not affiliated with any of these
companies. For the addresses of other support companies, please consult
the Service Directory.
From the Far East . . .
People in Japan can now contact a local company for GNU software support. The
company is named Wingnut (Fax only: +81-3-3954-5174). The
organizers were inspired by the GNU Manifesto. Wingnut provides two
services: porting and customizing GNU software, and answering technical
questions (including how to install the software). Wingnut also
helped support the recent GNU Technical Seminar in Tokyo.
. . . to Europe . . .
Signum Support AB, in Linkoping, Sweden, is a software company
that supports free software. It has experience in such
diverse areas as compiler internals, computer graphics, version control
systems, and networking.
The company can provide precompiled, ready-to-install binaries along
with the source (currently only for Sun-3 and Sun-4), and it offers a
subscription service for new versions which can be sent monthly or at
any other interval.
Signum also specializes in finding, investigating, and
recommending other free software in any area of the customer's choice.
Signum's service costs vary. The consulting cost ranges from
400-600 SEK/hour. You can contact Signum Support AB as follows:
Signum Support AB
S-580 02 Linkoping
+46 (0)13 21 46 00 (voice)
+46 (0)13 21 47 00 (fax)
. . . to the Far West!
Hundred Acre Consulting provides support and development services to
organizations of all sizes. It specializes in supporting GNU C++
and C; but also provides support for all other GNU software, and some
other free and public domain software as well. Hundred Acre Consulting
operates on a service contract basis, which can include email,
telephone, and on-site support depending on the level of the contract.
Rates vary from $58 to $75 per hour or are based on a fixed bid. You
can contact Hundred Acre Consulting at:
Hundred Acre Consulting
1280 Terminal Way, Suite 26
Reno, NV 89502-3243 USA
Please Support Free Software
If you believe in free software and you want to make sure there is more
in the future---please support the efforts of the FSF with a
Your tax-deductible donation (on U.S. tax returns) will greatly help us
reach our goals.
$500 $250 $100 $50 other $______
Circle the amount you are donating,
cut out this form,
and send it with your donation to:
Free Software Foundation
675 Massachusetts Avenue
Cambridge, MA 02139 USA
Cygnus Matches Donations!
To encourage cash donations to the Free Software Foundation, Cygnus
Support will match gifts by its employees, and by its customers and their
Cygnus will match donations from its employees up to a maximum of
$1000 per employee, and will match donations from customers and their
employees at 50% to a maximum of $1000 per customer. Cygnus Support
will donate up to a total of $10,000 in 1993.
Donations payable to the Free Software Foundation should be sent to
Cygnus Support where they will be matched and forwarded to the FSF each
quarter. The FSF will provide the contributor with a receipt to
recognize the contribution (which is tax-deductible on U.S. tax
returns). Donations sent to the FSF directly will not be matched,
except by prior arrangement with Cygnus Support.
Andrew Toolkit Stays Free
The Andrew Toolkit is both an extensible, object-oriented toolkit for
graphical user interfaces and a package of applications. The most
widely-used application is the Andrew Message System (AMS). The Toolkit
is distributed on the GNU Project's "optional" X Windows tape, and the
GNU Project's Source Code CD-ROM.
Not long ago, several people asked whether the Toolkit would stay free.
It will. The Andrew Toolkit Consortium plans to continue to make
versions of the Toolkit and the AMS freely usable and distributable.
However, there is (as there always has been) a catch: members of the
Consortium get updates sooner and more frequently than the rest of us.
This provides Consortium members with another incentive to continue as
GNU Zip to Replace Compress
by Richard Stallman
We finally have a data compression program that is as good as
compress (actually, somewhat better) and patent-free for the moment.
It is called
gzip and was written by Jean-Loup Gailly,
gzip produces a new format all its own. We
compress-compatible compression because of the
LZW algorithm patents. However, the patents do not prohibit
gzip is designed to recognize and properly
uncompress files that were made by
gzip uses the file suffix `.z' for compressed files. We
chose this because GNU programs such as GNU
tar and the Emacs 19
Dired mode use `z' as an option or command pertaining to
compression, and these would be less natural and harder to remember if
compressed files did not have `z' in their names. This suffix
conflicts with the
compact program, but this does not seem to be
a big problem; distribution of
compact files is not widespread.
We are gradually converting our FTP distribution files on
prep.ai.mit.edu to use
gzip. We hope to stop distribution of
compress soon. In the GNU system, we plan to make the
compress command run
While we think
gzip does not infringe any patents we know of, it is
always possible it infringes others we have not heard about. Even if it
is patent-free today, new software patents are issued every day, and one
gzip may be issued at any moment. In September 1991, when
we were a week away from releasing another data compression program, a
patent was issued which covered the algorithm that it used. We never
released that program.
Unfortunately, patents endanger any software development activity, and
you cannot effectively protect yourself from them except through
political action to change the law in your country and elsewhere. The
compress and the author of the program we almost used
in 1991 have both joined the LPF.
What Is the LPF?
The League for Programming Freedom (LPF) aims to protect the freedom
to write software. This freedom is threatened by "look-and-feel"
interface copyright lawsuits and by software patents. The LPF does
not endorse free software or the FSF.
The League's members include programmers, entrepreneurs, students,
professors, and even some software companies.
From the League membership form:
The League for Programming Freedom is a grass-roots
organization of professors, students, business people, programmers,
and users dedicated to bringing back the freedom to write programs.
The League is not opposed to the legal system that Congress
intended--copyright on individual programs. Our aim is to reverse
the recent changes made by judges in response to special interests.
Membership dues in the League are $42 per year for programmers, managers
and professionals; $10.50 for students; $21 for others.
To join, please send a check and the following information:
Your name and phone numbers (home, work, or both).
The address to use for League mailings, a few each year (please indicate
whether it is your home address or your work address).
The company you work for, and your position.
Your email address, so the League can contact you for political action.
(If you don't want to be contacted for this, please say so, but please
give your email address anyway.)
Please mention anything about you which would enable your endorsement
of LPF to impress the public.
Please say whether you would like to help with LPF activities.
The League is not connected with the Free Software Foundation and is not
itself a free software organization. The FSF supports the League
because, like any software developer smaller than IBM, it is endangered
by software patents. You are in danger too! It would be easy to ignore
the problem until the day you or your employer is sued, but it is more
prudent to organize before that happens.
The address is:
League for Programming Freedom
1 Kendall Square - #143
P.O. Box 9171
Cambridge, MA 02139
Phone: (617) 243-4091
If you haven't made up your mind yet, write to LPF for more information,
or send Internet mail to
Project GNU Status Report
GNU Software Configuration Scheme
We now have a uniform scheme for configuring GNU software packages in
order to compile them. This makes it possible to configure all GNU
software in the same way. In particular, all GNU software will support
the same alternatives for naming machine types and system types.
The configuration scheme also supports configuring a directory
that contains several GNU packages with one command. When we have a
complete system, this will make it possible to configure the entire
system at once, eliminating the need to learn how to configure each of
the individual packages that make up the GNU system.
For tools used in compilation, the configuration scheme also lets you
specify both the host system and the target system, so you can configure
and build cross-compilation tools easily.
GCC version 2 and GDB version 4 support the new configuration scheme, as
do most of our other programs and collections (Emacs 19 will also
support it). The main exception now is Emacs version 18.
We are developing the GNU Hurd, a set of servers that run on top of
Mach. Mach is a free message-passing kernel being developed by CMU.
The Hurd servers, in combination with the GNU C Library, provide
Unix-like functionality. Together with Mach they are the last major
components necessary for a complete GNU system. Currently there are
free ports of the Mach kernel to the 386 PC and the DEC PMAX
workstation. (The PMAX is one kind of MIPS-based DECstation.) Other
free ports of Mach are in progress. Contact CMU for more information if
you want to help with one of those or start one of your own. Porting
the GNU Hurd is easy (easier than porting GNU Emacs, certainly easier
than porting GCC) once a Mach port to a particular kind of hardware
There are some large projects relating to the Hurd that can be done by
volunteers. Those who can read and understand the source code with
fewer than two questions, and have the time for a large project, are
invited to make themselves known to Michael Bushnell.
Emacs is the extensible, customizable, self-documenting real-time
display editor. GNU Emacs 18.59 is the current version.
Emacs 18 maintenance continues for simple bug fixes.
Version 19 is being pretested. Its new features include:
Thanks go to Alan Carroll and the people who worked on Epoch for
generating initial feedback to a multi-windowed Emacs.
Other features under consideration for later releases of Version 19
- before and after change hooks
- source-level debugging of Emacs Lisp programs
- support for European character sets
- floating point numbers
- improved buffer allocation, using a new mechanism capable of
returning storage to the system when a buffer is killed
- simplified and improved processing of function keys, mouse clicks,
and mouse movement
- multiple X windows (`frames' to Emacs), with a separate X window
for the minibuffer or with a minibuffer attached to each X window
- X selection processing, including CLIPBOARD selections
- popup menus defined by keymaps
- interfacing with the X resource manager
- support for the GNU configuration scheme
- associating property lists with regions of text in a buffer
- multiple font, color, and pixmaps defined by those properties
- different visibility conditions for the regions, and for various
windows showing one buffer
- hooks to be run if point or mouse moves outside a certain range
- incrementally saving the undo history in a file, so that
recover-file also reinstalls the buffer's undo history
- static menu bars
GCC supports both ANSI standard and traditional C, as well as the GNU
extensions to C. Two versions of GCC are being maintained in parallel.
Version 1 is stable, but is still maintained with bug fixes. For more
information about version 1, see "Contents of the Languages Tape."
Version 2 of GCC is in late beta test and is getting close to being
reliable. It includes front ends for the languages C++ and
New front ends are being developed, but they are not part of GCC yet. A
front end for Fortran is in alpha test. A front end for Ada is being
funded through the Ada 9X standards committee. Since it is a quite
complex language, we expect completion to take a while. Volunteers are
also developing front ends for Modula-3 and Pascal. There are mumblings
about other languages, but no one has volunteered to do Cobol yet. For
more information about version 2, see "Contents of the Experimental
Steve Chamberlain, Per Bothner, and others at Cygnus Support have
rewritten the binary utilities (including the linker). Version 2.0 is
based on the same Binary File Descriptor (BFD) library used by GDB. All
the tools can be run on a host that differs from the target (e.g.
cross-linking is supported). Furthermore, various forms of COFF and
other object file formats are supported. A tool can now deal with
object files in multiple formats all at once. For example, the linker can
read object files using two different formats, and write the output in a
third format. The linker interprets a superset of the AT&T Linker
Command Language, which allows very general control over where segments
are placed in memory.
Improvements planned for release 2.1 include better Posix-compatible
archive handling and reduced memory use by the executables.
GAS using BFD is on its way
This will complete the support for various object file formats.
Sometime before that there will be a bug-fix release of GAS.
GNU C Library
Roland McGrath continues to work on the GNU C Library. It now conforms
to ANSI C-1989 and POSIX 1003.1-1990, and work is in progress on POSIX
1003.2 and Unix functions (BSD and System V). In the Hurd, the C
Library will do much of what the system calls do in Unix. Mike Haertel
has written a fast
malloc which wastes less memory than the old
malloc. The GNU regular-expression functions (
now mostly conform to the POSIX 1003.2 standard, and a new, faster regex
implementation should be ready soon.
stdio lets you define new kinds of streams, just by writing a
few C functions. The
fmemopen function uses this to open a
stream on a string, which can grow as necessary. You can define your
printf formats to use a C function you have written. Also,
you can safely use format strings from user input to implement a
printf-like function for another programming language, for
getopt functions are already used to parse
options, including long options, in many GNU utilities.
The current version is 1.05. Version 1.06 will include complete support
for SVR4 and Solaris 2, and better support for Linux. For more
information, see "Contents of Experimental Tape."
The GNU C Library Reference Manual describes all the library
facilities, including both what Unix calls "library functions" and
"system calls." It is new, and we would like corrections and
improvements. Please send them to
email@example.com. We won't print this manual
on paper until it is more stable.
Aubrey Jaffer has written JACAL, a symbolic mathematics system for the
simplification and manipulation of equations and single- and multiple-valued
algebraic expressions constructed of numbers, variables,
radicals, and algebraic functions, differential operators, and holonomic
functions. In addition, vectors and matrices of the above objects are
JACAL is written in Scheme. An IEEE P1178 and R4RS compliant version of
Scheme ("SCM") written in C is available with JACAL. SCM runs on Amiga,
Atari-ST, MS-DOS, NOS/VE, VMS, Unix, and similar systems. SLIB is a
portable Scheme library that JACAL uses. JACAL, SLIB, and SCM sources are
available via anonymous FTP from
The FSF is not distributing JACAL on tape yet. To receive an IBM PC
floppy disk with the source and executable files, send $99.00 to:
84 Pleasant Street
Wakefield, MA 01880 USA
make version 3.63 has just been released. New features
include a standard GNU
configure script, long option support,
more flexible environment variable support, and an improved
include directive. GNU
make is fully compliant with the
POSIX.2 standard, and also supports parallel command execution, flexible
implicit pattern rules, conditional execution, and powerful text
Oleo is a spreadsheet program. It still needs documentation. If you
would like to write a Texinfo manual for Oleo, contact Tom Lord,
firstname.lastname@example.org. Please send bug reports regarding
email@example.com. For more information, see
"Contents of Experimental Tape."
Originally, each host on the Internet consisted of a single,
reasonably powerful computer, capable of handling many users at the same
time. Typically, a site (a physical location of computer users)
would have only one or two computers, even if they had 20 or more people
who used them. If a user at site A wanted to know about users logged on
at site B, a simple program could be invoked to query the host at site B
about the users who were logged on.
With the onset of more-power-per-person computing, the mainframe has
been set aside. A modern computing facility usually consists of one
user per host, and many hosts per site. This makes it a trial to find
out about logged-on users at another site, since you must query each
host to find out about the single user who is logged on.
GNU Finger is a simple and effective way around this problem, and
serves as a direct replacement for existing finger programs. For sites
with many hosts, a single host may be designated as the finger
server host. This host collects information about who is logged
on to other hosts at that site. If a user at site A wants to know about
users logged on at site B, only the server host need be queried, instead
of each host at that site. This is very convenient.
(See "Contents of the Utilities Tape".)
The current version of Ghostscript is 2.5.2. Features include the
ability to specify device resolution and output file (including piping)
from the command line; many new output devices and file formats,
including PBM/PGM/PPM, GIF, and PCX; many more Postscript Level 2
facilities; improved character rendering; and incorporation of the
standard Adobe font metrics into the Ghostscript fonts.
Ghostscript 2.5.2 accepts commands in Postscript and executes them by
drawing on an X window, writing to a file that you can print later, or
writing directly to a printer. Volunteer Tim Theisen,
firstname.lastname@example.org, has created a previewer for
multi-page files, called Ghostview, on top of Ghostscript.
Ghostscript includes a C-callable graphics library (for client programs
that do not want to deal with the Postscript language). It also
supports IBM PCs and compatibles with EGA, VGA, or SuperVGA graphics
(but do not ask the FSF staff any questions about this; we do not use
GNU Smalltalk implements the traditional features of the Smalltalk
language, but not the graphics and window features. Recently someone
has implemented these and they will appear in a future release.
James Clark has completed
troff and related
programs). Version 1.06 is now available (see "Contents of the
groff is written in C++. It can be
compiled with GNU C++ Version 2.3 or later.
groff will be fixed, but no major new developments are
currently planned. However,
groff users are encouraged to
continue to contribute enhancements. Most needed are complete Texinfo
grap emulation (a
pic preprocessor for
typesetting graphs), a page-makeup postprocessor similar to
(see Computing Systems, Vol. 2, No. 2), and an ASCII output class
pic so that
pic can be integrated with Texinfo.
Thanks to all those who have contributed bug reports.
The Texinfo 2 package includes an enhanced Texinfo mode for GNU Emacs,
new versions of the formatting utilities, and the second edition of
Texinfo (which is more thorough than the first edition and
describes over 50 new commands). Texinfo mode now includes commands for
automatically creating and updating nodes and menus, a tedious task when
done by hand. The package includes
makeinfo, a standalone
info, a standalone Info reader. Both are written
in C and are independent of GNU Emacs.
GNU Chess is a program that plays chess with you. The program is
written entirely in the C language and has been ported to the PC, the
Cray-2, and numerous other machines. It has also been ported to other
operating systems, including Windows and MS-DOS, though these versions
are not being supported by the maintainer.
GNU Chess implements many specialized features including the null move
heuristic, a hash table with aging, the history heuristic (another form
of the earlier killer heuristic), caching of static evaluations, a
sophisticated database which lets the program play the first several
moves in the game quickly, and so forth.
The program recently won the Uniform Platform event in London, England.
This is unusual for a source-available program. The event tests
algorithms only, as all chess program entrants ran on identical hardware.
GNU Chess is primarily supported by Stuart Cracraft
on behalf of the Free Software Foundation.
P.O. Box 2841
Laguna Hills, CA USA
GNU Fortran (
GNU Fortran is in "private" alpha test (testing by a small
group of experts) and is not yet publicly released.
The primary focus of the alpha test is to test the
g77 front end,
since that has most of the new code. The secondary focus of the alpha
test is to test the integration between the front end and the back end.
Currently, this is where most of the bugs seem to be. The tertiary
focus is the quality of code generated by the GNU back end.
A mailing list exists for those interested in the Fortran front end for
GCC. To subscribe, ask:
email@example.com. If you would like to
contact the author and/or current maintainer of GNU Fortran, write to
A new version of
tar and a new manual will be released soon.
The manual will describe
tar and related programs;
how to make backups, how to restore files, how to put files on
tapes for interchange purposes, and so on.
Although we do not yet have a complete GNU system, it is already possible
for you to begin porting it. This is because the unfinished part, the
Hurd, is basically portable. The parts of the system that really need
porting are Mach and
libc, which are already available.
Sources of Free Information
There is more to `freely redistributable' than software. Here is a
partial list of organizations providing freely redistributable
Project Gutenberg is the brainchild of Michael Hart. Back in 1971, he
decided to use extra computer time to type in copyright-free articles,
and he has not stopped since. What started with the Declaration of
Independence has grown to include text ranging from the King James
version of the Bible, to The Scarlet Letter, to data from the 1990
Professor Hart's hope for ultimate success derives from the nature of
what he calls `Replicator Technology': once anything is stored in a
computer, it can be reproduced indefinitely, making it available to all
who want it.
Texts from Project Gutenberg are available at a number of FTP sites,
mrcnext.cso.uiuc.edu (in `/etext') and
oes.orst.edu (filename `/pub/almanac/etext'). For
instructions on how to obtain text from Bitnet, send the word `HELP' in
the body of a message to
BITFTP@PUCC. Instructions will be
mailed. Or look at
bit.listserv.gutnberg, a USENET group.
The Online Book Initiative
The Online Book Initiative focuses on books, conference proceedings,
reference material, catalogues, etc. that can be freely shared.
Currently, OBI has about 200MB of (mostly compressed) text online,
ranging from poetry to standards documents to novels. Everything can be
accessed via anonymous FTP to
obi.std.com. You can also dial
world.std.com with a modem (617-739-9753, 8N1) and create an
account to access this information (login as
new). Accounts on
world are charged for their connect time (send to
firstname.lastname@example.org for details).
email@example.com, is working on a project
called "FreeLore". One goal is to create a core of useful, copylefted
textbooks. Currently, he is testing a prototype curriculum for
students from junior-high school through early college; the curriculum
uses Texinfo. The FreeLore project is looking for volunteers. For more
information, contact Mr. Goodwin.
GNU Software Worldwide
by Melissa Weisshaus
Users world-wide now have easier access to GNU and other free software.
Users in the United States have been able to get free software from the
FSF and numerous other FTP sites for some time. Recently, free software
oriented companies and FTP sites have appeared around the
world, making GNU and other free software more easily available to users
in Europe, Asia, and Australia. Additionally, there has been increased
interest among the world business community in GNU software.
Companies have been set up to support, develop, and in some cases
distribute GNU and other free software. Some companies that we know of
are Wingnut in Japan, the Free Software Association of Germany, and
Signum Support AB in Sweden. Additionally, the "Center for GNU
Development" in Moscow is translating GNU documentation into Russian.
There are now FTP sites available in ten countries in North
America, Europe, Asia, and Australia. Please see the updated list in
"How to Get Gnu Software" for an expanded list of international FTP
sites and for FTP sites in your area.
In December of 1992, the FSF, the Japan Unix Society, and the Software
Engineers Association of Japan jointly sponsored a GNU Technical Seminar
in Tokyo. The conference was quite successful, attended by over 130 GNU
enthusiasts. In April of 1993, a conference will take place in Moscow;
Richard Stallman will attend that conference also.
See the articles entitled "GNU Technical Seminar in Tokyo" and "GNU
in Japan" for more information about Japanese GNU development. For
information regarding the Moscow conference, see the article entitled
"Moscow Free Software Conference". See the "GNUs Flashes" to get
information about the Free Software Association of Germany, and "Free
Software Support Far From Home" for information about Wingnut and
Signum Support AB.
Another Kernel Built with GCC
Version 2.1 of AMIX (Commodore's SVR4-based Unix for the Amiga 2000 and
3000) has its kernel built with GCC. The stated reason is better
GNU in Japan
firstname.lastname@example.org, and Nobuyuki Hikichi,
email@example.com, continue to work on the GNU Project in
Japan. They translate GNU information, write columns (and a book),
request donations, and consult about GNU. They have translated Version
1 of the GNU General Public License into Japanese and have arranged for
the translation of Version 2, which will be available soon. They also
provided invaluable help supporting the recent GNU Technical Seminar in
Japanese versions of Emacs (
nemacs) and Epoch (
available. Both of them are widely used in Japan.
MULE (the MULtilingual Enhancement of GNU Emacs) is a version of GNU
Emacs that can handle many character sets at once. Eventually the
features it provides will be merged into the FSF version of Emacs.
firstname.lastname@example.org, is beta testing MULE; you
can FTP sources from
The Village Center, Inc. has printed a Japanese translation of the
GNU Emacs Lisp Reference manual and also uploaded the Texinfo
source to various bulletin boards. They are donating part of the
revenue that generated by distributing the manual to the FSF.
Their address is:
Fujimi-cho 2-2-12, Choufu City, Tokyo 182.
A group connected with the commercial personal computer network in Japan
is writing and distributing a copylefted hardware (circuit diagram)
design and associated software that uses a MIPS-architecture based CPU.
The OS which runs on this machine,
t2, is a subset of Unix that
uses GCC and GDB as the system's compiler and debugger. They are also
running MIPS-BSD, which is based on both the 386BSD and Mach kernels.
Many groups in Japan distribute GNU
software, including JUG (a PC user group), Nikkei Business
Publications and ASCII (publishers), and the Fujitsu FM Towns users
group. Anonymous UUCP is also now available in Japan; for more
You can also order GNU software directly from the FSF--indeed, we
encourage you to do so: every 150 tape orders allows FSF to hire a
programmer for a year to create more free software.
The FSF does not distribute
nepoch, or MULE on
nemacs is available on the GNU Source CD-ROM.
GNU Technical Seminar in Tokyo
The FSF, together with the Software Engineers Association of Japan (SEA)
and the Japan Unix Society (JUS), sponsored a GNU Technical Seminar in
Tokyo on December 2 and 3, 1992. The speakers were Richard Stallman,
Michael Bushnell, and Ken'ichi Handa. Bob Myers and David Littleboy
translated the English talks into Japanese. Software Research
Associates, Inc. provided help in countless ways. The FSF also unveiled
both the newly released GNU Source Code CD-ROM and the new GNU T-shirts.
Over 130 people attended the seminar and many members of the Japanese
press interviewed Richard Stallman. (Look for a cover story in an
upcoming issue of Asahi Pasocon.) We are considering more seminars both
in Japan and elsewhere if there is sufficient interest in any one
The FSF had a booth and a visible presence at the Japan Unix Society
Fair '92 held in Yokohama from December 9 through 11. JUS
provided the booth, and JUS volunteers pitched in to help staff it.
This was so successful we hope to appear at other Unix events in Japan
in the future.
On December 10, Richard Stallman gave a talk at Toshiba Corporation
which was attended by 70 people. The following day, he spoke at
Aoyama Gakuin University.
Both the seminar and the booth succeeded beyond our expectations. We
received many unsolicited donations from individual supporters and
users' groups, and were surprised and pleased by the number
of the enthusiastic
volunteers who came forward to help us at our various events.
Moscow Free Software Conference
A conference on free software will take place in Moscow on April
19-23, 1993. It will be hosted by the Society of Unix User Groups
(formerly the Soviet Unix Users Group), the Russian Center for Systems
Programming, and the International Center for Scientific and Technical
Participants are coming from North America, Europe and Japan, including
Richard Stallman, who founded the Free Software Foundation.
The main topics include: the current state of the GNU project and other
FSF projects; free software portability in open systems environments;
user experiences with free software; free software in education and
training; legal aspects of free software; relevance of free software to
modernization and democracy in Russia and other parts of the former
Soviet Union; and how to contribute to free software.
The hosts of the conference are requesting submissions of original
designs, papers and ideas, and welcome the participation of computer and
For further information, you may contact any of the following members of
the program committee. In Moscow, you may contact Sergei Kuznetsov,
email@example.com, at +7-095-272-4425; Mr.
Kuznetsov is the chair of the meeting. You may also contact Peter
firstname.lastname@example.org at +7-095-198-7055, or
email@example.com at +7-095-231-2129.
In Boston, contact Geoffrey S. Knauth,
...imagine how little used calculus would have been if a court had
decided that no one could study, use or do research on it without
paying a royalty to Newton's designated heirs.
-- The Independent, October 5, 1992
Project GNU Wish List
Wishes for this issue are for:
libc are covered by the GNU Library
General Public License. Do you use either of these libraries in a
proprietary application under the terms of the LGPL? We would like to
know to help evaluate whether the LGPL is doing the job it was designed
to do. If you do (or know of someone who does) please send mail to
firstname.lastname@example.org, or to either address on the front
cover of this Bulletin.
Volunteers to distribute this Bulletin at technical conferences and
trade shows. Please call the phone number on the front cover to make
600 Megabyte (or larger) SCSI disk drives to give us more space to
develop our software.
A 386 or 486 PC compatible with at least 200 Megabytes of hard disk and
an Ethernet card.
A 4 mm DAT tape drive, an Exabyte tape drive, a Sun SPARCstation, and a
Companies to lend us capable programmers and technical writers for at
least six months. True wizards may be welcome for shorter periods, but
we have found that six months is the minimum time for a good programmer
to finish a worthwhile project.
Professors who might be interested in sponsoring or hosting research
assistants to do GNU development, with FSF support.
Volunteers to help write programs and documentation. Send mail to
email@example.com for the task list and coding
Speech and character recognition software and systems (if the devices
aren't too weird), with the device drivers if possible. This would help
the productivity of partially disabled people (including a few we know).
New quotes and ideas for articles in the GNU's Bulletin. We
particularly like to highlight organizations involved with free
information exchange and companies providing free software support as a
Copies of newspaper and journal articles mentioning the GNU Project or
GNU software. Send these to the address on the front cover, or send a
Money, as always. If you use and appreciate our software, please send a
One way to give us a small amount of money is to order a distribution
tape or CD-ROM. This may not count as a donation for tax purposes, but
it can qualify as a business expense. This is especially helpful if you
work for a business at which the word "donation" is anathema.
A Small Way to Help Free Software
If you find that GNU software has been helpful to you, and in particular
if you have benefitted from having sources freely available, please help
support the spread of free software by telling others. For example, you
might say in published papers and internal project reports:
"We were able to modify the
fubar utility to serve our
particular needs because it is free software. As a result, we were able
to finish the XYZ project thirty weeks earlier."
Let users, management, and friends know! And send us a copy.
GNU manuals are intended to explain the underlying concepts, describe
how to use all the features of each program, and give examples of
command use. GNU documentation is distributed as Texinfo source files,
which yield both typeset hardcopy and an on-line hypertext-like
presentation via the menu-driven Info system. These manuals, provided
with our software, are also available in hardcopy; see the "FSF Order
Form" inside the back cover.
The Emacs Manual describes editing with GNU Emacs. It also explains
advanced features, such as outline mode and regular expression search,
and how to use special modes for programming in languages like C and
The Emacs Lisp Reference Manual covers the GNU Emacs Lisp
programming language in great depth, including data types, control
structures, functions, macros, syntax tables, searching and matching,
modes, windows, keymaps, byte compilation, markers, and the operating
The Texinfo Manual explains the markup language used to generate
both the online Info documentation and typeset hardcopies. It tells you
how to make tables, lists, chapters, nodes, indexes, cross references,
how to use Texinfo mode in GNU Emacs, and how to catch mistakes.
The GAWK Manual describes how to use the GNU implementation of
awk. It is written for someone who has never used
describes all the features of this powerful string manipulation
The Make Manual describes GNU
make, a program used to rebuild
parts of other programs. The manual tells how to write makefiles,
which specify how a program is to be compiled and how its files depend
on each other. The new edition of the manual describes the new features
in version 3.63, and includes a new introductory chapter for novice
users, as well as a new section on automatically generated dependencies.
Debugging with GDB explains how to use the GNU Debugger, including how
to run your program under debugger control, how to examine and alter
data, how to modify the flow of control within the program, and how
to use GDB through GNU Emacs.
The Bison Manual teaches how to write context-free grammars for the
Bison program that convert into C-coded parsers. You need no prior
knowledge of parser generators.
The Flex Manual tells you how to write a lexical scanner definition
flex program to create a C-coded scanner that will
recognize the patterns described. You need no prior knowledge of scanner
Using and Porting GNU CC explains how to run, install, and port the
GNU C compiler. Currently, we are distributing two versions of GCC,
version 1 and version 2, each documented by a different version of the
The Termcap Manual, often described as "Twice as much as you ever
wanted to know about Termcap," details the format of the Termcap
database, the definitions of terminal capabilities, and the process of
interrogating a terminal description. This manual is primarily for
The Emacs Calc Manual includes both a tutorial and a reference
manual for Calc. It describes how to do ordinary arithmetic, how to use
Calc for algebra, calculus, and other forms of mathematics, and how to
How to Get GNU Software
All the software and publications from the Free Software Foundation are
distributed with permission to copy and redistribute. The easiest way
to get GNU software is to copy it from someone else who has it.
You can get GNU software direct from the FSF by ordering a distribution
tape or CD-ROM. Such orders provide most of the funds for the FSF
staff, so please support us by ordering if you can. See the "FSF
If you have Internet access, you can get the software via
anonymous FTP from the host
prep.ai.mit.edu (the IP address
22.214.171.124). Get file
`/pub/gnu/GETTING.GNU.SOFTWARE' for more information.
There are also third party groups who distribute our software; they do
not work with us, but can provide our software in other forms. For your
convenience we list some of them; see "Free Software for
Microcomputers". Please note that the Free Software Foundation is
not affiliated with them in any way and is responsible for neither
the currency of their versions nor the swiftness of their responses.
These TCP/IP Internet sites provide GNU software via anonymous FTP
anonymous, password: your name,
archie.oz for ACSnet),
(VMS GNU Emacs),
ftp.uu.net (under `/packages/gnu').
Those on the SPAN network can ask rdss::corbet.
Those on JANET can look under
You can get some GNU programs via UUCP. Ohio State University posts
their UUCP instructions regularly to newsgroup
USENET. These people will send you UUCP instructions via electronic
firstname.lastname@example.org (Europe), email@example.com,
acornrc!bob, firstname.lastname@example.org, and email@example.com
For those without Internet access, see the section entitled "Free
Software Support" for information on receiving electronic mail via
As we enjoy great advantages from the inventions of others, we
should be glad of an opportunity to serve others by any invention of
GNU Software Available Now
We offer Unix software source distribution tapes in
tar format on
the following media: 1600 bpi 9-track reel tape, 8mm Exabyte cartridges,
Sun QIC-24 cartridges, Hewlett-Packard 16-track cartridges, and IBM
RS/6000 QIC-150 cartridges (the RS/6000 Emacs tape has an Emacs binary
as well). We also offer: a CD-ROM (see "GNU Source Code CD-ROM");
MS-DOS diskettes with some GNU software (see "MS-DOS Distribution");
and VMS tapes (which include sources and executables) for GNU Emacs and
the GNU C compiler (see "VMS Emacs and Compiler Tapes").
The contents of the various 9-track and cartridge tapes for Unix systems
are the same (except for the RS/6000 Emacs tape, which also has
executables); only the media are different (see the "FSF Order Form").
Documentation comes in Texinfo format. We welcome any bug reports.
Some of the files on the tapes may be compressed to make them fit.
Refer to the top-level `README' file at the beginning of the tapes
for instructions on decompressing them.
uncompress may not work!
Version numbers listed by program names were current at the time this
Bulletin was published. When you order a distribution tape, some of the
programs might be newer, and therefore the version number higher.
Contents of the Emacs Tape
GNU Emacs 18.59
In 1975, Richard Stallman developed the first Emacs, an extensible,
customizable real-time display editor. GNU Emacs is his second
implementation. It's the first Emacs for Unix systems that offers true
Lisp--smoothly integrated into the editor--for writing extensions, and
provides an interface to MIT's X Window System. In addition to its
powerful native command set, extensions which emulate other popular
editors are distributed: vi, EDT (DEC's VMS editor), and Gosling (aka
Unipress) Emacs. It has many other features, which make it a full
computing support environment. It is described by the GNU Emacs
manual, the GNU Emacs Lisp Reference manual, and a reference
card. Source for all three come with the software.
GNU Emacs 18.59 runs on many Unix systems (arranged by hardware): Alliant
FX/80 & FX/2800, Altos 3068, Amdahl (UTS), Apollo, AT&T (3B machines & 7300
PC), DG Aviion, Bull DPX/2 (2nn or 3nn) CCI 5/32 & 6/32, Celerity, Convex,
Digital (DECstation 3100 & 5000 (Pmaxes), Mips, VAX (BSD, System V, or
VMS)), Motorola Delta 147 & 187 Dual, Elxsi 6400, Encore (DPC, APC, & XPC),
Gould, HP (9000 series 200, 300, 700, & 800, but not series 500), HLH Orion
(original & 1/05), IBM (RS/6000 (AIX), RT/PC (4.2 & AIX), & PS/2 (AIX (386
only))), ISI (Optimum V, 80386), Intel 860 & 80386 (BSD, Esix, SVR3, SVR4,
SCO, ISC, IX, AIX, & others (for MS-DOS see "MS-DOS Distribution"
and"Free Software for Microcomputers")), Iris (2500, 2500 Turbo, & 4D),
Masscomp, MIPS, National Semiconductor 32000, NeXT (Mach), NCR Tower 32
(SVR2 or SVR3), Nixdorf Targon 31, Nu (TI or LMI), pfa50, Plexus, Prime
EXL, Pyramid (original & MIPS), Sequent (Balance & Symmetry), SONY News
(m68k & MIPS), Stride (system release 2), all Suns (including 386i), all
SunOS versions, Tadpole, Tahoe, Tandem Integrity S2, Tektronix (16000 &
4300), Triton 88, Ustation E30 (SS5E), Whitechapel (MG1), & Wicat.
Arranged by operating system: AIX (RS/6000, RT/PC, 386-PS/2), BSD (versions
4.1, 4.2, 4.3), DomainOS, Esix (386), HP-UX (HP 9000 series 200, 300, 700, &
800 but not series 500), ISC (386), IX (386), Mach, Microport, NewsOS (Sony
m68k & MIPS) SCO (386), SVR0 (Vaxen and AT&T 3b machines), SVR2, SVR3,
SVR4, Solaris 2.0, SunOS, UTS (Amdahl), Ultrix (versions 3.0, 4,1), Uniplus
5.2 (Dual machines), VMS (versions 4.0, 4.2, 4.4, 5,5), and Xenix (386).
GNU Calc 2.02
Calc (written by Dave Gillespie in Emacs Lisp) is an extensible,
advanced desk calculator and mathematical tool that runs as part of GNU
Emacs. It comes with source for the Calc manual, which serves as
a tutorial and reference. If you wish, you can use Calc only as a
simple four-function calculator, but it provides additional features
including choice of algebraic or RPN (stack-based) entry, logarithmic
functions, trigonometric and financial functions, arbitrary precision,
complex numbers, vectors, matrices, dates, times, infinities, sets,
algebraic simplification, differentiation, and integration.
MIT Scheme 7.0
Scheme is a simplified, lexically-scoped dialect of Lisp. It was
designed at MIT and other universities to teach students the art of
programming and to research new parallel programming constructs and
compilation techniques. MIT Scheme is written in C and the interpreter
runs on many Unix systems. It conforms to the "Revised^3 Report On the
Algorithmic Language Scheme" (MIT AI Lab Memo 848a), for which TeX
source is included.
Yale T 3.1
T is a variant of Scheme developed at Yale University; it is intended
for production use in program development. T contains a native-code
optimizing compiler that produces code that runs at speeds comparable to
the speeds of programs written in conventional languages. It runs on
BSD VAXen, 680x0 systems, SPARCs, and MIPS R2000 workstations (including
the DECstation 3100), & NS32000 machines (including the Encore
Multimax). T is written in itself and cannot be bootstrapped without a
binary (which is included), but it is great if you can use it. Some
documentation is included.
CLISP is a Common Lisp implementation by Bruno Haible and Michael Stoll.
It mostly conforms to the version of Common Lisp described by
Common LISP: The Language (1st edition). CLISP runs on many
microcomputers including the Atari ST, Amiga 500-2000, most MS-DOS
systems, and OS/2) as well as on Unix workstations (Linux, SunOS
(SPARC), Sun386, HP-UX (HP 9000/800), and others) and needs only 1.5 MB
of memory. CLISP includes an interpreter, a compiler and, for some
machines, a screen editor.
PCL is a freely available implementation of a large subset of CLOS, the
Common Lisp Object System. PCL was written by Xerox Corporation.
Some of the contents of our tape distribution is compressed. We include
software on the tapes to compress/decompress these files. Due to patent
compress, we are switching to another compression
gzip can uncompress LZW-compressed files
but uses a different algorithm for compression which generally produces
better results. It is presently in beta test but we hope people will
begin using it. This year we are converting all our compressed
distribution files on
prep.ai.mit.edu, as well as our
make has nearly all the features of the BSD and System V
make, as well as many of our own extensions. It
complies with POSIX 1003.2. GNU extensions include parallel
compilation, conditional execution, and text manipulation. Source for
the Make manual comes with the program.
make is distributed on several of the tapes because native
make programs lack essential features for using the GNU configure
system to its full extent.
Texinfo is a set of utilities which generate printed manuals and online
hypertext-style manuals (called "Info"). The late beta test Texinfo 2
package contains enhancements to the current suite and source for the
Texinfo is distributed on several of the tapes to insure that it is
possible to rebuild and read info files for various programs.
Contents of the Languages Tape
This tape contains programming tools: compilers, interpreters,
and related programs (parsers, conversion programs, debuggers, etc.).
The GNU C compiler is a fairly portable optimizing compiler which
performs automatic register allocation, common sub-expression
elimination, invariant code motion from loops, induction variable
optimizations, constant propagation and copy propagation, delayed
popping of function call arguments, tail recursion elimination,
integration of inline functions, and frame pointer elimination, plus
many local optimizations that are automatically deduced from the machine
GCC supports full ANSI C, traditional C, and GNU C extensions. It
generates good code for the 32000, 680x0, 80386, Alliant, Convex, Tahoe
& VAX CPUs, and for these RISC CPUs: i860, Pyramid, SPARC, & SPUR. The
MIPS RISC CPU is also supported. Other supported systems include
(arranged by hardware): 386 (AIX), Alliant FX/8, Altos 3068, Apollo
68000/68020 (Aegis), AT&T 3B1, Convex C1 & C2, DECstation 3100 & 5000,
DEC VAX, Encore MultiMax (NS32000), Genix NS32000, Harris HCX-7 & HCX-9,
HP-UX 68000/68020, HP (BSD), IBM PS/2 (AIX), Intel 386 (System V, Xenix,
BSD, but not MS-DOS (but see "MS-DOS Distribution" and"Free Software
for Microcomputers")), Iris MIPS machine, ISI 68000/68020, MIPS, NeXT,
Pyramid (original), Sequent Balance (NS32000) and Symmetry (i386), SONY
News, Sun (2, 3 (optionally with FPA), 4, SPARCstation, & Sun-386i).
Arranged by operating system: AIX (i386-PS/2), BSD (Alliant FX/8,
Apollo, Convex, HP m68k, i386, ISI m68k, MIPS, Pyramid (original),
Sequent Balance/Symmetry), Genix (NS32000), HP-UX (m68k), Irix (Iris
MIPS), Mach (NeXT m68k), NewsOS (Sony m68k), SunOS (Sun-2, Sun-3, Sun-4,
SPARC, & Sun--386i), System V (i386, Altos 3068, AT&T 3B1), Ultrix
(DECstation 3100 & 5000, VAX), Umax (Encore NS32000), and Xenix (i386).
Source for the GCC manual, Using and Porting GNU CC, is included
with the compiler. The manual describes how to run and install the GNU
C compiler, and how to port it to new systems. It describes new
features and incompatibilities of the compiler, but people not familiar
with C will also need a good reference on the C programming language.
G++ is a set of changes for GCC version 1 which supports C++.
As far as possible, G++ is kept compatible with the evolving draft
ANSI standard, but not with
cfront (the AT&T compiler), as
cfront has been diverging from ANSI. G++ comes with source
for the GNU G++ User's Guide (not yet published on paper).
G++ compiles source quickly, provides good error messages, and works
well with GDB. As G++ depends on GCC, it must be used with a
specific numbered version of GCC.
The GNU C++ library, libg++, is an extensive, documented
collection of C++ classes and support tools for use with G++.
NIH Class Library 3.0
The NIH Class Library (formerly known as "OOPS", Object-Oriented
Program Support) is a portable collection of classes, similar to those
in Smalltalk-80, which has been developed by Keith Gorlen of the
National Institutes of Health (NIH), using the C++ programming
The BFD (Binary File Descriptor) library allows a program which operates
on object files (such as
ld or GDB) to support many different formats in
a clean way. BFD provides a portable interface, so that only BFD needs
to know the actual details of a particular format. One consequence of
this design is that all of the programs using BFD will support formats
such as a.out, COFF, ELF, and ROSE. BFD comes with documentation.
GDB 4 is no longer considered beta test and replaces GDB 3.5, which was
previously on this tape. Object files and symbol tables are now read
via the BFD library, which allows a single copy of GDB to debug programs
of multiple object file types such as a.out and COFF. Other features
include improvements to the command language, remote debugging over
serial lines or TCP/IP, and watchpoints (breakpoints triggered when the
value of an expression changes); when used with GCC version 2,
exception handling, support for SunOS shared libraries, and C++
GDB 4 can perform cross-debugging. To say that GDB 4 targets a
platform means that it can perform native or cross-debugging for it. To
say that GDB 4 can host a given platform means that it can be
built on it, but cannot necessarily debug native programs. GDB 4
In addition, GDB 4 can use the symbol tables emitted by the compilers
supplied by most vendors of MIPS-based machines, including DEC. (These
symbol tables are in a format which almost nobody else uses.)
- target and host: Amiga 3000 (Amix), DECstation 3100
& 5000, HP 9000/370 (BSD), IBM RS/6000 (AIX), i386 (BSD, SCO, or Linux),
Motorola Delta 88000 (System V), NCR 3000 (SVR4), SGI Iris (MIPS running
Irix V3 or V4), SONY News (NewsOS 3.x), Sun 3 & SPARC (SunOS 4.1 or
Solaris 2.0), & Ultracomputer (29K running Sym1).
- target, but not host: i960 Nindy, AMD
29000 (COFF or a.out), Fujitsu SPARClite, Hitachi H8/300, m68k,
- host, but not target: Intel 386 (Mach), IBM
RT/PC, HP/Apollo 68k (BSD)
ae works with GCC to produce more complete profiling
The binutils include
strip. The GNU linker
is fast, and is the only linker which emits source-line numbered error
messages for multiply-defined symbols and undefined references.
Bison is an upwardly compatible replacement for the parser generator
yacc, with more features. Source for the Bison manual is
The entire suite of GNU software tools can be run on System V, replacing
COFF entirely. The GNU tools can operate on BSD object files with a
COFF header the System V kernel will accept.
supplied for converting standard libraries to this format. However,
this workaround is becoming obsolete, as BFD is replacing it (see the
entry on "BFD").
dld is a dynamic linker written by W. Wilson Ho. Linking your
program with the
dld library allows you to dynamically load
object files into the running binary.
f2c converts Fortran--77 source files into C or C++.
flex is a mostly-compatible replacement for the Unix
scanner generator, written by Vern Paxson of the Lawrence Berkeley
flex generates far more efficient scanners than
lex does. Source for the Flex manual is included.
The GNU assembler (GAS) is a fairly portable, one pass assembler that is
almost twice as fast as Unix
as and works for 32x32, 680x0,
80386, SPARC (Sun-4), and VAXen.
GAWK is upwardly compatible with the System V Release 4 version of
awk. Source for the GAWK manual comes with the software.
gdbm library is the GNU replacement for the standard
gdbm supports both styles
but does not need sparse database formats (unlike its Unix
GNU MP (
gmp) is a library for arbitrary precision arithmetic,
operating on signed integers and rational numbers. It has a rich set of
functions, all with a regular interface.
gperf is a "perfect" hash-table generation utility. There are
actually two implementations of
gperf, one written in C and one
in C++. Both will produce hash functions in either C or C++.
indent is the GNU-modified version of the freely-redistributable
BSD program of the same name. It formats C source according to GNU
coding standards by default, though the original default and other
formats are available as options.
Larry Wall has written a fast interpreter named
combines the features of
sh, and C. It
has all these programs' capabilities, as well as interfaces to all the
system calls and many C library routines.
GNU Smalltalk is an interpreted object-oriented programming language
system written in portable C. Features include an incremental garbage
collector, a binary image save capability, the ability to invoke
user-written C code and pass parameters to it, a GNU Emacs editing mode,
optional byte-code compilation tracing and byte-code execution tracing,
and automatically loaded per-user initialization files.
Superopt is a function sequence generator that uses an exhaustive
generate-and-test approach to find the shortest instruction sequence for
a given function. You have to tell the superoptimizer which function
and which CPU you want to generate code for, and how many instructions you
can accept. The GNU superoptimizer and its application in GCC is
described in the ACM SIGPLAN PLDI'92 proceedings. Superopt
presently supports 7 CPUs: SPARC, m68000, m68020, m88000, IBM RS/6000,
AMD 29000, Intel 80x86, and Pyramid.
gzip 0.6, and
See "Contents of the Emacs Tape" for a full description of these programs.
Contents of the Utilities Tape
This tape consists mostly of smaller utilities and miscellaneous
applications not available on the other GNU tapes.
Autoconf produces shell scripts which automatically configure source
code packages. These scripts can adapt the packages to many kinds of
Unix-like systems without manual user intervention. Autoconf creates a
configuration script for a package from a template file which lists the
operating system features which the package can use, in the form of
m4 macro calls. Many GNU programs use Autoconf-generated
configure scripts now.
The GNU shell, BASH (for Bourne Again SHell), is compatible with the
sh and offers many extensions found in
ksh. BASH has job control,
csh-style command history, and
command-line editing (with Emacs and
vi modes built-in and the
ability to rebind keys).
bc is an interactive algebraic language with arbitrary precision.
bc was implemented from the POSIX 1003.2 draft standard, but
it has several extensions including multi-character variable names, an
else statement, and full Boolean expressions.
cpio is an alternative archive program with all the features of
cpio, including support for the final POSIX 1003.1
The Concurrent Version System, CVS, manages software revision and release
control in a multi-developer, multi-directory, multi-group environment. It
works best in conjunction with RCS versions 4 and above, but will parse
older RCS formats with the loss of CVS's fancier features. See Berliner,
Brian, "CVS-II: Parallelizing Software Development," Proceedings of
the Winter 1990 USENIX Association Conference.
diff compares files showing line-by-line changes in several
flexible formats. It is much faster than the traditional Unix versions.
The "diff" distribution contains
elvis is a clone of the
ex Unix editor. It
supports nearly all of the
ex commands in both visual
and line mode.
elvis runs under BSD, System V, Xenix, Minix,
MS-DOS, and Atari TOS, and it should be easy to port to many other
The GNU Project is distributing the freely-available MIT AI Lab fax
spooling system, which provides Group 3 fax transmission and reception
services for a networked Unix system. It requires a faxmodem which
conforms to the new EIA-592 Asynchronous Facsimile DCE Control Standard,
Service Class 2.
find is frequently used both interactively and in shell scripts
to find files which match certain criteria and perform arbitrary
operations on them.
locate are also included.
GNU Finger should work on a wide variety of systems. For more
information, see the "GNU Project Status Report."
The "fontutils" can create fonts for use with Ghostscript or TeX,
starting with a scanned type image and converting the bitmaps to
outlines. They also contain general conversion programs and other
Fun and Games: MandelSpawn 0.06, GNU Chess 4.0.pl58, NetHack
3.0, GnuGo 1.1, and
MandelSpawn is a parallel Mandelbrot program for the MIT X Window
System. GNU Chess has text and X display interfaces (see "Project GNU
Status Report"). NetHack is a display-oriented adventure game similar
to Rogue. GnuGo plays the game of Go (Wei-Chi); it is not yet very
hello program produces a familiar, friendly greeting. It
allows non-programmers to use a classic computer science tool which would
otherwise be unavailable to them. Because it is protected by the GNU
General Public License, users are free to share and change it.
Ghostscript 2.5.2 and Ghostview 1.4.1
Ghostscript is GNU's graphics language which is almost fully compatible
with Postscript (see "Project GNU Status Report"). Ghostview provides
an X11 user interface for the Ghostscript interpreter. Ghostview and
Ghostscript function as two cooperating programs; Ghostview creates a
viewing window and Ghostscript draws in it.
gnuplot is an interactive program for plotting mathematical
expressions and data. Curiously, the program was neither written nor
named for the GNU Project; the name is a coincidence.
See the entry on GNU Graphics "Contents of the Experimental Tape" for
information on a related program.
gptx is the GNU version of
ptx, a permuted index
generator. Among other things, it produces readable "KWIC" (KeyWords
In Context) indexes without the need of
nroff, and there is an
option to produce TeX code as output.
egrep 1.6 and
[ef]grep programs are GNU's versions of the Unix programs of the
same name. They are much faster than the traditional Unix versions.
groff 1.06 and
groff is a document formatting system, which includes
macros, as well as drivers for Postscript, TeX dvi format, and
typewriter-like devices. Also included is a modified version of the
me macros and an enhanced version of the X11
mgm is a macro package for
groff. It is almost compatible
with the DWB
mm macros and has several extensions.
less is a paginator similar to
pg but with
various features (such as the ability to scroll backwards) which most
m4 is an implementation of the traditional Unix macro
processor and is mostly System V Release 4 compatible, although it has
some extensions (for example, handling more than 9 positional
parameters to macros).
m4 also has built-in functions for
including files, running shell commands, doing arithmetic, etc.
Mtools is a public domain collection of programs to allow Unix systems
to read, write, and manipulate files on an MS-DOS file system (typically
patch is our version of Larry Wall's program to take
diff's output and apply those differences to an original file to
generate the modified version.
The Revision Control System, RCS, is used for version control and
management of software projects. When used with GNU
can handle binary files (executables, object files, 8-bit data, etc).
recode converts files between character sets and usages. When
exact transliterations are not possible, it may get rid of offending
characters or fall back on approximations. It recognizes or produces
more than a dozen character sets and can convert each character set to
almost any other one.
recode pays special attention to
superimposition of diacritics, particularly for French.
screen is a terminal multiplexor which allows you to handle
several independent "screens" (ttys) on a single physical terminal.
Each virtual terminal emulates a DEC VT100 plus several ANSI X3.64 and
ISO 2022 functions.
screen sessions can be detached and resumed
later on a different terminal.
sed is a stream-oriented version of
ed. It is used
frequently in shell scripts.
tar includes multivolume support, the ability to archive
sparse files, automatic archive compression/decompression, remote
archives, and special features to allow
tar to be used for
incremental and full backups. Unfortunately GNU
an early draft of the POSIX 1003.1
ustar standard which is
different from the final standard. Adding support for the new changes
in a backward-compatible fashion is not trivial.
The GNU Termcap library is a drop-in replacement for
on any system. It does not place an arbitrary limit on the size of
Termcap entries, unlike most other Termcap libraries. Included is
extensive documentation in Texinfo format.
time is used to report statistics (usually from a shell) about
the amount of user, system, and real time used by a process.
tput is a portable way to allow shell scripts to use special
terminal capabilities. GNU
tput uses the Termcap database,
rather than Terminfo as most implementations do.
wdiff compares two files, finding which words have been deleted
or added to the first in order to obtain the second. We hope eventually
to integrate it, as well as some ideas from a similar program called
spiff, into future releases of GNU
Various Utilities: fileutils 3.4, shellutils 1.8, and textutils 1.3
The "fileutils" are file manipulation utilities:
The "shellutils" are small commands used on the command
line or in shell scripts:
The "textutils" programs manipulate textual data:
gzip 0.6, and
See "Contents of the Emacs Tape" for a full description of these
Contents of the Experimental Tape
This tape includes software which is currently in beta test and is
available for people who are feeling adventurous. Some of the software
already has released versions on the distribution tapes. The contents
of this tape are transient; as the programs become stable, they will
replace older versions on other tapes. Please send bug reports to the
appropriate addresses (listed on the tape in the notes for each
Version 2 of GCC is in late beta test, getting close to being reliable.
In addition to the features in version 1, GCC 2 has instruction
scheduling, loop unrolling, filling of delay slots, leaf function
optimization, optimized multiplication by constants, a certain amount of
common subexpression elimination (CSE) between basic blocks (though not
all of the supported machine descriptions provide for scheduling or
delay slots), and a feature for assigning attributes to instructions.
Function-wide CSE has been written, but needs to be cleaned up before it
can be installed. Position-independent code is supported on the 88000
GCC 2 can also open-code most arithmetic on 64-bit values (type
long long int). It can generate code for most of the same
machines as version 1, plus the following: AMD 29000, Acorn RISC, DEC
Alpha, Elxsi, HP-PA (700 or 800), IBM RS/6000, IBM RT/PC, Intel 80386,
Intel 960, Motorola 88000, and SPARC (running Solaris 2). Version 2 can
generate a.out, COFF, ELF and OSF-Rose files when used with a suitable
assembler. It can produce debugging information in several formats: BSD
stabs, COFF, ECOFF, ECOFF with stabs symbols, and DWARF.
Not all of the version 1 machine descriptions have been updated yet;
some do not work, and others need work to take full advantage of
instruction scheduling and delay slots. The old machine descriptions
for the Alliant, Tahoe, and Spur (as well as a new port for the Tron) do
not work, but are still included in the distribution in case someone
wants to work on them.
Using the new configuration scheme for GCC, building a cross-compiler is
as easy as building a compiler for the same target machine. Version 2
supports more general calling conventions: it can pass arguments "by
reference" and can preallocate the space for stack arguments. GCC 2 on
the SPARC uses the standard conventions for structure arguments and
Version 2 of the compiler supports three languages: C, C++ and
Objective C; the source file name extension or a compiler option selects
the language. The front end support for Objective C was donated by
NeXT. The runtime support needed to run Objective C programs is now
distributed with GCC (this does not include any Objective C classes
GNU C has been extended to support nested functions, nonlocal gotos, and
taking the address of a label.
Source for the GCC manual, Using and Porting GNU CC, is included
with the compiler.
Since the C compiler has been unbundled in Solaris, this tape
temporarily contains compiled binaries of GCC for Solaris systems in
addition to the sources. In the future, Solaris binaries will be
available on separate media.
Version 2.0 of the binutils have been completely rewritten to use the
BFD library (see "Gnu Project Status Report"). This version has been
tested on only a few architectures including the Sun-3 and Sun-4 running
SunOS 4.1, and the Sony News running NewsOS 3.
This version has not been ported to as many machines as the old
binutils. Some features of the old versions are missing in the new
programs. We would appreciate patches to make things run on other
machines; especially welcome are fixes for what used to work in the old
GNU C Library 1.05
The library is ANSI C-1989 and POSIX 1003.1-1990 compliant and has most
of the functions specified in POSIX 1003.2 draft 11.2. It is upward
compatible with the 4.4 BSD C library and includes many System V
functions, plus GNU extensions.
Version 1.05 uses a standard GNU
configure script and runs on
Sun-3 & Sun-4 (SunOS 4.1), HP 9000/300 & Sony NEWS 800 (4.3 BSD), MIPS
DECstation (Ultrix 4.2), and i386/i486 (System V & BSD).
The C library comes with a newly finished manual in source form.
This is the GNU C++ library for GCC version 2 (see "Contents of
Languages Tape" for more info regarding libg++). The latest
version tries to configure itself automatically, thus working out of the
box on many hosts. Recent changes include portability enhancements,
some use of templates, and converting the iostream classes to use
Oleo is a spreadsheet program. It supports X windows and
character-based terminals, and can generate Embedded Postscript
renditions of spreadsheets. Keybindings should be familiar to Emacs
users and are configurable. Under X and in Postscript output,
Oleo supports multiple, proportionally spaced fonts.
GNU Graphics 0.17
GNU Graphics is a set of programs which produce plots from ASCII or
binary data. It supports output to Tektronix 4010, Postscript, and the
X Window System or compatible devices. Improvements in this version
include a revised manual; new features in
plot2ps; support for output in ln03 and TekniCAD TDA file
formats; a replacement for the
spline program; examples of shell
plot; the addition of a statistics
toolkit; and the use of
configure for installation.
Existing ports need retesting. Contact Rich Murphey,
Rich@rice.edu, if you can help test/port it to anything
other than a SPARCstation.
Contents of the X11 Tapes
The two X11 tapes contain Version 11, Release 5 of the MIT X Window
System. The first FSF tape contains all of the core software,
documentation, and some contributed clients. We call this the
`required' X tape since it is necessary for running X or running GNU
Emacs under X. The second, `optional,' FSF tape contains contributed
libraries and other toolkits, the Andrew Toolkit, games, and other
Berkeley Networking 2 Tape
The Berkeley "Net2" release contains the second 4.3 BSD distribution
and is newer than both 4.3BSD-Tahoe and 4.3BSD-Reno. It includes most
of the BSD software system except for a few utilities, some parts of the
kernel, and some library routines which your own C library is likely to
provide (we have replacements on other tapes for many of the missing
programs). This release also contains third party software including
Kerberos and some GNU software.
VMS Emacs and Compiler Tapes
We offer two VMS tapes. One has just the GNU Emacs editor. The second
contains the GNU C compiler, Bison (needed to compile GCC),
(needed to assemble GCC's output), and some library and include files.
We are not aware of a GDB port for VMS. Both VMS tapes have executables
from which you can bootstrap, since the DEC VMS C compiler cannot
compile GCC. Please do not ask us to devote effort to VMS support,
because it is peripheral to the GNU Project.
GNU Source Code CD-ROM
The Free Software Foundation has produced its first CD-ROM. This CD
contains sources to the distribution of the GNU Project including:
Emacs, GCC, G++, GDB, Bison, GAS, Make, GAWK, Texinfo, the GNU
Utilities, RCS and CVS,
diff, and BASH, as well as the MIT X Window System,
and MIT Scheme. This CD included everything on our Emacs, Languages
(except T), Utilities, Experimental, X11 Required and X11 Optional tapes
as of October 1992. Note that the BSD-Net2 tape contents are not on
this CD. Some of the versions are earlier then listed in "GNU Software
Available Now". These programs are not on this CD: PCL, Clisp,
screen, Termcap, and Oleo.
The CD-ROM also contains some packages ported to Intel 80386 and
80486-based machines running MS-DOS: Demacs, DJGPP, and MIT Scheme 7.2.
In addition, it contains Mtools, which is a public domain collection of
programs to allow Unix systems to read, write, and manipulate files on
an MS-DOS file system (typically a diskette).
The CD is in ISO 9660 format and can be mounted as a read-only file
system on most operating systems. You can build most of this software
without needing to copy the sources off the CD. It requires only enough free
disk space for the object files and the intermediate build targets.
Except for several of the MS-DOS packages, there are no precompiled
programs on this CD. You will need a C compiler (programs which need
some other interpreter or compiler normally provide the C source for a
The CD costs $400 if you are buying it for a business or other
organization, or $100 if you are buying it for yourself.
- What do the individual and company prices mean?
The software on our disk is free; anyone can copy it and anyone can
run it. What we charge for is the physical disk.
We charge two different prices depending on who is buying. When a
company or other organization buys the disk, we charge $400. When an
individual buys the same disk, we charge just $100.
You, the reader, are certainly an individual, not a company. If you
are buying a disk "in person", then you are probably doing so as an
individual. But if you expect to be reimbursed by your employer, then
the disk is really for the company, so please pay the company price
and get reimbursed for the company price. We won't try to check up on
you--we use the honor system--so please cooperate.
Buying CDs at the company price is especially helpful for the GNU
project; just 80 CDs at the company price will support an FSF
programmer or tech writer for a year.
- Why is there an individual price?
In the past, our distribution tapes have been ordered mainly by
companies. The CD at the price of $400 provides them with all of our
software for a much lower price than they would previously have paid
for six different tapes. To lower the price further would cut into
the FSF's funds very badly.
However, for individuals, $400 is too high a price; hardly anyone
could afford that. So we decided to make CDs available to individuals
at the lower price of $100, but not do the same for companies.
The FSF is now distributing some of the GNU software that has been
ported to MS-DOS on 3.5 inch, 1.44MB diskettes. The disks contain
both source and executables.
Contents of the Demacs diskettes
Demacs is a version of Emacs 18.55 ported to MS-DOS, with some changes
from Emacs 18.57. Two versions are actually included--one which
handles 8-bit character sets, and one, based on Nemacs, which handles
16-bit character sets, including Kanji. We distribute it on five
3.5 inch diskettes, containing both source and executables.
Demacs runs on Intel 80386 and 80486--based machines running MS-DOS.
It is compatible with XMS memory managers and VCPI, but not with
Microsoft Windows extended mode or other DPMI managers.
Contents of the DJGPP diskettes
DJGPP is a complete port of GCC, libraries, development utilities, and
a symbolic debugger, for Intel 80386 and 80486--based machines running
MS-DOS. We distribute it on four 3.5 inch diskettes, containing both
source and executables.
DJGPP requires at least 5MB of hard disk space to install, and 512K
of RAM to use. It is compatible with XMS memory managers and VCPI, but
not with Microsoft Windows extended mode or other DPMI managers. It
cannot emulate multitasking (e.g.
fork(2)) or signals.
Contents of the Selected Utilities diskettes
The GNUish MS-DOS Project releases versions of GNU software ported to
PC compatibles. In general, this software will run on 8086 and
80286--based machines; it does not require an 80386.
Some of these utilities are necessarily missing features.
We are distributing these utilities, both source and executables: Bison,
find, some file utilities,
sort, and Texinfo.
Contents of the Windows diskette
We are distributing versions of GNU Chess and
gnuplot ported to
Microsoft Windows, on a single diskette, containing both source and
If I have seen farther than others, it is because I was standing
on the shoulders of giants.
The Deluxe Distribution
The Free Software Foundation has been repeatedly asked to create a
package that provides executables for all of our software. Usually we
offer only sources. In addition to providing binaries with the source
code, the Deluxe Distribution includes copies of all our printed
The FSF Deluxe Distribution contains the binaries and sources to
hundreds of different programs including GNU Emacs, the GNU C Compiler,
the GNU Debugger, the complete MIT X Window System, and the GNU
You may choose one of the following machines and operating systems: HP
9000 series 200, 300, 700, or 800 (4.3 BSD or HP-UX); RS/6000 (AIX); Sony
NEWS 68k (4.3 BSD or NewsOS 4); Sun 3, 4, or SPARC (SunOS 4 or Solaris).
If your machine or system is not listed, or if a specific program has
not been ported to that machine, please call the FSF office.
We will supply the software on one of the following media in Unix tar
1600 or 6250 bpi, 1/2 inch, reel to reel tape;
Sun DC300XLP 1/4 inch cartridge, QIC-24;
HP 16 track DC600HC 1/4 inch cartridge;
IBM RS/6000 1/4 inch cartridge, QIC-150;
and Exabyte 8mm tape.
If your computer cannot read any of these, please call us.
The manuals included are one each of the Bison, Calc, Gawk, GNU C
Compiler, GNU Debugger, Flex, GNU Emacs Lisp Reference, Make, Texinfo,
and Termcap manuals; six copies of the GNU Emacs manual; and a packet
of reference cards for GNU Emacs, Calc, the GNU Debugger, Bison, and
In addition to the printed and on-line documentation, every Deluxe
Distribution includes an ISO 9660 CD-ROM that contains sources of our
The Deluxe Distribution costs $5000. This package is for people who
want to get everything compiled for them or who want to make a purchase
that helps the FSF in a large way.
Tape Subscription Service
The FSF is starting a tape subscription service. If you do not have net
access, the subscription service enables you to stay current with the
latest FSF developments. For the one-time cost equivalent to three
tapes, we will mail you four new versions of the tape of your choice
over the course of the next year.
Every quarter, we will send you a new version of a Languages, Utilities,
Experimental, or MIT X Windows Required tape. The Emacs, BSD Net-2, and
the MIT X Windows Optional tapes are not changed often enough to warrant
See the section entitled "Subscriptions" in the "FSF Order Form".
Free Software for Microcomputers
We do not provide support for GNU software on microcomputers because it
is peripheral to the GNU Project. However, we are distributing a few
such programs on tape, CD-ROM, and diskette. We are also willing to
publish information about groups who do support and maintain them. If
you are aware of any such efforts, please send the details, including
postal addresses, archive sites, and mailing lists, to either address on
the front cover.
See "MS-DOS Distribution" for more information about microcomputer
software available from the FSF. Please do not ask us about any other
software. The FSF does not maintain any of it and has no
GNU Software not on Apple computers
In lawsuits, Apple claims the power to stop people from writing any
program that has a user interface that works even vaguely like the
Macintosh's. If Apple triumphs in the courts, it will create for itself
a new power over the public that will enable it to put an end to free
software. So long as Apple is committed to establishing this kind of
monopoly, we will not provide any support or software for Apple
Boston Computer Society
The BCS has thousands of shareware and free programs for microcomputers,
including some GNU programs. Contact them to see what is available for
Boston Computer Society
1 Kendall Square, Bldg 1400,
Cambridge, MA 02139
Phone: (617) 252-0600
GNU Software on the Amiga
Get Amiga ports of GNU programs from
using anonymous FTP.
For info on (or offers to help with) the GCC port and related projects,
ask Leonard Norrgard,
firstname.lastname@example.org. For info on the
GNU Emacs port, ask David Gay,
email@example.com, or Mark D.
firstname.lastname@example.org. You can get more info via
anonymous FTP in `prep.ai.mit.edu:/pub/gnu/MicrosPorts/Amiga'.
GNU Software for Atari TOS and Atari Minix
You can obtain Atari ports from
anonymous FTP. Howard Chu,
maintains the archive. Ports are discussed on USENET in
GNU C/C++ 2.2.2 for OS/2 2.0
Michael Johnson has completed a new, completely stand-alone port of the
GNU C/C++ Version 2.2.2 compiler for OS/2 2.0. It has the C/C++
compilers, the GNU assembler, documentation, & both OS/2-specific
and the BSD C libraries. Find it in
hobbes.nmsu.edu via anonymous FTP. To join the mailing list,
send a message to
Linux: a free Unix system for 386 machines
Linux (named after its author, Linus Torvalds) is a free Unix clone
which implements a subset of System V and POSIX functionality. Linux
has been written from scratch and does not contain any proprietary code
in the kernel. Many of the utilities and libraries are GNU software.
Linux runs only on 386/486 AT-bus (and some EISA-bus) machines. Porting
to non-Intel architectures is hard since the kernel makes extensive use
of 386 memory management and task primitives. Linux is freely
distributable and available via anonymous FTP:
nic.funet.fi:/pub/OS/Linux (Europe). See newsgroup
comp.os.linux for Linux discussions. Ask
email@example.com about their mailing
William F. Jolitz et al. have written a 386 port of BSD Unix. This
kernel is said to be free of AT&T code and is freely redistributable.
You can obtain more information from
firstname.lastname@example.org. This is the result of the work
described in the Dr. Dobb's Journal series on 386BSD.
DJGPP, the GNU C/C++ compiler for MS-DOS
D. J. Delorie has ported GCC/G++ 2.2.2 to the 386 MS-DOS platform.
The compiler and programs it generates run in 32-bit mode with full
virtual memory support. DJGPP is available via FTP from
ftp.clarkson.edu in `/pub/msdos/djgpp'. You can
subscribe to a mailing list on DJGPP by sending your e-mail address to
The FSF is distributing DJGPP both on floppies and the CD-ROM (see
"MS-DOS Distribution" and "GNU Source Code CD-ROM").
Demacs, GNU Emacs for MS-DOS
Manabu Higashida and Hirano Satoshi have released Demacs, a GNU Emacs
port for 386/486 MS-DOS. Version 1.2.0 is the first post-beta release.
Demacs provides several DOS-specific features: support for binary or
text file translation, "8bit clean" display mode, 80x86 software
interrupt calls via a
int86 Lisp function, machine-specific
features such as function key support, file name completion with drive
name, child processes (
Dired mode works without `ls.exe'. Anonymous FTP it from:
The FSF is distributing Demacs both on floppies and the CD-ROM (see
"MS-DOS Distribution" and "GNU Source Code CD-ROM").
Freemacs, an Extensible Editor for MS-DOS
email@example.com, has written a small
programmable editor that is compatible enough with GNU Emacs that
Freemacs users can use the GNU Emacs manual as a reference for
it. It will run on most MS-DOS systems, including 8088 machines.
Anonymous FTP it from `emacs16a.zip' (under
or send $15 (copying fee) to:
11 Grant St.
Potsdam, NY 13676
Phone: (315) 268-1925 (Fax: 9201)
Specify floppy format:
GNU Software on MS-DOS
Russ Nelson has MS-DOS ports of many GNU programs available on floppy
disk. Contact him at the above address for more information.
firstname.lastname@example.org for info
on MS-DOS ports of GNU programs and related mailing lists. More
information is in files `/pub/gnu/MicrosPorts/MSDOS*', found on
prep.ai.mit.edu via anonymous FTP.
The FSF is distributing MS-DOS ports of many GNU programs on floppies
(see "MS-DOS Distribution").
Announcing FSF T-shirts
Free Software Foundation T-shirts are now available, designed by local
artist Jamal Hannah.
The front of the t-shirt has an image of a GNU hacking at a workstation
with the text "GNU's Not Unix" above and the text "Free Software
They are available in two colors, Natural and
Black. Natural is an off-white, unbleached, undyed, environmentally
friendly cotton, printed with black ink. Great for tye-dyeing, or
displaying as is. Black is printed with white ink and is perfect for
late night hacking. All shirts are thick 100% cotton, and are
available in sizes M, L, XL, and XXL.
Use the "FSF Order Form" to order your shirt, and consider getting one
as a present for your favorite hacker!
Work for something because it is good, not just because it stands
a chance to succeed.
Thanks to all those mentioned above in "GNUs Flashes", "Project GNU
Status Report", "GNU in Japan", and "GNU Software Available Now".
Our undying gratitude to Carl W. Hoffman for all of his help.
Thanks to the Artificial Intelligence Laboratory
and the Laboratory for Computer Science at
MIT for their invaluable assistance of many kinds.
Thanks are due to the following people for their assistance in the
recent Japan activities: Nobuyuki & Mieko Hikichi,
Dr. Ken'ichi Handa, Dr. Ikuo Takeuchi, Bob
Myers, David Littleboy, Mike Kandall, Prof.
Masayuki Ida, JUS & SEA, Michio Nagashima and
Paul Abramson. Thanks to Village Center,
Inc., ASCII Corporation, the Japan
Unix Society, A.I. Soft, and many others in
Japan, for their continued donations and support.
Thanks to the USENIX Association for
letting us have a table at their conference.
Thanks again to the Open Software Foundation for
their continued support.
Thanks to Cygnus Support for assisting Project GNU
in many ways.
Thanks to the University of Massachusetts
at Boston (especially Rick Martin) for
letting Karl Berry and Kathryn Hargreaves use their computers.
Thanks to Jim Morris of Carnegie-Mellon University for
supporting Tom Lord. Brian Fox says "domo arigato gozaimashita" to
Dr. Ed Gamble and ATR Japan for hosting him for 6 weeks
in Kyoto, Japan. Joseph Arceneaux thanks Richard Karpinkski of
UCSF and Paul Hilfinger of UCB, as well as Paul's students
Luigi, Ed, Alan, and Kinson, for their
Thanks to Lucid, Inc. for the loan of an X terminal and for
their support of Joe Arceneaux.
Thanks to Chet Ramey for his continuing work on improving
Thanks to Carol Botteron for proofreading and other
Thanks go out to all those who have either lent or donated machines,
including Cygnus Support for a Sun SPARCstation;
Hewlett-Packard for two 80486, six 68030, and four Spectrum
computers; Brewster Kahle of Thinking Machines Corp. for a
Sun-4/110; Doug Blewett of AT&T Bell Labs for two Convergent
Miniframes; CMU's Mach Project for a Sun-3/60;
Intel Corp. for their 386 machine; NeXT for their
workstation; the MIT Media Laboratory for a
Hewlett-Packard 68020; SONY Corp. and Software
Research Associates, Inc., both of Tokyo, for
three SONY News workstations; IBM Corp. for an
RS/6000; the MIT Laboratory of Computer
Science for the DEC MicroVAX; the Open Software
Foundation for the Compaq 386; Delta Microsystems for an
Exabyte tape drive; an anonymous donor for 5 IBM RT/PCs; Liant
Software Corp. for five VT100s; Jerry Peek for a 386 machine;
NCD Corporation for an X terminal; and Interleaf, Inc.,
Veronika Caslavsky, Paul English, Cindy
Woolworth, and Lisa Bergen for the loan of a scanner.
Thanks to all those who have contributed ports and extensions, as well
as those who have contributed other source code, documentation, and good
bug reports. Thanks to those who sent money and offered help. Thanks
also to those who support us by ordering manuals and distribution
The creation of this bulletin is our way of thanking all who have
expressed interest in what we are doing.
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